City of Florissant, MO
St. Louis County
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Table of Contents
Table of Contents

Section 415.010 Statutory Authorization, Findings of Fact, and Purposes.

[Ord. No. 8101 §1,[1] 12-8-2014]
A. 
Statutory Authorization. The Legislature of the State of Missouri has, in RSMo. 89.020, delegated the responsibility to local governmental units to adopt floodplain management regulations designed to protect the health, safety, and general welfare. Therefore, the City Council of the City of Florissant, Missouri, ordains as follows.
B. 
Findings Of Fact.
1. 
Flood losses resulting from periodic inundation. The special flood hazard areas of the City of Florissant, Missouri, are subject to inundation which results in loss of life and property, health and safety hazards, disruption of commerce and governmental services, extraordinary public expenditures for flood protection and relief, and impairment of the tax base, all of which adversely affect the public health, safety and general welfare.
2. 
General causes of the flood losses. These flood losses are caused by:
a. 
The cumulative effect of development in any delineated floodplain causing increases in flood heights and velocities; and
b. 
The occupancy of flood hazard areas by uses vulnerable to floods, hazardous to others, inadequately elevated, or otherwise unprotected from flood damages.
3. 
Methods used to analyze flood hazards. The Flood Insurance Study (FIS) that is the basis of this Chapter uses a standard engineering method of analyzing flood hazards which consist of a series of interrelated steps:
a. 
Selection of a base flood that is based upon engineering calculations which permit a consideration of such flood factors as its expected frequency of occurrence, the area inundated, and the depth of inundation. The base flood selected for this Chapter is representative of large floods which are characteristic of what can be expected to occur on the particular streams subject to this Chapter. It is in the general order of a flood which could be expected to have a one-percent chance of occurrence in any one (1) year, as delineated on the Federal Insurance Administrator's FIS, and illustrative materials for St. Louis County dated February 4, 2015, as amended, and any future revisions thereto.
b. 
Calculation of water surface profiles are based on a standard hydraulic engineering analysis of the capacity of the stream channel and overbank areas to convey the regulatory flood.
c. 
Computation of a floodway required to convey this flood without increasing flood heights more than one (1) foot at any point.
d. 
Delineation of floodway encroachment lines within which no development is permitted that would cause any increase in flood height.
e. 
Delineation of flood fringe, i.e., that area outside the floodway encroachment lines but still subject to inundation by the base flood.
C. 
Statement Of Purpose. It is the purpose of this Chapter to promote the public health, safety, and general welfare; to minimize those losses described in Section 415.010(B)(1); to establish or maintain the community's eligibility for participation in the National Flood Insurance Program (NFIP) as defined in 44 Code of Federal Regulations (CFR) 59.22(a)(3); and to meet the requirements of 44 CFR 60.3(d) by applying the provisions of this Chapter to:
1. 
Restrict or prohibit uses that are dangerous to health, safety, or property in times of flooding or cause undue increases in flood heights or velocities;
2. 
Require that uses vulnerable to floods, including public facilities that serve such uses, be provided with flood protection at the time of initial construction; and
3. 
Protect individuals from buying lands that are unsuited for the intended development purposes due to the flood hazard.
[1]
Editor's Note: This ordinance also provided for the repeal of former Ch. 415, Flood Damage Prevention and Control, adopted by Code 1980 §§ 6-38 — 6-42, as amended.

Section 415.020 General Provisions.

