Township of West Manheim, PA
York County
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Table of Contents
Table of Contents

§ 235-42 Applicability; exceptions.

A. 
The standards of design and construction in this article shall be used to judge the adequacy of subdivision and land development proposals and shall be considered to be the minimum criteria in achieving the purpose and objectives of this chapter.
B. 
In addition to the standards included herein, development proposals shall also comply with such construction and material specifications as are or shall be adopted by the Township Board of Supervisors and are contained in Chapter 105, Construction and Materials Specifications.
C. 
Variations or modifications to these criteria may be granted by the Township Board of Supervisors in accordance with the provisions set forth in § 235-29 of this chapter. Where questions should arise regarding the interpretation of these design standards, the determination of the Township Board of Supervisors shall prevail.
D. 
Whenever Chapter 270, Zoning, provides that the use proposed by the applicant for subdivision and/or land development approval shall constitute a use by special exception or conditional use or require a variance from any provisions of Chapter 270, Zoning, the applicant shall obtain such special exception, conditional use, or variance from the Zoning Hearing Board or Board of Supervisors, as applicable, prior to submission of the final plan. The plan shall be designed and developed in accordance with any conditions that have been imposed upon the granting of such special exception, conditional use, or variance by the Zoning Hearing Board or Board of Supervisors, as applicable.

§ 235-43 General site design.

All land development plans must reflect a location that has given consideration to the following factors:
A. 
The location of the land development must conform to the Township Comprehensive Plan with respect to the streets, public sites, and proposed utilities.
B. 
The proposed use of the land in any land development must conform to Chapter 270, Zoning.
C. 
No land shall be subdivided or developed for any purposes unless adequate safeguards against flood, fire and disease have been taken to minimize hazards to life, health, or property.
D. 
Proposed projects shall be integrated with existing and proposed neighborhoods so that the community as a whole may develop harmoniously.
E. 
Reasonable measures shall be taken to ensure the preservation of natural, historic, and archaeological features; areas and structures as determined by Chapter 270, Zoning, to be worthy of such preservation; and to ensure public access to such features, areas and structures, where appropriate.
F. 
Land subject to flooding or other hazards to life, health, or property and land deemed to be topographically unsuitable shall not be platted for residential occupancy or for such other uses as may increase danger to health, life or property or aggravate erosion or flood hazard until all such hazards have been eliminated or unless adequate safeguards against such hazards are provided by the land development plans.

§ 235-44 Street systems.

All streets proposed to be constructed within the Township shall conform to the following general design requirements:
A. 
Proposed streets shall be planned with regard to the existing street system, public convenience in terms of fire protection and pedestrian traffic, projected volumes of traffic, existing and proposed use of land on abutting properties and future development extensions of the street systems.
B. 
Residential streets shall be so designed as to discourage through traffic; however, the arrangement of streets shall provide for continuation of existing or platted streets and for proper access to adjoining undeveloped tracts suitable for future development.
C. 
Proposed streets which are aligned with existing streets shall bear the name of the existing street. In the event a proposed street is not aligned with an existing street, it shall not bear a name similar to any existing street located within the Township and/or the same postal service area, irrespective of the suffix of street, avenue, boulevard, drive, place, court, etc.
D. 
Streets shall be logically related to topography so as to produce reasonable grades, satisfactory drainage and suitable building sites. A drawing of the same scale as the subdivision plan shall be provided showing topography and street profile as it relates to any proposed street(s) whether proposed for dedication or to be held in private right.
E. 
The streets must be properly located and built with regard to the proposed traffic functions as shown in the West Manheim Township Comprehensive Plan and Official Map.
F. 
The arrangement, character, extent, width, grade, and location of all streets and highways must conform to their functional classification as identified in this chapter and as defined herein.
G. 
Reverse frontage shall be provided for all lots which abut an arterial street and are located within a subdivision that has space for or is creating an interior street.
H. 
Direct access to an arterial or collector road shall be permitted only when the subject property has no other reasonable access to the street system and only if the Township Engineer determines that the proposed access point onto the street can be accommodated safely by meeting safe sight distances and sufficient traffic gaps to safely enter and exit the access point, as determined in accordance with Chapter 441 of Title 67 of the Pennsylvania Code, as amended.
(1) 
Issuance of a PennDOT Highway Occupancy Permit (HOP) does not guarantee site plan approval by the Township, nor does it deem the plan in conformance with this chapter. The HOP submission to PennDOT should not occur without consent to do so by the Township. In the case of a preexisting driveway, a change in the use on the property may require a revised HOP if the proposed use will generate daily trips in excess of the PennDOT trip thresholds.
(2) 
For properties that have frontage along an arterial, the Township may prohibit access to the arterial if all movements can be efficiently and safely accommodated on the other street or streets, based on design standards contained within this chapter. Access may be restricted to the Township street despite the ability to receive a highway occupancy permit (HOP) from PennDOT.
I. 
Points of access.
(1) 
At least two points of access shall be provided for subdivisions consisting of:
(a) 
More than 10 dwelling units or units of occupancy;
(b) 
Nonresidential developments consisting of more than 100 average daily vehicle trips based upon the latest edition of the Institute of Transportation Engineers Manual.
(2) 
This access is to be from a through street or, where the Township finds it appropriate, the continuation of an existing or proposed street to the boundary of the subdivision.

