Town of Williamstown, MA
Berkshire County
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Table of Contents
Table of Contents
[HISTORY: Adopted by the Board of Selectmen of the Town of Williamstown as indicated in article histories. Amendments noted where applicable.]
GENERAL REFERENCES
Sewers and water — See Ch. 49.
Water — See Ch.67.
Sewers — See Ch. 117.
Wells — See Ch. 164.
Attachment 1 - Application to Install/Repair Water or Sewage System
[Adopted 2-13-1995]

§ 137-1 Application for water service.

A. 
The rules and regulations of the Water Department in their entirety as hereinafter set forth or hereafter adopted are a part of every application, contract, agreement or license entered into between the applicant and the Water Department, and every such applicant by taking water agrees that the same shall be binding upon him.
B. 
Wherever the word "applicant" is used in these rules and regulations it shall be taken to mean the person, company or corporation making the application or who is supplied with water.
C. 
Wherever the word "department" is used in these rules and regulations it shall be taken to mean the Williamstown Water Department, its Superintendent or other duly authorized employee or agent acting within the proper limits of authority set forth by the Board of Selectman acting as Water Commissioners.
D. 
Application for a connection to the Departments mains for a supply of water or application for water service from a service connection which has previously been installed shall be made in writing by the owner of the property to be supplied at the office of the Department in the form required by the Department and must be accepted by the Department before it is effective.
E. 
The application as accepted by the Department shall constitute the contract between the applicant and the Department which shall be effective for a term of not less than one year and shall continue in effect thereafter until terminated as provided for herein.
F. 
Special contracts will be made for a period of less than one year for water service for construction or other temporary purposes, subject to the rules and regulations as herein after provided.
G. 
The property owner will be required to pay bills for premises where the tenants are changing frequently or for other causes, as directed by the Board of Selectmen acting as Water Commissioners.

§ 137-2 Special applications.

A. 
A supply of water for transient or temporary purposes must be applied for.
B. 
A supply of water for building purposes will be furnished on application for a metered domestic supply and the applicant will be liable for the amount of water used in conformity with the schedule of rates of the Department.
C. 
A supply of water for building purposes when not furnished by meter will be supplied under a special application.
D. 
Whenever an application is made for temporary service the applicant will bear the entire cost and expense for labor and material of tapping the main and laying and maintaining the service connection.
E. 
Any water customer who uses water in such a manner that it is not discharged into the town's sewerage system may be granted a reduction in his sewer service charge in proportion to the water not so discharged into the system. In order to receive such consideration, the owner shall, at his expense, purchase and install a water meter to measure said water. The Water Department will read this meter and report the same to the Sewer Department.
F. 
Effective April 13,1981, when a new swimming pool is built by a homeowner no sewer charge will be made for the water used for the first filling. After the first filling, all water used by the homeowner will have a sewer charge.

§ 137-3 Service connections.

A. 
The Department will make all connections to its mains.
B. 
The corporation cock, curb cock, curb box and the street service pipe from the main to the curb cock, not to exceed 50 feet, will be furnished and placed by and shall remain the property of the Department.
C. 
Municipal charges or fees for a road opening permit for opening the street and the cost of relaying pavement for original installation or replacement will be paid for by the applicant.[1]
[1]
Editor's Note: See Ch. 60, Streets and Sidewalks, Art. II, Openings and Obstructions.
D. 
Where a service connection is already laid to the curb or lot line, the applicant must connect with the line as laid.
E. 
The curb stop box shall be left accessible at all times.
F. 
Please see enclosed application and connection charges to install/repair water or sewerage system.[2]
[2]
Editor's Note: The Application to Install/Repair Water or Sewage System is included at the end of this chapter.

§ 137-4 Water connection charges and policies.