A. 
Lands To Which Chapter Applies. This Chapter shall apply to all lands within the jurisdiction of the City of Florissant, Missouri, identified as numbered and unnumbered A Zones and AE Zones, on the Flood Insurance Rate Maps (FIRMs) for St. Louis County on Map Panels, 29189C0035K, 29189C0042K, 29189C0053K, 29189C0054K, 29189C0058K, 29189C0061K, 29189C0062K, 29189C0064K, 29189C0066K, 29189C0067K, and 29189C0068K, dated February 4, 2015, as amended, and any future revisions thereto. In all areas covered by this Chapter, no development shall be permitted except through the issuance of a floodplain development permit, granted by the City Council or its duly designated representative, under such safeguards and restrictions as the City Council or the designated representative may reasonably impose for the promotion and maintenance of the general welfare, health of the inhabitants of the community, and as specifically noted in Section 415.040.
B. 
Floodplain Administrator. The City Engineer is hereby designated as the floodplain administrator under this Chapter.
C. 
Compliance. No development located within the special flood hazard areas of this community shall be located, extended, converted, or structurally altered without full compliance with the terms of this Chapter and other applicable regulations.
D. 
Abrogation And Greater Restrictions. It is not intended by this Chapter to repeal, abrogate, or impair any existing easements, covenants, or deed restrictions. However, where this Chapter imposes greater restrictions, the provisions of this Chapter shall prevail. All other ordinances inconsistent with this Chapter are hereby repealed to the extent of the inconsistency only.
E. 
Interpretation. In their interpretation and application, the provisions of this Chapter shall be held to be minimum requirements, shall be liberally construed in favor of the governing body, and shall not be deemed a limitation or repeal of any other powers granted by State statutes.
F. 
Warning And Disclaimer Of Liability. The degree of flood protection required by this Chapter is considered reasonable for regulatory purposes and is based on engineering and scientific methods of study. Larger floods may occur on rare occasions, or the flood heights may be increased by man-made or natural causes, such as ice jams and bridge openings restricted by debris. This Chapter does not imply that areas outside the floodway and flood fringe or land uses permitted within such areas will be free from flooding or flood damage. This Chapter shall not create a liability on the part of the City of Florissant, or any officer or employee thereof, for any flood damages that may result from reliance on this Chapter or any administrative decision lawfully made thereunder.
G. 
Severability. If any section, clause, provision, or portion of this Chapter is adjudged unconstitutional or invalid by a court of appropriate jurisdiction, the remainder of this Chapter shall not be affected thereby.

Section 415.030 Administration.

A. 
Floodplain Development Permit. A floodplain development permit shall be required for all proposed construction or other development, including the placement of manufactured homes, in the areas described in Section 415.020(A). No person, firm, corporation, or unit of government shall initiate any development or substantial improvement or cause the same to be done without first obtaining a separate floodplain development permit for each structure or other development.
B. 
Designation Of Floodplain Administrator. The City Engineer is hereby appointed to administer and implement the provisions of this Chapter.
C. 
Duties And Responsibilities Of Floodplain Administrator. Duties of the City Engineer shall include, but not be limited to:
1. 
Review all applications for floodplain development permits to assure that sites are reasonably safe from flooding and that the floodplain development permit requirements of this Chapter have been satisfied;
2. 
Review all applications for floodplain development permits for proposed development to assure that all necessary permits have been obtained from Federal, State, or local governmental agencies from which prior approval is required by Federal, State, or local law;
3. 
Review all subdivision proposals and other proposed new development, including manufactured home parks or subdivisions, to determine whether such proposals will be reasonably safe from flooding;
4. 
Issue floodplain development permits for all approved applications;
5. 
Notify adjacent communities and the Missouri State Emergency Management Agency (Mo SEMA) prior to any alteration or relocation of a watercourse and submit evidence of such notification to the Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA);
6. 
Assure that the flood-carrying capacity is not diminished and shall be maintained within the altered or relocated portion of any watercourse;
7. 
Verify and maintain a record of the actual elevation (in relation to mean sea level) of the lowest floor, including basement, of all new or substantially improved structures;
8. 
Verify and maintain a record of the actual elevation (in relation to mean sea level) that the new or substantially improved non-residential structures have been floodproofed;
9. 
When floodproofing techniques are utilized for a particular non-residential structure, the City Engineer shall require certification from a registered professional engineer or architect.
D. 
Application For Floodplain Development Permit. To obtain a floodplain development permit, the applicant shall first file an application, in writing, on a form furnished for that purpose. Every floodplain development permit application shall:
1. 
Describe the land on which the proposed work is to be done by lot, block and tract, house and street address, or similar description that will readily identify and specifically locate the proposed structure or work;
2. 
Identify and describe the work to be covered by the floodplain development permit;
3. 
Indicate the use or occupancy for which the proposed work is intended;
4. 
Indicate the assessed value of the structure and the fair market value of the improvement;
5. 
Specify whether development is located in a designated flood fringe or floodway;
6. 
Identify the existing base flood elevation and the elevation of the proposed development;
7. 
Give such other information as reasonably may be required by the City Engineer;
8. 
Be accompanied by plans and specifications for proposed construction; and
9. 
Be signed by the permittee or his authorized agent, who may be required to submit evidence to indicate such authority.

Section 415.040 Provisions for Flood Hazard Reduction.