§ 235-45 Street design criteria.

A. 
Streets shall be designed in accordance with Guidelines for Design of Local Streets and Roads (Publication 70) as amended, of the Pennsylvania Department of Transportation; West Manheim Township Construction Specifications, latest edition;[1] and the following criteria, whichever is more stringent.
[1]
Editor's Note: See also Chapter 105, Construction and Materials Specifications.
B. 
Streets are generally described below. For design of streets, the most recent version of the West Manheim Township Comprehensive Plan should be consulted to obtain the functional classification of a particular street.
(1) 
Arterial. A high order, interregional road in the street hierarchy. Arterial roads are intended to carry large traffic volumes at steady speeds with minimum interruptions to traffic flow.
(2) 
Collector. This classification includes highways that provide connections with local access roads, arterials and state highways. They may serve a traffic corridor connecting villages, small boroughs, shipping points, mining and agricultural areas on an intracounty or Township basis. Many trips destined to such points originate in widely diffused locations and a highway in this class function is considered a collector. Traffic volumes and trip lengths vary greatly depending upon size and distance between localities. The collector streets are further classified as "major" or "minor" based on the state classification system.
(3) 
Local. This classification is intended to include streets that provide direct access to abutting land and includes connections from farms, individual residences and commercial properties to higher classes of roadways. Trip lengths are short and operating speeds are low. Spacing between roads of this classification and traffic volumes vary widely depending upon the intensity of land development and the distance to population centers. In general, this classification includes all public roads which are not included in higher classifications.
(4) 
Alleys. The use of alleys is permitted only in the Suburban Residential Zone and shall be limited to providing a secondary means of access to the side and/or rear of those lots with street frontage and designed to discourage through traffic.
(a) 
Alleys shall consist of a twenty-foot-wide dedicated easement and a sixteen-foot-wide cartway constructed in accordance with Chapter 105, Construction and Materials Specifications.
(b) 
The plan submission for the development shall contain an operation and maintenance plan prepared by the developer and approved by the Township Engineer. The operation and maintenance plan shall outline the required maintenance and the party responsible for such maintenance. If the alley is dedicated to the Township, an operation and maintenance plan is not required for the alley.
(5) 
Culs-de-sac and loop streets.
(a) 
Township roads, general design. The use of culs-de-sac and loop streets is not permitted in West Manheim Township, except as provided in Subsection B(5)(b).
(b) 
Township roads, conservation subdivision. Approval of culs-de-sac and loop streets shall be at the sole discretion of the Township Supervisors. The use of culs-de-sac and loop streets under the conservation design overlay shall be considered when all of the following conditions are met:
[1] 
The potential for a through street is not feasible due to the shape of the lot.
[2] 
The intent of the conservation design is not met without the use of a cul-de-sac or loop street.
(c) 
Private roads, general design.
[1] 
Private roads may utilize culs-de-sac and/or loop streets; however, all other applicable design criteria of this section shall apply.
[2] 
Approval of culs-de-sac and loop streets shall be at the sole discretion of the Township Supervisors. The approval of cul-de-sac streets and/or loop streets should only be made when a through street is determined not to be feasible. The feasibility of a through street will be based on the following:
[a] 
Physical features of the tract proposed for development.
[b] 
The potential for extension of the street to adjoining lands.
[c] 
Restrictions imposed by other government regulations.
[d] 
The ability of the design to meet all other requirements of this chapter.
(d) 
When cul-de-sac streets and/or loop streets are proposed, the application shall be accompanied by a written analysis of the merits of the design and the reasons that a through street would not be feasible or the intent of the conservation design overlay would not be met.
(e) 
Where any adjacent stub (dead-end) street is not currently proposed for extension as a through street, the developer shall construct a temporary cul-de-sac in compliance with Township standards.
(f) 
Permanent cul-de-sac streets and/or loop streets, when permitted, shall be designed in accordance with the following:
[1] 
Shall be a minimum of 250 feet in length, measured from the right-of-way line of the intersecting street to the center of the cul-de-sac or intersecting right-of-way line.
[2] 
Should be a maximum 500 feet.
[3] 
Culs-de-sac must be provided with a paved turnaround with a minimum diameter of 80 feet to the outside curb and 100 feet to the legal right-of-way. Alternate turnarounds may be provided in accordance with the International Fire Code at the sole discretion of the Board of Supervisors.
[4] 
Alternative designs to the circular cul-de-sac, for roadways to be dedicated to the Township, will be considered only if they meet the requirements for obtaining liquid fuel tax allocations.
(6) 
Private streets. Private streets are discouraged in West Manheim Township except where the subdivision of three or more lots occur and only when such private streets conform to the specifications and requirements of minor or collector streets as specified in this chapter.