A. 
Water connection charges shall be as set periodically by the Board of Selectmen.
[Amended 3-23-1998]
B. 
In residential developments where the water service has already been installed to the property line, the rate shall be 1/2 the applicable charge.
C. 
A building that ties into a private water main which is connected to a public water main shall be liable for 1/2 the applicable water connection charge.
D. 
If a water betterment is assessed, there shall be no connection charge.
E. 
For taps 3/4 inch through two inches, the Water Department will furnish all materials and install the tap and service to the property line.
F. 
For taps four inches through six inches, the Water Department will furnish all materials and install the tap. The owner shall be responsible for service from the tapping gate to the building.
G. 
The Water Department shall not install a tap or service on private property.
H. 
In all instances, the owner shall be responsible for excavation and repair of the trench, including the restoration of the road surface.
I. 
All connection charges shall be due upon application for the water connection permit.

§ 137-5 Service pipes.

A. 
The Department requires the use of Type K copper to be laid between the curb cock and the premises to be supplied or up to the meter where same is placed on the applicant's premises.
B. 
The applicant shall furnish and lay the necessary pipe to make the connection from the curb cock to the place of consumption.
C. 
The applicant's portion of the service pipe and connections and fixtures attached thereto are subject to the inspection and approval of the Department before the water is turned on.
D. 
Service pipes shall be laid at all points at least five feet below the surface of the ground and shall be placed on firm, continuous and original undisturbed dirt or rock so as to give unyielding and permanent support and shall be installed in a trench at least 10 feet in a horizontal direction from any sewer. In cases where it is not practical to maintain a ten-foot separation, it is permissible to install a waterline closer to a sewer, provided that the water service is laid in a separate trench on an undisturbed earth shelf located at such an elevation that the bottom of the water service is at least 18 inches above the top of the sewer.
E. 
The applicant shall install a stop and waste cock of approved type on the service pipe immediately inside the foundation wall of the building supplied for the protection of the premises from damage by leaks or bursting of pipes or fixtures.
F. 
The applicant will make all changes in his portion of the service pipe required on account of changes of grade, relocation of mains or other causes.
G. 
No attachment to the service pipe or branch therein shall be made between the meter and the street main.
H. 
Each single building or premises shall be supplied through an independent service pipe from a separate curb cock and box, and all double or rows of houses, apartments houses, office buildings and business blocks must have a separate curb cock for each tenant unless specifically approved or ordered by the Department, in which event the owner is to contract for and pay the Department for all water used on and in said building or premises.
I. 
No applicant shall be supplied by more than one service pipe unless specifically approved and ordered by the Department, and in such cases separate bills will be rendered and separate charges assessed for each service line as though they were serving separate applicants.
J. 
When two or more buildings or premises are supplied through a single service pipe which has been approved and ordered by the Department, any violation of the rules and regulations of the Department with reference to either or any of said buildings or premises shall be deemed a violation as to all, and the Department may take such action as would be taken for a single building or premises, provided that reasonable notice shall have been given to each consumer concerned.
K. 
When service pipes are installed and same pass over or through premises which at the time may be the property of persons other than the owner of the premises to be supplied, the applicant shall obtain the necessary permits or right-of-way and assume all liability in that connection.

§ 137-6 Meters.

A. 
The Department shall specify the kind and size of meter to be installed.
B. 
The applicant shall provide at his expense a readily accessible and protected location for the installation of a meter at a point as will control the entire supply and as approved by the Department as most convenient for its service, so that it may be easily examined, read or removed, and shall further provide suitable pipe connections and necessary valves and other fittings as may be designated by the Department for the proper installation and protection of the meter.
C. 
Remote reading meters are installed where specified by the Department and accessibility and protection are essential.
D. 
Meters up to two inch in size will be furnished, installed and removed by the Department and shall remain its property.
E. 
Meters located within a building shall be placed immediately within the wall, and there shall be no fittings except a stop and waste cock between it and the wall.
F. 
Meters not installed in a building shall be placed in a meter box or vault, furnished by the Department at the expense of the applicant, just inside the applicant's property line or at such other locations as may be ordered by the Department.
G. 
The Department may change any flat-rate account to metered service at any time after reasonable notice and will also provide metered service at the request of an applicant having a flat-rate basis. In either case the applicant shall make the provisions for a meter as previously stated herein.
H. 
Each building or premises must have a separate meter, and all double or rows of houses, apartment houses, office buildings and business blocks may have a battery of meters installed on a single service line at the discretion of the Department.