A. 
General Standards.
1. 
No permit for floodplain development shall be granted for new construction, substantial improvements, and other improvements, including the placement of manufactured homes, within any numbered or unnumbered A Zones and AE Zones, unless the conditions of this section are satisfied.
2. 
All areas identified as unnumbered A Zones on the FIRM are subject to inundation of the one-hundred-year flood; however, the base flood elevation is not provided. Development within unnumbered A Zones is subject to all provisions of this Chapter. If Flood Insurance Study data is not available, the community shall obtain, review, and reasonably utilize any base flood elevation or floodway data currently available from Federal, State, or other sources.
3. 
Until a floodway is designated, no new construction, substantial improvements, or other development, including fill, shall be permitted within any numbered A Zone or AE Zone on the FIRM, unless it is demonstrated that the cumulative effect of the proposed development, when combined with all other existing and anticipated development, will not increase the water surface elevation of the base flood more than one (1) foot at any point within the community.
4. 
All new construction, subdivision proposals, substantial improvements, prefabricated structures, placement of manufactured homes, and other developments shall require:
a. 
Design or adequate anchorage to prevent flotation, collapse, or lateral movement of the structure resulting from hydrodynamic and hydrostatic loads, including the effects of buoyancy;
b. 
Construction with materials resistant to flood damage;
c. 
Utilization of methods and practices that minimize flood damages;
d. 
All electrical, heating, ventilation, plumbing, air-conditioning equipment, and other service facilities be designed and/or located so as to prevent water from entering or accumulating within the components during conditions of flooding;
e. 
New or replacement water supply systems and/or sanitary sewage systems be designed to minimize or eliminate infiltration of floodwaters into the systems and discharges from the systems into floodwaters, and on-site waste disposal systems be located so as to avoid impairment or contamination; and
f. 
Subdivision proposals and other proposed new development, including manufactured home parks or subdivisions, located within special flood hazard areas are required to assure that:
(1) 
All such proposals are consistent with the need to minimize flood damage;
(2) 
All public utilities and facilities, such as sewer, gas, electrical, and water systems, are located and constructed to minimize or eliminate flood damage;
(3) 
Adequate drainage is provided so as to reduce exposure to flood hazards; and
(4) 
All proposals for development, including proposals for manufactured home parks and subdivisions, of five (5) acres or fifty (50) lots, whichever is lesser, include within such proposals base flood elevation data.
5. 
The storage or processing of materials within the special flood hazard area that are, in time of flooding, buoyant, flammable, explosive, or could be injurious to human, animal, or plant life, is prohibited.
6. 
Storage of other material or equipment may be allowed if not subject to major damage by floods, if firmly anchored to prevent flotation, or if readily removable from the area within the time available after a flood warning.
7. 
Critical facilities.
a. 
All new or substantially improved critical nonresidential facilities, including, but not limited to, governmental buildings, police stations, fire stations, hospitals, orphanages, penal institutions, communication centers, water and sewer pumping stations, water and sewer treatment facilities, transportation maintenance facilities, places of public assembly, emergency aviation facilities, and schools, shall be elevated above the five-hundred-year flood level or, together with attendant utility and sanitary facilities, be floodproofed so that below the five-hundred-year flood level the structure is watertight with walls substantially impermeable to the passage of water and with structural components having the capability of resisting hydrostatic and hydrodynamic loads and the effects of buoyancy. A registered professional engineer or architect shall certify that the standards of this Subsection are satisfied. Such certification shall be provided to the floodplain administrator as set forth in the National Flood Insurance Program (NFIP) regulations.
b. 
All critical facilities shall have access routes that are above the elevation of the five-hundred-year flood.
8. 
Hazardous materials. All hazardous material storage and handling sites shall be located out of the floodplain.
B. 
Specific Standards.
1. 
In all areas identified as numbered and unnumbered A Zones and AE Zones, where base flood elevation data have been provided, as set forth in Section 415.040(A)(2), the following provisions are required:
a. 
Residential construction. New construction or substantial improvement of any residential structures, including manufactured homes, shall have the lowest floor, including basement, elevated to one (1) foot above the base flood elevation.
b. 