(a) 
All subdivision plans approved by the Township under the provision of this section shall include provisions for ownership and maintenance of such facilities.
(b) 
All subdivision plans approved by the Township under the provision of this section shall include the following note, and shall be subject to the provisions specified therein:
RESTRICTIONS AND/OR CONDITIONS RELATING TO PRIVATE STREETS SERVING RESIDENTIAL LOTS
Each Deed for the transfer or conveyance of any lot shown on the above subdivision plan shall contain restrictions and/or conditions that the private streets shown hereon shall remain private streets and that the purchasers or owners of said lots, their heirs, successors, and assigns, shall be responsible for the construction, maintenance, repair and snow removal of said private streets, which restrictions and/or conditions shall be deemed to be covenants running with the land. So long as said streets remain private streets, West Manheim Township shall have no responsibility or obligation for construction, maintenance, repairs and snow removal. No further subdivision of any of said lots or the tract from which the lots have been made shall be permitted unless and until said private streets have been constructed or improved to current Township standards and offered for dedication by the owners or purchasers of the lots as public streets of the Township.
(c) 
There must be full compliance with all other applicable subdivision and zoning requirements as set forth in this chapter and in Chapter 270, Zoning, including all slope requirements. The Board of Supervisors may waive the requirement for curb and sidewalk if it is determined to be inconsistent with the intent of the West Manheim Township Comprehensive Plan, and adequate drainage facilities are provided as determined by the Township Engineer.
(7) 
Private drives. For subdivisions of two lots or less of tracts of land existing as of the date of this chapter, private drives may be permitted at the discretion of the Township for access to said lots, provided that only one such two-lot subdivision is permitted for any parcel of land existing as of the date of this chapter and provided that the following requirements are met:
(a) 
All subdivision plans approved by the Township under the provision of this section shall include the following note, and shall be subject to the provisions specified therein:
RESTRICTIONS AND/OR CONDITIONS RELATING TO PRIVATE DRIVES SERVING RESIDENTIAL LOTS
Each Deed for the transfer or conveyance of any lot shown on the above subdivision plan shall contain restrictions and/or conditions that the private drives shown hereon shall remain private drives and that the purchasers or owners of said lots, their heirs, successors, and assigns, shall be responsible for the construction, maintenance, repair and snow removal of said private drives, which restrictions and/or conditions shall be deemed to be covenants running with the land. So long as said drives remain private drives, West Manheim Township shall have no responsibility or obligation for construction, maintenance, repairs and snow removal. No further subdivision of any of said lots or the tract from which the lots have been made shall be permitted unless and until said private drives have been constructed or improved to current Township standards and offered for dedication by the owners or purchasers of the lots as public streets of the Township.
(b) 
There must be full compliance with all other applicable subdivision and zoning requirements as set forth in the this chapter and in Chapter 270, Zoning, including all slope requirements.
(c) 
Said private right-of-way shall not exceed 750 feet in length.
(d) 
The private drive is to have a minimum right-of-way of 50 feet. In addition, the following specifications must be met:
[1] 
The center of the private drive must be placed on the center of the fifty-foot right-of-way. The right-of-way shall be cleared and maintained to ensure proper access by emergency vehicles.
[2] 
The cartway of the private drive must be 20 feet wide and improved in accordance with Chapter 105, Construction and Materials Specifications.
[3] 
Adequate drainage facilities must be provided in accordance with Chapter 221, Stormwater Management.
(8) 
Future streets. Where appropriate, areas shall be reserved for future street usage in conjunction with the development of adjoining properties. Areas reserved solely for street usage at a future date will not be required to be improved; however, the right-of-way for those areas shall be reserved for street improvements to be provided by the developer of the adjacent tract. When connecting a proposed street to an existing temporary cul-de-sac, such connection and all restoration work required to restore the adjacent lots in the area of the existing turnaround shall be the responsibility of the developer proposing the connection.
(9) 
Existing streets. Where subdivisions or land developments abut existing streets which do not conform to the minimum right-of-way and cartway widths of this chapter, such existing streets shall be improved to the specifications of § 235-46 from the center line of the streets abutting the property being subdivided or developed. The ultimate right-of-way is requested to be dedicated from the center line of the streets abutting the property being subdivided or developed.
C. 
Street design and driveway location shall provide adequate consideration for public safety and future maintenance of all facilities (including but not limited to, drainage facilities, curb, snow removal, etc.). Additional easements shall be provided to facilitate such maintenance at the discretion of the Board of Supervisors.