§ 137-7 Public fire hydrants.

A. 
All public fire hydrants shall be furnished, installed and maintained by the Department.
B. 
The use of fire hydrants will be restricted to the taking of water for the extinguishing of fires or drills, and water shall not be taken from any hydrant for construction purposes, flushing sewers or gutters or for any other use unless specially permitted by the Department for the particular time and occasion.
C. 
Inspections will be made by the Department of fire hydrants at convenient times and reasonable intervals.
D. 
Any obstruction blocking the view of a public fire hydrant which could effect the rapid connection of that device shall be removed as determined by the Fire Chief and Water Superintendent.

§ 137-8 Private fire service.

A. 
Private fire protection includes hydrants, sprinkler systems, standpipes, fire hoses, etc. Private fire protection service size shall be determined by the valve size preceding the system. In cases where there are multiple private fire protection services, there shall be a separate charge for each connection to the water service line prior to the meter. There shall be no charge for private fire protection services if they are connected after the water meter.
B. 
The entire cost of labor and materials for installing a private fire service connection shall be borne by the applicant. (See § 137-4 for water connection charges and policies.)
C. 
All necessary excavation and filling shall be the responsibility of the applicant. This will include the obtaining of any necessary permits and the repair or replacement of any existing structures or pavement and assuming of all liability in connection with said work.
D. 
The Department will not do any work within any building.
E. 
The Department will designate the size of the connection to its main which will depend not only upon the needs of the applicant but upon the size of the supply mains to the point of connection and the effect upon other property.
F. 
A curb stop valve, controlling the entire supply, will be placed at the curb or property line of the street on which the main is located, and any valve pit or vault which may be required will be furnished at the expense of the applicant.
G. 
All piping, fittings and other fixtures connected with a private fire service connection shall be subject to the inspection, test and approval of the Department before the service is made effective, and the Department may at reasonable intervals make inspections of all pipe and fixtures connected therewith. The applicant will provide any reasonable and necessary facilities for making such inspections or test.
H. 
The applicant will immediately notify the Department of any leak, defect or damage to any pipe or fixture connected with a private fire service connection, and the Department may at its discretion turn off the water supply until proper corrections have been made.
I. 
The entire private fire service connection and all parts of it which are located outside of the property line of the applicant and any meter or other indicating or controlling device and all parts and appurtenances thereof remain the property of the Water Department.
J. 
Should it be necessary to draw water from a private fire service connection for the purpose of testing any fire-fighting equipment, the Department will be notified in advance and will have its representatives present at such a test.
K. 
Hydrants and other fixtures connected with a private fire service connection may be sealed by the Department, and such seals shall only be broken in case of fire or as specially permitted by the Department.
L. 
All charges are due and payable in advance semiannually on January 1 and July 1 of each year. The first semiannual payment will be due at the time of making the application and shall be in amount for six months. The second semiannual payment will be due and payable on the next following January 1 or July 1 and will be adjusted to the nearest month for the portion of the ensuing semiannual payment then unpaid.

§ 137-9 Meter test.

A. 
All water meters are tested before installation and must meet the requirements of AWWA C700. Standards for Cold-Water Meters Displacement Type, Bronze Main Case. (See ANSI/AWWA C700-90, page 7.)
B. 
The Water Department upon written request of the applicant shall test the accuracy of the meter to meet the above standards by a certified approved independent tester. If the meter is found to be correct within the guidelines of AWWA C700 standards, the customer will be charged for that test. If the meter is found to be over-registering beyond the established standards, the customer will not be charged for the test. In both cases the current bill will be corrected to agree with the quantity actually used as indicated by the test.
C. 
In any dispute the customer has a right to have his case reviewed by the Town Manager and the Board of Selectman acting as Water Commissioners.

§ 137-10 Maintenance, repairs and leaks.