Non-residential construction. New construction or substantial improvement of any commercial, industrial, or other non-residential structures, including manufactured homes, shall have the lowest floor, including basement, elevated to one (1) foot above the base flood elevation or, together with attendant utility and sanitary facilities, be floodproofed so that below the base flood elevation the structure is watertight with walls substantially impermeable to the passage of water and with structural components having the capability of resisting hydrostatic and hydrodynamic loads and effects of buoyancy. A registered professional engineer or architect shall certify that the standards of this Subsection are satisfied. Such certification shall be provided to the floodplain administrator as set forth in Section 415.030(C)(9).
c. 
Require, for all new construction and substantial improvements, that fully enclosed areas below the lowest floor used solely for parking of vehicles, building access, or storage in an area other than a basement and that are subject to flooding shall be designed to automatically equalize hydrostatic flood forces on exterior walls by allowing for the entry and exit of floodwaters. Designs for meeting this requirement must either be certified by a registered professional engineer or architect or meet or exceed the following minimum criteria:
(1) 
A minimum of two (2) openings having a total net area of not less than one (1) square inch for every square foot of enclosed area subject to flooding shall be provided; and
(2) 
The bottom of all openings shall be no higher than one (1) foot above grade. Openings may be equipped with screens, louvers, valves, or other coverings or devices, provided that they permit the automatic entry and exit of floodwaters.
C. 
Manufactured Homes.
1. 
All manufactured homes to be placed within all unnumbered and numbered A Zones and AE Zones on the community's FIRM shall be required to be installed using methods and practices that minimize flood damage. For the purposes of this requirement, manufactured homes must be elevated and anchored to resist flotation, collapse, or lateral movement. Methods of anchoring may include, but are not limited to, use of over-the-top or frame ties to ground anchors.
2. 
Require manufactured homes that are placed or substantially improved within unnumbered or numbered A Zones and AE Zones on the community's FIRM on sites: outside of a manufactured home park or subdivision; in a new manufactured home park or subdivision; in an expansion to an existing manufactured home park or subdivision; or in an existing manufactured home park or subdivision on which a manufactured home has incurred substantial damage as the result of a flood, be elevated on a permanent foundation such that the lowest floor of the manufactured home is elevated to one (1) foot above the base flood elevation and be securely attached to an adequately anchored foundation system to resist flotation, collapse, and lateral movement.
3. 
Require that manufactured homes to be placed or substantially improved on sites in an existing manufactured home park or subdivision within all unnumbered and numbered A Zones and AE Zones on the community's FIRM, that are not subject to the provisions of Section 415.040(C)(2) of this Section, be elevated so that either:
a. 
The lowest floor of the manufactured home is at one (1) foot above the base flood level; or
b. 
The manufactured home chassis is supported by reinforced piers or other foundation elements of at least equivalent strength that are no less than thirty-six (36) inches in height above grade and is securely attached to an adequately anchored foundation system to resist flotation, collapse, and lateral movement.
D. 
Floodway. Located within areas of special flood hazard established in Section 415.020(A) are areas designated as floodways. Since the floodway is an extremely hazardous area due to the velocity of floodwaters that carry debris and potential projectiles, the following provisions shall apply:
1. 
The community shall select and adopt a regulatory floodway based on the principle that the area chosen for the regulatory floodway must be designed to carry the waters of the base flood without increasing the water surface elevation of that flood more than one (1) foot at any point.
2. 
The community shall prohibit any encroachments, including fill, new construction, substantial improvements, and other development, within the adopted regulatory floodway unless it has been demonstrated through hydrologic and hydraulic analyses performed in accordance with standard engineering practice that the proposed encroachment would not result in any increase in flood levels within the community during the occurrence of the base flood discharge.
3. 
If Section 415.040(D)(2) is satisfied, all new construction and substantial improvements shall comply with all applicable flood hazard reduction provisions of Section 415.040.
4. 
In unnumbered A Zones, the community shall obtain, review, and reasonably utilize any base flood elevation or floodway data currently available from Federal, State, or other sources as set forth in Section 415.040(A)(2).
E. 
Recreational Vehicles.
1. 
Require that recreational vehicles placed on sites within all unnumbered and numbered A Zones and AE Zones on the community's FIRM either:
a. 
Be on the site for fewer than one hundred eighty (180) consecutive days;
b. 
Be fully licensed and ready for highway use*; or
c. 
Meet the permitting, elevation, and the anchoring requirements for manufactured homes of this Chapter.
*
A recreational vehicle is ready for highway use if it is on its wheels or jacking system, is attached to the site only by quick-disconnect-type utilities and security devices, and has no permanently attached additions.