§ 235-46 Street design standards. [1]

Streets shall be designed in accordance with Guidelines for Design of Local Streets and Roads (Publication 70) as amended, of the Pennsylvania Department of Transportation; Chapter 105, Construction and Material Specifications, latest edition, of the Code of the Township of West Manheim, and the following criteria, whichever is more stringent:
A. 
Ultimate right-of-way. The ultimate right-of-way, as provided in Table V-1: Street Design Standards,[2] is requested to be dedicated from the center line of the streets abutting the property being subdivided or developed. The ultimate right-of-way shall be centered over all roadways.
[2]
Editor's Note: Table V-1 follows Subsection D(6).
B. 
Street right-of-way and cartway width. The minimum right-of-way and cartway widths for new and/or improved streets shall be based upon the growth area classification and the following:
(1) 
Classification shall be determined in accordance with the West Manheim Township Comprehensive Plan and as further defined herein:
(a) 
Arterial streets.
[1] 
Review by the Pennsylvania Department of Transportation;
[2] 
Review by the Township Engineer and the Township Board of Supervisors; and
[3] 
Review by the York County Planning Commission.
(b) 
Major collector streets.
[1] 
Provide access to a residential land use with a density in excess of four dwelling units per acre; or
[2] 
Provide access to an industrial use or a commercial use; or
[3] 
Serves an average daily traffic count over 2,000 AADT;
[4] 
Has a speed limit over 35 miles per hour.
(c) 
Minor collector streets.
[1] 
Provide access to a residential land use with a density of four or less dwelling units per acre; or
[2] 
Provide access to an institutional land use; or
[3] 
Serves an average daily traffic count between 500 and 2,000 AADT.
(d) 
Local streets.
[1] 
Provide access to single-family lots with a minimum required lot size in excess of one acre each; or
[2] 
Serves an average daily traffic count less than 500 AADT.
(2) 
The minimum required right-of-way and cartway widths, based upon the growth area classification in Chapter 270, Zoning, and street classification, shall be in accordance with Table V-1: Street Design Standards.[3] The provisions contained herein do not always provide adequate cartway for on-street parking on both sides of the proposed roadway. The applicant shall be responsible for submitting traffic and engineering study for the recommendations and/or restrictions along a proposed road.
[3]
Editor's Note: Table V-1 follows Subsection D(6).
(3) 
The extension of existing streets which are presently constructed with a cartway different from the standards of this chapter shall be provided with a transition area in accordance with PennDOT standards, the design of which is subject to Township approval.
C. 
Horizontal street alignment. The following criteria shall apply to the horizontal alignment of all proposed and reconstructed streets:
(1) 
Horizontal street alignments shall be measured along the center line and horizontal curves shall be used at all angle changes.
(2) 
Where practical, single, long radius curves shall be used rather than a series of curves with varying radii or a series of short curves separated by short, straight segments. Additionally, decreasing radius curves are specifically prohibited.
(3) 
The minimum horizontal curve radius shall be 300 feet for major and minor collector streets, 150 feet for local roads, and subject to PennDOT review and concurrence for arterial roads.
(4) 
A minimum tangent of 100 feet between reverse curves shall be provided on all streets.
D. 
Vertical street alignment. The following criteria shall apply to the vertical alignment of all proposed and reconstructed streets:
(1) 
Vertical street alignment shall be measured at the center line, and vertical curves shall be used in changes or grade when the algebraic difference exceeds 1%.
(2) 
The minimum and maximum grades, based upon the growth area classification in Chapter 270, Zoning, and street classification, shall be in accordance with Table V-1: Street Design Standards.
(3) 
Vertical curves shall have a minimum length of 300 feet for major collector and major local streets and 200 feet for local roads.
(4) 
The maximum grade for 50 feet on each side of an intersection may not exceed 4%.
(5) 
The grade within the diameter of a turnaround of a permanent cul-de-sac shall be at least 1% and shall not exceed 5% in all directions.
(6) 
The maximum slopes of banks located inside the street right-of-way, measured perpendicular to the right-of-way, shall not exceed 3:1.
Table V-1: Street Design Standards
Type of Street
Minimum Right-of-Way Width
(feet)
Minimum Travel Lane Width
(feet)
Minimum Shoulder Width
(feet)
Minimum Cross Slope
(%)
Maximum Cross Slope
(%)
Vertical Grade Minimum
(%)
Vertical Grade Maximum
(%)
Designated Growth Area (DGA)
Arterial
80
12
8
2
8
1
6
Major collector
60
11
8
2
8
1
6
Minor collector
50
11
6
2
6
1
10
Local
50
10
6
2
6
1
10
Cul-de-sac turnaround
50-foot radius1
40-foot radius
N/A
2
5
1
5
Rural Growth Area (RGA)
Arterial
60
12
6
2
8
1
6
Major collector
50
11
6
2
6
1
6
Minor collector
50
10
4
2
6
1
10
Local
50
10
2
2
6
1
10
Cul-de-sac turnaround
50-foot radius1
40-foot radius
N/A
2
5
1
5
NOTES:
1
Required right-of-way for alternate turnarounds shall be in accordance with the recommendations of the International Fire Codes, and as approved by the Township Engineer.
E. 
Street intersections.
(1) 
All intersections with state routes shall be subject to the approval of PennDOT and copies of highway occupancy permits shall be submitted to the Township prior to final plan approval.
(2) 
All intersections involving the junction of more than two streets are prohibited.
(3) 
The minimum separation between the center-line intersections of streets shall be measured along the center line of the street being intersected and shall meet the following requirements:
Table V-2: Center-Line Intersection Separation Requirements
Street Classification
Minimum Offset
(feet)
Arterial
800
Major collector
600
Minor collector
500
Local
250
(4) 
All streets shall intersect with each other at a right angle, whenever possible. In no case, shall the angle of intersection deviate more than 15° from the perpendicular. All intersections proposing an intersection not equal to 90° shall be subject to review and approval by the Township Engineer.
(5) 
The minimum radii of the cartway edge at intersections shall be 50 feet for collector streets and 35 feet for local streets. Supplemental design radius information, based upon the turning movements of the largest design vehicle anticipated to utilize the roadway, may be required at the discretion of the Township Engineer. The right-of-way radii at intersections shall be concentric with the cartway edge, where possible.
(6) 
Clear sight triangles shall be maintained at all street intersections and shall be so indicated on all plans. Plans shall contain the following restriction: "No proposed vision obstructing object shall be permitted which obscures vision above the height of 30 inches and below the height of 10 feet within the clear sight triangle." All areas within the clear sight triangle shall become an easement or be incorporated into the public right-of-way, and shall be so designated on the plan, to allow the removal of any object that may be an obstruction to clear sight. Clear sight triangles shall be sized as follows:
Table V-3: Clear Sight Triangle Requirements
Classification of 1 or More Intersecting Streets
Side of Clear Sight Triangle
(feet)
Left
Right
Back
Arterial
150
150
150
Collector
150
150
75
Local
75
75
50
(7) 
Safe sight stopping distance, decision stopping distance, and intersection sight distance at all controlled intersections shall be designed to meet the requirements of the Pennsylvania Department of Transportation Code, Title 67, Chapter 441, as amended.[4] The actual and required sight distance for all intersections shall be clearly labeled on the plan. The speed limit of the roadway and the slope of the roadway in each direction shall also be listed on the plans. Controlled intersections shall include those with stop signs and/or traffic signals.
[4]
Editor's Note: See 67 Pa. Code Ch. 441.
F. 
Improvement specifications.
(1) 
All streets shall be designed and constructed in accordance with PennDOT Publication 408 and Chapter 105, Construction and Materials Specifications, of the Code of the Township of West Manheim, as amended.
(2) 
Lots abutting arterial and collector roads. In a subdivision or land development abutting an arterial or major collector street, the following shall be required:
(a) 
The frontage shall be reversed so that the lots contiguous to such roadways will front on a new street or an existing local street, with an additional lot depth of 15 feet as an easement exclusively for planting and screening to be provided by the developer along the existing street.
[1]
Editor's Note: Amended at time of adoption of Code (see Ch. 1, General Provisions, Art. I).