A. 
If a property owner does not repair a leaking water service within 10 days after being notified by the Water Department to repair the leak, an extra charge of $10 per day shall be added to the water bill until the leak has been repaired. After notifying the property owner verbally, a letter will be sent stating the date the property owner was notified and the date that the ten-dollar per day charge will start accruing. (Leaking water policy adopted by the Board of Selectmen November 14, 1983.)
B. 
The applicant shall immediately notify the Department of any leak defect or other damage to any part of a service connection or its meter.
C. 
The service connection from the main to and including the curb cock will be maintained by the Department.
D. 
Meters will be maintained by the Department at its expense in so far as ordinary wear is concerned, but damage due to freezing, thawing, hot water or other external causes shall be paid for by the applicant in addition to the charge for removal and replacement of the meter.

§ 137-11 Water conservation; water supply emergencies.

A. 
All irrigation sprinklers on the water distribution system with a service of 1 1/2 inches and larger should have the approval of the Water Department before use.
B. 
All nonresidential users of the public system will be limited to 100,000 gallons per day withdrawal unless otherwise approved by the Water Department.
C. 
Authority. This section is adopted by the town under its home rule powers, its police powers to protect public health and welfare and its specific authorization under MGL C. 40, §§ 21 and 21D.
D. 
Purpose. The purpose of this section is to protect, preserve and maintain the public health, safety and welfare whenever there is in force a state of water supply emergency by providing for enforcement of any duly imposed restrictions, requirements, provisions or conditions imposed by the town or by the Department and included in the town's plan approved by the Department of Environmental Protection to abate the emergency.
E. 
Definitions. As used in this section, the following terms have the meanings indicated:
ENFORCEMENT AUTHORITY
The town's Board of Water Commissioners or other department or board having responsibility for the operation and maintenance of the water supply, the Health Department, the town police, special police and any other locally designated body having police powers.
STATE OF WATER SUPPLY EMERGENCY
A state of water supply emergency declared by the Department of Environmental Protection pursuant to MGL C. 21G, § 15, MGL C. 111, § 160, as amended, or by the Governor.
F. 
The following shall apply to all users of water supplies supplied by the town:
(1) 
Following notification by the town of the existence of a state of water supply emergency, no person shall violate any provision, condition, requirement or restriction included in a plan approved by the Department of Environmental Protection which has as its purpose the abatement of a water supply emergency.
(2) 
Notification of any provision, restriction, requirement or condition with which users of water supplied by the town are required to comply to abate a situation of water emergency shall be sufficient if it is published in a newspaper of general circulation within the town or by such other notice as is reasonably calculated to reach and inform all users of the town supply.
G. 
Penalty. Any person or entity who violates this regulation shall be liable to the town in the amount of $50 for the first violation and $100 for each subsequent violation which shall inure to the town for such uses as the Board of Water Commissioners may direct. Fines shall be recovered by indictment or on complaint before the District Court or by noncriminal disposition in accordance with MGL C. 40, § 21D. Each separate instance of noncompliance following the issuance of any warning or citation pursuant to this section shall constitute a separate violation.
H. 
Right-of-entry. Agents of the enforcement authority may enter any property for the purpose of inspecting or investigating any violation of this regulation or enforcing against the same.
I. 
Severability. The invalidity of any portion or provisions of this regulation shall not invalidate any other portion, provision or section hereof.

§ 137-12 Discontinuance of service.