Section 415.050 Floodplain Management Variance Procedures.

A. 
Establishment Of Appeal Board. The Board of Adjustment as established by the City of Florissant shall hear and decide appeals and requests for variances from the floodplain management requirements of this Chapter.
B. 
Responsibility Of Appeal Board.
1. 
Where an application for a floodplain development permit or request for a variance from the floodplain management regulations is denied by the City Engineer, the applicant may apply for such floodplain development permit or variance directly to the Board of Adjustment, as defined in Section 415.050(A).
2. 
The Board of Adjustment shall hear and decide appeals when it is alleged that there is an error in any requirement, decision, or determination made by the City Engineer in the enforcement or administration of this Chapter.
C. 
Further Appeals. Any person aggrieved by the decision of the Board of Adjustment or any taxpayer may appeal such decision to the St. Louis County Circuit Court as provided in RSMo. 89.110.
D. 
Floodplain Management Variance Criteria. In passing upon such applications for variances, the Board of Adjustment shall consider all technical data and evaluations, all relevant factors, standards specified in other sections of this Chapter, and the following criteria:
1. 
The danger to life and property due to flood damage;
2. 
The danger that materials may be swept onto other lands to the injury of others;
3. 
The susceptibility of the proposed facility and its contents to flood damage and the effect of such damage on the individual owner;
4. 
The importance of the services provided by the proposed facility to the community;
5. 
The necessity to the facility of a waterfront location, where applicable;
6. 
The availability of alternative locations, not subject to flood damage, for the proposed use;
7. 
The compatibility of the proposed use with existing and anticipated development;
8. 
The relationship of the proposed use to the Comprehensive Plan and floodplain management program for that area;
9. 
The safety of access to the property in times of flood for ordinary and emergency vehicles;
10. 
The expected heights, velocity, duration, rate of rise and sediment transport of the floodwaters, if applicable, expected at the site; and
11. 
The costs of providing governmental services during and after flood conditions, including maintenance and repair of public utilities and facilities, such as sewer, gas, electrical, and water systems; streets; and bridges.
E. 
Conditions For Approving Floodplain Management Variances.
1. 
Generally, variances may be issued for new construction and substantial improvements to be erected on a lot of one-half (1/2) acre or less in size contiguous to and surrounded by lots with existing structures constructed below the base flood level, provided that the items in Subsection (E)(2) through (6) below have been fully considered. As the lot size increases beyond the one-half (1/2) acre, the technical justification required for issuing the variance increases.
2. 
Variances may be issued for the reconstruction, rehabilitation, or restoration of structures listed on the National Register of Historic Places, the State Inventory of Historic Places, or a local inventory of historic places upon determination provided the proposed activity will not preclude the structure's continued historic designation.
3. 
Variances shall not be issued within any designated floodway if any increase in flood levels during the base flood discharge would result.
4. 
Variances shall only be issued upon a determination that the variance is the minimum necessary, considering the flood hazard, to afford relief.
5. 
Variances shall only be issued upon:
a. 
A showing of good and sufficient cause;
b. 
A determination that failure to grant the variance would result in exceptional hardship to the applicant; and
c. 
A determination that the granting of a variance will not result in increased flood heights, additional threats to public safety, extraordinary public expense, create nuisances, cause fraud on or victimization of the public, or conflict with existing local laws or ordinances.
6. 
A community shall notify the applicant, in writing, over the signature of a community official, that: the issuance of a variance to construct a structure below the base flood level will result in increased premium rates for flood insurance up to amounts as high as twenty-five dollars ($25.00) for one hundred dollars ($100.00) of insurance coverage; and such construction below the base flood level increases risks to life and property. Such notification shall be maintained with the record of all variance actions as required by this Section.

Section 415.060 Penalties for Violation.

Violation of the provisions of this Chapter or failure to comply with any of its requirements (including violations of conditions and safeguards established in connection with granting of variances) shall constitute a misdemeanor. Any person who violates this Chapter or fails to comply with any of its requirements shall, upon conviction thereof, be fined not more than one thousand dollars ($1,000.00), and, in addition, shall pay all costs and expenses involved in the case. Each day such violation continues shall be considered a separate offense. Nothing herein contained shall prevent the City of Florissant or other appropriate authority from taking such other lawful action as is necessary to prevent or remedy any violation.

Section 415.070 Amendments.

The regulations, restrictions, and boundaries set forth in this Chapter may, from time to time, be amended, supplemented, changed, or appealed to reflect any and all changes in the National Flood Disaster Protection Act of 1973; provided, however, that no such action may be taken until after a public hearing in relation thereto, at which parties of interest and citizens shall have an opportunity to be heard. Notice of the time and place of such hearing shall be published in a newspaper of general circulation in the City of Florissant, and at least twenty (20) days shall elapse between the date of this publication and the public hearing. A copy of such amendments will be provided to the Region VII office of the Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA). The regulations of this Chapter are in compliance with the National Flood Insurance Program (NFIP) regulations.

Section 415.080 Definitions.