§ 235-47 Blocks.

A. 
Blocks shall be of sufficient depth to permit two tiers of lots, except where reverse frontage lots are necessary or in the case of conservation subdivision or other site-specific limitations.
B. 
All blocks in residential subdivisions shall have a maximum length along any side of 1,500 feet and a minimum length of any side of two tiers of lots that conform to the standards of Chapter 270, Zoning.
C. 
In nonresidential areas, the block and lot layout must be designed with consideration of site conditions:
(1) 
To permit the most efficient arrangement of space for present use and future expansion.
(2) 
To permit adequate, safe worker and patron access, emergency vehicle access, circulation and parking, as well as loading and unloading.
(3) 
Pedestrian-way easements may be required where necessary to assist circulation or provide access to community facilities. Such pedestrian-way casements shall have a width of not less than 10 feet, and a paved walk of not less than five feet.

§ 235-48 Lot lines; reverse frontage.

A. 
Whenever practical, side lot lines shall be perpendicular to or radial to street lines.
B. 
In order to avoid jurisdictional problems, lot lines shall, wherever feasible, follow municipal boundaries rather than cross them. Where a lot is divided by a municipal boundary, the minimum standards of both municipalities shall apply.
C. 
A through lot or reverse frontage lot contains frontage on two streets that do not intersect within the boundaries of the lot. Through lots and reverse frontage are permitted only when necessary to avoid vehicular access on a high traffic volume street or to avoid vehicular access in an area with severely limited sight distance. All through lots and reverse frontage lots shall designate one frontage as the rear yard with a planted buffer easement of at least 15 feet in width located immediately contiguous to the street right-of-way. Vehicular access shall be prohibited from the rear of through lots and reverse frontage lots. The plan shall specifically identify the rear yard and the frontage that is used to access the street.