A. 
Service rendered under an application, contract or agreement may be discontinued by the Department after reasonable notice for any of the following reasons:
(1) 
For misrepresentation as to the property or fixtures to be supplied or the use of water for any property or purpose not agreed to by the Department.
(2) 
For whoever maintains a cross connection without a permit, or after revocation of the permit to maintain such connection, and whoever maintains a cross connection without installing the appropriate backflow-prevention device required by Massachusetts Drinking Water Regulations, 310 CMR 22.22, Cross Connection.
(3) 
For willful or indifferent waste of water through improper or imperfect pipes, fixtures, meters or otherwise.
(4) 
For failure to protect from injury or damage any meter, connection, service pipe or fixture on the property of the applicant.
(5) 
For molesting or tampering by the applicant, or others with the knowledge of the applicant, with any meter, connections, service pipe, curb cock, valve, seal or any other appurtenance of the Department controlling or regulating the water supply.
(6) 
For failure to provide the Department's employees free and reasonable access to the property supplied or for obstructing the way of ingress to the meter or other appliance controlling or regulating the water supply.
(7) 
For nonpayment of any account for water supplied, or water service, or for meter or service maintenance, or for any other fee or charge accruing under the application.
(8) 
In case of vacancy of the premises.
(9) 
For violation of any rule or regulation of the Department.
B. 
Water service will be discontinued to any premises on account of vacancy upon written order of the applicant, without in any way affecting the application in force, upon payment of all charges and fees due as provided for in the rates, rules and regulations of the Department.
C. 
No water fixture, meter or other appliance in connection with the supply of water will be considered cut off until it is removed, disconnected, plugged or seated in a manner satisfactory to the Department.
D. 
Discontinuing the supply of water to a premises shall not prevent the Department from pursuing any lawful remedy by action at law or otherwise for collection of moneys due.
E. 
The Department may at any time shut off the water in the mains in case of accident, or for the purpose of making connections, alterations, repairs, changes or other reasons and may restrict the use of water to reserve a sufficient supply for fire protection or other emergencies.

§ 137-13 Abatements and refunds.

A. 
Where water is furnished by meter the quantity recorded by it shall be conclusive on both the applicant and the Department, except when the meter has been found to be registering incorrectly or has ceased to register. In such cases the quantity may be determined by the average registration of the meter when in order or by such other fair and reasonable method as shall be based on the best information obtained.
B. 
On metered service no abatement will be made for leaks or for water wasted by improper or damaged fixtures.

§ 137-14 Bills for service.

A. 
Property owners are responsible for furnishing the Department their correct address, including apartment numbers. Failure to receive bills will not be considered as permitting an extension of the period during which bills are payable at face nor delay the date when the account will be considered delinquent.
B. 
The use of water by the same applicant in different premises or localities will not be combined, and each installation shall stand by itself.
C. 
Payments will be made at the office of the Treasurer/Collector, 31 North Street, Williamstown.
D. 
The Department will not be bound by bills rendered under mistake of fact as to the quantity of service rendered.
E. 
All water services in Williamstown are metered. These services are billed quarterly; every other billing is estimated. The estimated billings are based upon the last three actual meter readings. The only exception would be where there has been a problem with a break or unusual use.

§ 137-15 Terms of payment.

A. 
Domestic metered service will be payable on a quarterly basis.
B. 
Commercial, industrial and institutional metered services will be payable on a quarterly basis.
C. 
Charges for private fire protection service will be payable semiannually.
D. 
Special charges will be payable on demand.

§ 137-16 Liability of Department.

A. 
The Williamstown Water Department shall not in any way or under any circumstances be held liable or responsible to any person or persons for any loss or damage resulting from any excess or deficiency in the pressure or supply of water due to any cause whatsoever. The Department will undertake to use reasonable care and diligence in order to prevent and avoid interruptions and fluctuations in the service, but it cannot and does not guarantee that such will not occur. In case of any foreseen interruption in the service, the Department will endeavor to notify its customers in advance but does not guarantee to do so.
B. 
The Department will not be liable for any damage done by reason of breaking or leaking of, or any defect in any of the applicants service pipe or fixtures.

§ 137-17 Accessibility of fixtures; turning off water prohibited.

A. 
All service connections, service pipes, meters and fixtures shall at all reasonable hours be accessible to the Department for inspections or repairs.
B. 
No person shall turn the water on or off at any street valve, corporation cock, curb cock or other street connection, or disconnect or remove any meter without the consent of the Department. Penalties provided by law for such actions will be rigidly enforced.

§ 137-18 Specifications.