Unless specifically defined below, words or phrases used in this Chapter shall be interpreted so as to give them the same meanings they have in common usage and to give this Chapter its most reasonable application.
ACCESSORY STRUCTURE
The same as "appurtenant structure."
ACTUARIAL RATES
See "risk premium rates."
ADMINISTRATOR
The Federal Insurance Administrator.
AGENCY
The Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA).
AGRICULTURAL COMMODITIES
Agricultural products and livestock.
AGRICULTURAL STRUCTURE
Any structure used exclusively in connection with the production, harvesting, storage, drying, or raising of agricultural commodities.
APPEAL
A request for review of the floodplain administrator's interpretation of any provision of this Chapter or a request for a variance.
APPURTENANT STRUCTURE
A structure that is on the same parcel of property as the principal structure to be insured and the use of which is incidental to the use of the principal structure.
AREA OF SPECIAL FLOOD HAZARD
The land in the floodplain within a community subject to a one-percent or greater chance of flooding in any given year.
BASE FLOOD
The flood having a one-percent chance of being equaled or exceeded in any given year.
BASEMENT
Any area of the structure having its floor subgrade (below ground level) on all sides.
BUILDING
See "structure."
CHIEF EXECUTIVE OFFICER or CHIEF ELECTED OFFICIAL
The official of the community who is charged with the authority to implement and administer laws, ordinances, and regulations for that community.
COMMUNITY
Any State or area or political subdivision thereof, which has authority to adopt and enforce floodplain management regulations for the areas within its jurisdiction.
DEVELOPMENT
Any man-made change to improved or unimproved real estate, including but not limited to buildings or other structures, levees, levee systems, mining, dredging, filling, grading, paving, excavation or drilling operations, or storage of equipment or materials.
ELEVATED BUILDING
For insurance purposes, a non-basement building which has its lowest elevated floor raised above ground level by foundation walls, shear walls, posts, piers, pilings, or columns.
ELIGIBLE COMMUNITY or PARTICIPATING COMMUNITY
A community for which the administrator has authorized the sale of flood insurance under the National Flood Insurance Program (NFIP).
EXISTING CONSTRUCTION
For the purposes of determining rates, structures for which the "start of construction" commenced before the effective date of the FIRM or before January 1, 1975, for FIRMs effective before that date. "Existing construction" may also be referred to as "existing structures."
EXISTING MANUFACTURED HOME PARK OR SUBDIVISION
A manufactured home park or subdivision for which the construction of facilities for servicing the lots on which the manufactured homes are to be affixed (including, at a minimum, the installation of utilities, the construction of streets, and either final site grading or the pouring of concrete pads) is completed before the effective date of the floodplain management regulations adopted by a community.
EXPANSION TO AN EXISTING MANUFACTURED HOME PARK OR SUBDIVISION
The preparation of additional sites by the construction of facilities for servicing the lots on which the manufactured homes are to be affixed (including the installation of utilities, the construction of streets, and either final site grading or the pouring of concrete pads).
FLOOD BOUNDARY AND FLOODWAY MAP (FBFM)
An official map of a community on which the Administrator has delineated both special flood hazard areas and the designated regulatory floodway.
FLOOD ELEVATION DETERMINATION
A determination by the Administrator of the water surface elevations of the base flood, that is, the flood level that has a one-percent or greater chance of occurrence in any given year.
FLOOD ELEVATION STUDY
An examination, evaluation and determination of flood hazards.
FLOOD FRINGE
The area outside the floodway encroachment lines but still subject to inundation by the regulatory flood.
FLOOD HAZARD BOUNDARY MAP (FHBM)
An official map of a community, issued by the Administrator, where the boundaries of the flood areas having special flood hazards have been designated as (unnumbered or numbered) A Zones.
FLOOD INSURANCE RATE MAP (FIRM)
An official map of a community, on which the Administrator has delineated both the special flood hazard areas and the risk premium zones applicable to the community.
FLOOD INSURANCE STUDY (FIS)
An examination, evaluation and determination of flood hazards and, if appropriate, corresponding water surface elevations.
FLOOD or FLOODING
A general and temporary condition of partial or complete inundation of normally dry land areas from:
1. 
The overflow of inland waters; and/or
2. 
The unusual and rapid accumulation or runoff of surface waters from any source.
FLOODPLAIN MANAGEMENT
The operation of an overall program of corrective and preventive measures for reducing flood damage, including but not limited to emergency preparedness plans, flood control works, and floodplain management regulations.
FLOODPLAIN MANAGEMENT REGULATIONS
Zoning ordinances, subdivision regulations, building codes, health regulations, special purpose ordinances (such as floodplain and grading ordinances) and other applications of police power. The term describes such State or local regulations, in any combination thereof, that provide standards for the purpose of flood damage prevention and reduction.
FLOODPLAIN or FLOOD-PRONE AREA
Any land area susceptible to being inundated by water from any source (see "flooding").
FLOODPROOFING
Any combination of structural and non-structural additions, changes, or adjustments to structures that reduce or eliminate flood damage to real estate or improved real property, water and sanitary facilities, or structures and their contents.
FLOODWAY ENCROACHMENT LINES