§ 235-49 Monuments and markers.

A. 
Material and size. Monuments and markers shall be constructed as follows:
Table V-4: Monument and Marker Specifications
Type
Construction
Minimum Size
(inches)
Monument
Concrete with brass cap
4 x 4 x 30
Marker
Iron pipes or steel bars
30 x 3/4-inch diameter
B. 
Placement of monuments and markers. Monuments and markers must be placed by a professional land surveyor so that the scored or marked point coincides exactly with the point of intersection of the lines being marked or monumented. They must be set so that the top of the monument or marker is level with the surface of the surrounding ground. Monuments must be marked on top with a copper or brass dowel.
C. 
Reference datum. All markers and monuments shall be referenced to the North American Datum 1983 Pennsylvania State Plane Coordinates and performed to the Third Order Control Standards as specified by the United States Geological Survey (USGS).
D. 
Location of monuments. Monuments shall be placed at:
(1) 
The intersection of lines forming angles in the boundaries of the subdivision or development.
(2) 
The intersection of street lines.
(3) 
A minimum of one corner of each lot used for commercial or industrial uses.
E. 
Location of markers. When not monumented, markers must be set at or along:
(1) 
All property corners.
(2) 
All changes in bearing and intersections of right-of-way lines.
F. 
Removal. Any monuments or markers that are removed must be replaced by a professional land surveyor at the expense of the person removing them.

§ 235-50 Parking and loading areas.

A. 
Off-street vehicular parking facilities for nonresidential and residential uses shall be in accordance with the provisions set forth in Part 9 of Chapter 270, Zoning.
B. 
Vehicular parking facilities for land uses other than single-family residences shall be designed according to the following provisions:
(1) 
Where a parking area abuts a street or property line, a landscaped strip shall be provided along the entire street right-of-way line and/or property line. This landscape strip may be located within any other required landscape strip. At least one shade tree shall be provided for each 75 linear feet of landscaping area. These trees shall have a clear trunk at least five feet above finished grade. All landscape strips shall be a minimum of 10 feet wide.
(2) 
Horizontal curves in a parking area shall have a minimum curb radius of five feet. Turning templates may be required by the Township to ensure proper access by emergency vehicles.
(3) 
All dead-end parking areas shall be designed to provide a sufficient backup area for end stalls.
(4) 
Painted lines, arrows, and dividers shall be provided and maintained to control parking and, when necessary, to control vehicular circulation. The lines of all parking stalls and interior traffic controls shall be solid and four inches in width.
(5) 
Parking areas shall be provided with drainage facilities in accordance with the provisions of this chapter and of Chapter 221, Stormwater Management.
(6) 
Parking areas shall be set back from public rights-of-way in accordance with Chapter 270, Zoning.
(7) 
Parking areas shall be designed to allow for snow removal.
(8) 
The width of all parking aisles providing direct access to individual parking stalls shall be in accordance with Part 9 of Chapter 270, Zoning.
(9) 
Parking areas shall be paved with concrete or bituminous materials in accordance with Chapter 105, Construction and Materials Specifications, or as otherwise approved by the Board of Supervisors.
(10) 
Parking spaces shall be sized in accordance with Part 9 of Chapter 270, Zoning.
(11) 
Parking spaces for handicapped individuals shall conform to the requirements of the Americans with Disabilities Act, as amended,[1] and in accordance with Part 9 of Chapter 270, Zoning.
[1]
Editor's Note: See 42 U.S.C. § 12101 et seq.
(12) 
A maintenance and operation schedule shall be provided for all parking areas.
C. 
Off-street vehicular loading facilities shall be provided in accordance with Part 9 of Chapter 270, Zoning.
D. 
All landscaping shall be provided in accordance with § 235-64.

§ 235-51 Driveways.

All single-family dwelling driveways shall conform to the following:
A. 
The number of driveways may not exceed two per lot (along any frontage or combined frontage).
B. 
Either edge of a driveway may be no closer than:
(1) 
Fifty feet to the right-of-way line of an intersecting street on the same side of the street;
(2) 
Five feet to an existing or proposed fire hydrant;
(3) 
Five feet to a side property line.
(4) 
Within 100 feet of a driveway on the same property.
C. 
Driveways accessing a state highway are allowed only by virtue of a permit issued by the Pennsylvania Department of Transportation.
(1) 
Issuance of a PennDOT Highway Occupancy Permit (HOP) does not guarantee site plan approval by the Township, nor does it deem the plan in conformance with this chapter. The HOP submission to PennDOT should not occur without consent to do so by the Township. In the case of a preexisting driveway, a change in the use on the property may require a revised HOP if the proposed use will generate daily trips in excess of the PennDOT trip thresholds.
(2) 
For properties that have frontage along an arterial, the Township may prohibit access to the arterial if all movements can be efficiently and safely accommodated on the other street or streets, based on design standards contained within this chapter. Access may be restricted to the Township street despite the ability to receive a highway occupancy permit (HOP) from PennDOT.
D. 
Driveways may not exceed 24 feet in width at the right-of-way line.
E. 
Driveways must be located in safe relationship to sight distance and barriers to vision. The drive may not exceed a slope of 5% within 25 feet of the street right-of-way line. Driveways shall not exceed 8%. Where a drive enters a bank through a cut, the shoulders of the cut may not exceed 50% in slope within 25 feet of the point the drive intersects the right-of-way. The safe sight distance at each driveway shall not be less than the distances found in Chapter 441 of Title 67 of the Pennsylvania Code, as amended.
F. 
A fifty-foot clear sight triangle in conformance with § 235-46E(6) of this chapter shall be provided for driveways.