A. 
Pipe, valves and fittings.
(1) 
All water pipe used in water system will be ductile iron water pipe, Class 52, cement lined, (ANSI A21.4 AWWA C104) outside coated with push-on joints or mechanical joints, and the gaskets shall conform to the standards set by ANSI/AWWA/C111/ A21.11-85.
(2) 
All fittings will be mechanical joint ductile iron and shall conform to the standards set by ANSI/AWWA C153/A21.53-88 and ANSI/AWWA C 110/A21.10-82.
(3) 
Bolts and nuts for all connections shall be ductile iron or stainless steel.
(4) 
All gates will be Resilient Wedge valves conforming to AWWA C509 standards. All gates will open left, and conform to 250 pounds per square inch pressure ratings.
B. 
Service fittings.
(1) 
Corporation stops will be Mueller 110 compression connection or a Mueller flared connection.
(2) 
Curb stops will be Mueller Oriseal Full Flow 110 Conductive Compression or flared fitting, without drain.
(3) 
All service pipe, 0.75 inch to 1.50 inches from the main to the curb stop, will be Type k copper.
C. 
Boxes.
(1) 
Curb valve boxes for three-fourths-inch service connections shall be Erie type extension or Minneapolis pattern, 66 inches in length, one-inch pipe screw cap.
(2) 
Valve boxes for a one-inch to two-inch curb stop will be the Arch Pattern type, sixty-six-inch length, two inches inside diameter, cast-iron construction.
(3) 
Valve boxes for gates will be base belled and have a forty-eight-inch base in length and a twenty-six-inch or thirty-six-inch top section with no bottom flange. The box top will be the sliding type. The complete unit will be cast iron.
(4) 
All covers shall have "water" clearly cast into the cover.
D. 
Hydrants. Mueller Centurion or Darling B-84-B hydrants are accepted. All hydrants will have to conform to AWWA C-502-80 standards. Value size will be five-and-one-forth-inch. Value opening will be left. Inlet connection shall be Mech. joint, operating nut one-and-one-half-inch standard pentagon. There shall be two hose nozzles 2 1/2 inches and one pumper nozzle, National Standard thread, color yellow. All hydrants will be plugged so no groundwater will enter the barrel.
[Adopted 10-16-1995]

§ 137-19 Purpose.

This article is adopted for the following purposes:
A. 
To prevent cross connections within the Williamstown public water system and to eliminate back-siphonage and backflow into the public system of contaminants that would affect drinking water quality and public health.
B. 
To improve the existing cross-connection control program, upgrading recordkeeping, reporting, tracking and surveying concentrating on the removal or control of existing cross connections within its customers potable and nonpotable water systems, including commercial, institutional, industrial and residential facilities.
C. 
To provide for a continuing effective program that will systemically prevent the contamination or pollution of our potable water system by cross connection.

§ 137-20 Responsibility.

The Superintendent of the Williamstown Water Department will be responsible for the protection of the town's public potable water system from contamination due to cross connections. If, in the judgment of the Superintendent or the Water Superintendent's designated agent, a backflow or back-siphonage device is needed at the water service connection or within the building, the owner will be notified and will be subject to the drinking water regulations of Massachusetts 310 CMR 22.22 and the regulations herein.

§ 137-21 Implementation.

A. 
Implementation of the cross-connection control program will begin with the mailing of a packet explaining the program in detail to all building owners included in the survey.
B. 
The second contact with the building owner or his representative will be to set up an appointment for the survey and reacquaint the parties involved with the program.
C. 
After the completion of the initial inspection, if the owner desires, a meeting can take place to discuss any violations and corrective work. If a testable device is required, the owner will be sent a transmittal form for permit application and a design data sheet.
D. 
The building owner will have 60 days to return the design data sheets to the Water Department for permitting and approval or show an alternative to the cross connection. If the owner does not respond and remains in violation, a letter will be sent indicating the water service will be terminated, if work is not initiated on the cross connection within 15 days.
E. 
The Williamstown Water Department has been authorized by the Department of Environmental Protection (DEP) to be the designee, and approval can take place locally by the Water Department.
F. 
The owner will be notified of approval and will have 60 days to install the device. Upon installation a new device test shall be made. A copy of the test results will be forwarded to DEP. The DEP will issue an ID number to the owner. The owner will be subject to an annual state permit fee from DEP.