The lines marking the limits of floodways on Federal, State and local floodplain maps.
FLOODWAY or REGULATORY FLOODWAY
The channel of a river or other watercourse and the adjacent land areas that must be reserved in order to discharge the base flood without cumulatively increasing the water surface elevation more than one (1) foot.
FREEBOARD
A factor of safety usually expressed in feet above a flood level for purposes of floodplain management. "Freeboard" tends to compensate for the many unknown factors that could contribute to flood heights greater than the height calculated for a selected size flood and floodway conditions, such as bridge openings and the hydrological effect of urbanization of the watershed.
FUNCTIONALLY DEPENDENT USE
A use that cannot perform its intended purpose unless it is located or carried out in close proximity to water. This term includes only docking facilities and facilities that are necessary for the loading and unloading of cargo or passengers but does not include long-term storage or related manufacturing facilities.
HIGHEST ADJACENT GRADE
The highest natural elevation of the ground surface, prior to construction, next to the proposed walls of a structure.
HISTORIC STRUCTURE
Any structure that is:
1. 
Listed individually on the National Register of Historic Places (a listing maintained by the Department of the Interior) or preliminarily determined by the Secretary of the Interior as meeting the requirements for individual listing on the National Register;
2. 
Certified or preliminarily determined by the Secretary of the Interior as contributing to the historical significance of a registered historic district or a district preliminarily determined by the Secretary to qualify as a registered historic district;
3. 
Individually listed on a State inventory of historic places in states with historic preservation programs which have been approved by the Secretary of the Interior; or
4. 
Individually listed on a local inventory of historic places in communities with historic preservation programs that have been certified either:
a. 
By an approved State program as determined by the Secretary of the Interior; or
b. 
Directly by the Secretary of the Interior in states without approved programs.
LOWEST FLOOR
The lowest floor of the lowest enclosed area, including basement. An unfinished or flood-resistant enclosure, usable solely for parking of vehicles, building access, or storage, in an area other than a basement area, is not considered a building's lowest floor, provided that such enclosure is not built so as to render the structure in violation of the applicable floodproofing design requirements of this Chapter.
MANUFACTURED HOME
A structure, transportable in one (1) or more sections, that is built on a permanent chassis and is designed for use with or without a permanent foundation when attached to the required utilities. The term "manufactured home" does not include a "recreational vehicle."
MANUFACTURED HOME PARK OR SUBDIVISION
A parcel (or contiguous parcels) of land divided into two (2) or more manufactured home lots for rent or sale.
MAP
The Flood Hazard Boundary Map (FHBM), Flood Insurance Rate Map (FIRM), or the Flood Boundary and Floodway Map (FBFM) for a community issued by the Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA).
MARKET VALUE or FAIR MARKET VALUE
An estimate of what is fair, economic, just and equitable value under normal local market conditions.
MEAN SEA LEVEL
For purposes of the National Flood Insurance Program (NFIP), the National Geodetic Vertical Datum (NGVD) of 1929 or other datum, to which base flood elevations shown on a community's Flood Insurance Rate Map (FIRM) are referenced.
NEW CONSTRUCTION
For the purposes of determining insurance rates, structures for which the "start of construction" commenced on or after the effective date of an initial FIRM or after December 31, 1974, whichever is later, and includes any subsequent improvements to such structures. For floodplain management purposes, "new construction" means structures for which the "start of construction" commenced on or after the effective date of the floodplain management regulations adopted by a community and includes any subsequent improvements to such structures.
NEW MANUFACTURED HOME PARK OR SUBDIVISION
A manufactured home park or subdivision for which the construction of facilities for servicing the lot on which the manufactured homes are to be affixed (including, at a minimum, the installation of utilities, the construction of streets, and either final site grading or the pouring of concrete pads) is completed on or after the effective date of floodplain management regulations adopted by the community.
(NFIP)
The National Flood Insurance Program (NFIP).
ONE-HUNDRED-YEAR FLOOD
See "base flood."
PARTICIPATING COMMUNITY
Also known as an "eligible community," means a community in which the Administrator has authorized the sale of flood insurance.
PERSON
Includes any individual or group of individuals, corporation, partnership, association, or any other entity, including Federal, State, and local governments and agencies.
PRINCIPALLY ABOVE GROUND
At least 51% of the actual cash value of the structure, less land value, is above ground.
RECREATIONAL VEHICLE
A vehicle which is:
1. 
Built on a single chassis;
2. 
Four hundred (400) square feet or less when measured at the largest horizontal projections;
3. 
Designed to be self-propelled or permanently towable by a light-duty truck; and
4. 
Designed primarily not for use as a permanent dwelling but as temporary living quarters for recreational, camping, travel, or seasonal use.
REMEDY A VIOLATION
To bring the structure or other development into compliance with Federal, State, or local floodplain management regulations or, if this is not possible, to reduce the impacts of its noncompliance.
REPETITIVE LOSS