§ 235-52 Access drives.

A. 
Except as specified elsewhere, the number of access drives intersecting with each street shall not exceed two per lot.
B. 
Either edge of an access drive may be no closer than:
(1) 
One hundred feet to the intersection of any street right-of-way lines; and
(2) 
One hundred feet to any other access drives or driveways located upon the same lot (measured from cartway edges); and
(3) 
Two hundred feet to any other access drives or driveways on adjacent lots.
(4) 
Fifteen feet to any side and/or rear property lines; however, this setback can be waived along one property line when a joint parking lot is shared by adjoining uses.
C. 
A one-hundred-foot clear sight triangle in conformance with § 235-46E(6) shall be provided for all access drives. In addition, all proposed access drives must have a minimum adequate safe stopping sight distance based on PennDOT standards.
D. 
Access drives shall provide an eighteen-foot-wide cartway for a single lane of travel. If there are multiple lanes of travel, each lane shall have a cartway 12 feet wide. See table below for further explanation:
Table V-5: Access Drive Standards
Number of Lanes
Direction of Travel
Required Access Drive Width
(feet)
1
One way
18
2
One or two way
24
3 or more
One or two way
12 per lane
E. 
Parking along both sides of access drives shall be prohibited.
F. 
PennDOT permit. Any access drive intersecting with a state-owned road shall require the obtainment of a Pennsylvania Department of Transportation driveway permit.

§ 235-53 Sidewalks.

A. 
Sidewalks shall be provided for all development located in the Designated Growth Area as defined by Chapter 270, Zoning. Sidewalks shall be provided within the Rural Resource Zone, when the Conservation Overlay is applied as defined by Chapter 270, Zoning. Sidewalks are required in all other areas of the Township as directed by the West Manheim Township Board of Supervisors. If the Supervisors feel that sidewalks, and/or curbing in accordance with § 235-54, are not required at this time, then the following language shall be provided on the final plans:
"Concrete curbs, sidewalks, and street widening shall be installed in accordance with the West Manheim Township Construction and Materials Specifications by the owner, heirs, or assigns, within six months after receipt of written notice from West Manheim Township."
B. 
The sidewalk may commence one foot inside the right-of-way line and extend toward the curb or gutter line with a minimum two-foot grass strip between the curb or edge of street and the sidewalk.
C. 
Sidewalks must be at least four feet wide and provide adequate passing and turning areas in accordance with Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA)[1] requirements. In the vicinity of shopping centers, schools, recreation areas, and other such facilities, they must be at least six feet wide and located within the street right-of-way. Where sidewalks abut the curb and cars overhang the sidewalk, widths shall be six feet.
[1]
Editor's Note: See 42 U.S.C. § 12101 et seq.
D. 
Sidewalks and handicap ramps must be constructed in accordance with the most recent version of Chapter 105, Construction and Materials Specifications, of the Code of the Township of the West Manheim, and/or PennDOT Publication 408, as amended.
E. 
Crosswalks and handicap ramps must be provided in accordance with ADA regulations to provide circulation or access to schools, playgrounds, shopping centers, and transportation throughout neighborhoods in the Designated Growth Area as shown in the West Manheim Township Comprehensive Plan, as amended. Crosswalks must be no less than 12 feet wide.[2]
[2]
Editor's Note: Amended at time of adoption of Code (see Ch. 1, General Provisions, Art. I).
F. 
Pedestrian walkways, five feet in width with a ten-foot-wide easement, may be required by the Township to provide circulation or access to schools, playgrounds, shopping or other activity areas.
G. 
Sidewalks shall be graded to discharge stormwater runoff and shall have a minimum cross slope of 2%.

§ 235-54 Curbing.