§ 137-22 Testing and inspections.

A. 
The Williamstown Water Department's water supply and distribution system is protected as required by Massachusetts state law regulation 310 CMR, Section 22.22. All backflow devices required by this regulation will be installed, tested and maintained. Any violations of these regulations could lead to a discontinued water service by the Water Department until violations are corrected.
B. 
All cross connections found as a result of surveys, by a state certified tester, will have an approved backflow prevention device installed as shown on the design data sheets, or the cross connection will be removed.
C. 
All owners or operators of a premises served by a public water supply system shall authorize agents and employees of the Town Water Department, upon presentation of their credentials, to enter their premises without a warrant for the purpose of inspecting and surveying their water systems for cross connections and assuring compliance with these regulations, whether or not the Water Department has evidence that the system is in violation of the applicable legal requirement, in accordance with 310 CMR 22.22.
D. 
All backflow prevention testable devices will be tested two times a year (November - December and February - March) by the Williamstown Water Department's state certified testers.
E. 
The owner of high-hazard testable backflow prevention devices (RPBP's) will be subject to three tests per year, two test by the Water Department and one test by an independent state certified tester, preferably July - August. The owner must maintain on the premises a spare-parts kit and any special tools required for removal and reassembly of devices which are to be tested.
F. 
The owner of a low-hazard testable backflow prevention device, double check valve assemblies (DCVA's) will be tested twice a year by the Williamstown Water Department.
G. 
If a customer has a well or backup water supply, the public water supply shall be protected against backflow, and the appropriate device will be installed on the service line.
H. 
In cases where water quality is questionable and yet may not pose a public health threat, but if introduced into the system could be objectionable, then an approved double check value assembly will be installed.
I. 
In cases where it is impossible to gain entry to determine if a cross connection does exist or if piping and plumbing arrangements are of such fashion that it is impossible to determine, then to protect the public water system, an approved backflow prevention device appropriate to the believed degree of hazard will be installed.
J. 
Where there is evidence of possible backflow into the public water system, the Water Department will first inspect the private water system. If, after investigation, backflow is discovered, in order to ensure the delivery of a fit and pure water supply, the Water Department may cease supplying water to any premises if one or more cross connections are maintained in violation of the requirements of these regulations; alternatively, the Water Department may require any person to take such actions as are reasonable and necessary to prevent cross connections. In addition, the Water Department may revoke any permit upon due notice to the person maintaining the cross connection, whenever, in the opinion of the Water Department, the connection or maintenance thereof no longer complies with these regulations, and no portion of the permit fee shall be refunded, in accordance with MGL C. 111, § 160A.

§ 137-23 Definitions.

As used in this article, the following terms have the meanings indicated:
APPROVED BACKFLOW PREVENTION DEVICE
A device to prevent backflow or siphonage, approved by the Department of Environmental Protection or its designated authority.
BACK PRESSURE
A pressure that exceeds the water system pressure and causes a backflow or a reversal of flow back into the water supply.
A. 
A vacuum created by a pressure drop or a negative pressure in the water system condition caused by gravity, causing a reverse flow.
B. 
Undersized piping, high-velocity water, causing an aspirator effect creating a partial vacuum and a reverse flow.
BACKFLOW
A reverse flow of pollutants or unwanted liquids in a water system. It can be caused by back pressure or back siphonage.
CROSS CONNECTION
A link or channel between pipes carrying polluted water or substances and pipes carrying drinking water. The contaminant enters the water system when pressure from the polluted source exceeds pressure on the drinking water. This is a reversal of hydraulic pressure, called back siphonage or back pressure.
NONPOTABLE WATER
Water which is not safe for human consumption.
POTABLE WATER
A drinking water supply approved by the Massachusetts Department of Environmental Protection.
PRIVATE WATER SYSTEM OR CUSTOMERS
Include all facilities and distribution from the curb stop used for delivering potable water to its points of use.
PUBLIC WATER SYSTEM
Consists of approved water sources, surface and underground, connected to a distribution system that is under the complete control of the utility to an entry point on the service line into the curb stop.