Flood-related damages sustained by a structure on two (2) separate occasions during a ten-year period for which the cost of repairs at the time of each such flood event equals or exceeds twenty-five percent (25%) of the market value of the structure before the damage occurred.
RISK PREMIUM RATES
Those rates established by the Administrator pursuant to individual community studies and investigations which are undertaken to provide flood insurance in accordance with Section 1307 of the National Flood Disaster Protection Act of 1973 and the accepted actuarial principles. "Risk premium rates" include provisions for operating costs and allowances.
SPECIAL FLOOD HAZARD AREA
See "area of special flood hazard."
SPECIAL HAZARD AREA
An area having special flood hazards and shown on an FHBM, FIRM or FBFM as Zones (unnumbered or numbered) A and AE.
START OF CONSTRUCTION
Includes substantial improvements and means the date the building permit was issued, provided the actual start of construction, repair, reconstruction, rehabilitation, addition placement, or other improvements was within one hundred eighty (180) days of the permit date. The "actual start" means either the first placement of permanent construction of a structure on a site, such as the pouring of slabs or footings, the installation of piles, the construction of columns, any work beyond the stage of excavation, or the placement of a manufactured home on a foundation. Permanent construction does not include land preparation, such as clearing, grading and filling, the installation of streets and/or walkways, excavation for a basement, footings, piers, or foundations, the erection of temporary forms, nor installation on the property of accessory structures, such as garages or sheds not occupied as dwelling units or not part of the main structure. For a substantial improvement, the "actual start of construction" means the first alteration of any wall, ceiling, floor, or other structural part of a building, whether or not that alteration affects the external dimensions of the building.
STATE COORDINATING AGENCY
That agency of the State government or other office designated by the Governor of the State or by State statute at the request of the Administrator to assist in the implementation of the National Flood Insurance Program (NFIP) in that State.
STRUCTURE
For floodplain management purposes, a walled and roofed building, including a gas or liquid storage tank, that is principally above ground, as well as a manufactured home. "Structure," for insurance purposes, means a walled and roofed building, other than a gas or liquid storage tank, that is principally above ground and affixed to a permanent site, as well as a manufactured home on a permanent foundation. For the latter purpose, the term includes a building while in the course of construction, alteration or repair but does not include building materials or supplies intended for use in such construction, alteration or repair, unless such materials or supplies are within an enclosed building on the premises.
1. 
Damage of any origin sustained by a structure whereby the cost of restoring the structure to its before-damaged condition would equal or exceed fifty percent (50%) of the market value of the structure before the damage occurred. The term includes repetitive loss buildings (see definition).
2. 
For the purposes of this definition, "repair" is considered to occur when the first repair or reconstruction of any wall, ceiling, floor, or other structural part of the building commences.
3. 
The term does not apply to:
a. 
Any project for improvement of a building required to comply with existing health, sanitary, or safety code specifications which have been identified by the Code Enforcement Official and which are solely necessary to assure safe living conditions; or
b. 
Any alteration of an "historic structure," provided that the alteration will not preclude the structure's continued designation as an "historic structure;" or
c. 
Any improvement to a building.
1. 
Any combination of reconstruction, alteration, or improvement to a building, which equals or exceeds fifty percent (50%) of the current market value of the building. For the purposes of this definition, an improvement occurs when the first alteration of any wall, ceiling, floor, or other structural part of the building commences, whether or not that alteration affects the external dimensions of the building. This term includes structures which have incurred "repetitive loss" or "substantial damage," regardless of the actual repair work done.
2. 
The term does not apply to:
a. 
Any project for improvement of a building required to comply with existing health, sanitary, or safety code specifications which have been identified by the Code Enforcement Official and which are solely necessary to assure safe living conditions; or
b. 
Any alteration of an "historic structure," provided that the alteration will not preclude the structure's continued designation as an "historic structure;" or
c. 
Any building that has been damaged from any source or is categorized as repetitive loss.
VARIANCE
A grant of relief by the community from the terms of a floodplain management regulation. Flood insurance requirements remain in place for any varied use or structure and cannot be varied by the community.
VIOLATION
The failure of a structure or other development to be fully compliant with the community's floodplain management regulations. A structure or other development without the elevation certificate, other certifications, or other evidence of compliance required by this Chapter is presumed to be in violation until such time as that documentation is provided.
WATER SURFACE ELEVATION
The height, in relation to the National Geodetic Vertical Datum (NGVD) of 1929 (or other datum where specified), of floods of various magnitudes and frequencies in the floodplain.