A. 
Curbing shall be provided for all development located in the Designated Growth Area as defined by Chapter 270, Zoning. Curbing shall be provided within the Rural Resource Zone, when the Conservation Overlay is applied as defined by Chapter 270, Zoning. Curbing is required in all other areas of the Township as directed by the West Manheim Township Board of Supervisors. If the Supervisors feel that curbs, and/or sidewalks in accordance with § 235-53, are not required at this time, then the following language shall be provided on the final plans:
"Concrete curbs, sidewalks, and street widening shall be installed in accordance with the West Manheim Township Construction and Materials Specifications by the owner, heirs, or assigns, within six months after receipt of written notice from West Manheim Township."
B. 
In areas where curbing is not required, suitable gutters shall be designed and installed subject to Township approval to control erosion. If curbs are to be installed, the pavement shall extend from curb to curb. The Township may require installation of curbs and/or gutters in any development where the evidence indicates that such improvements are necessary for proper drainage.
C. 
All curbing shall be designed and constructed in accordance with the most recent version of Chapter 105, Construction and Materials Specifications, of the Code of the Township of West Manheim, and/or PennDOT Publication 408.

§ 235-55 Grading.

A. 
All site grading activities shall conform to the requirements of this chapter, of Chapter 105, Construction and Materials Specifications, or other specifications as may be recommended by the Township Engineer and approved by the Township Board of Supervisors.
B. 
In order to provide more suitable sites for building and other uses, improve surface drainage, and control erosion, the following requirements shall be met:
(1) 
All lots, tracts, or parcels shall be graded to provide proper drainage away from buildings and dispose of the runoff without ponding, and all land within a development shall be graded to drain and dispose of surface water without ponding, except where other arrangements are approved by the Board of Supervisors.
(2) 
All drainage provisions shall be designed to adequately handle the surface runoff and carry it to the nearest suitable outlet such as a curbed street, storm drain, or natural watercourse. Where drainage swales are used to divert surface waters away from buildings, they shall be paved, sodded or planted and shall be of such slope, shape and size as to conform to the requirements of the Township.
(3) 
Concentration of surface water runoff shall only be permitted in swales or watercourses that lead to a natural watercourse or drainage structure.
(4) 
Grading shall be done in such a way so as to not divert water onto the property of another landowner without the expressed consent of the Township and the affected landowner.
(5) 
During grading operations, necessary measures shall be taken to prevent erosion or siltation of natural drainageways. An erosion and sedimentation control plan shall be on site for all earth disturbance activities.
(6) 
During grading operations, necessary measures for dust control will be exercised.
(7) 
Topsoil shall be preserved and redistributed as cover. Stabilization of all disturbed areas shall be in accordance with the erosion and sedimentation control plan.
(8) 
Tree guards during construction and grading, and limitations as to cuts and fills, both temporary and permanent, near trees shall be provided as necessary to give reasonable assurance of their protection for continued healthy growth.
(9) 
Grading equipment will not be allowed to cross live streams unless the crossing is specifically addressed in an approved erosion and sediment pollution control plan and coverage under the PA DEP General Permit is afforded the crossing. The installation of culverts or bridges must be approved by the York County Conservation District and/or PA DEP as required. Emergency crossings may be permitted through permission of PA DEP.
(10) 
Excavations and fills.
(a) 
Cut slopes shall not be steeper than 3:1; fill slopes shall not exceed 3:1.
(b) 
Adequate provisions shall be made to prevent surface water from damaging the cut face of excavations or the sloping surfaces of fills.
(c) 
Cut and fills shall not endanger adjoining property. Cut and fills over one foot shall not be located within 10 feet of an existing adjoining property line.
(d) 
Fill shall be placed and compacted so as to minimize sliding or erosion of the soil.
(e) 
Fills shall not encroach on natural watercourses or construction channels.
(f) 
Fills placed adjacent to natural watercourses or constructed channels shall have suitable protection against erosion during periods of flooding.
(11) 
Slope controls. The following controls shall apply in all areas where the slope of the land exceeds 12%. All grading plans shall conform to Part 6 of Chapter 270, Zoning.
(a) 
Prior to any alteration of the existing grade, a grading plan shall be reviewed by the Township Engineer and approved by the Township Board of Supervisors.
(b) 
The applicant shall indicate the methods whereby structural and foundation problems caused by slope conditions will be overcome and the natural watershed will be maintained.
(12) 
Grading plans. Grading plans required as supporting documentation to preliminary and final plans will act as a guide to individual lot owners for lot plans to be submitted with individual building permit applications.

§ 235-56 Sewer facilities.

A. 
Sewer facilities shall be provided in accordance with Parts 4 and 5 of Chapter 270, Zoning.
B. 
If the proposed method of public sanitary sewer service is found to be feasible, formal application shall be made to the Commonwealth of Pennsylvania Department of Environmental Protection and a permit obtained from the Bureau of Water Quality Management prior to construction of sewers and treatment facilities.
C. 
The Board of Supervisors will approve the use of on-site sewage disposal systems only when the Department of Environmental Protection certifies the suitability of the land for on-site sewage disposal. The following documentation is required for on-lot systems;
(1) 
Soils tests shall be performed in accordance with the regulations of the Sewage Enforcement Officer and/or Department of Environmental Protection.
(2) 
A nitrate study shall be required for all lots to determine the minimum lot size required in accordance with Chapter 71 of Title 25 of the Pennsylvania Code, as amended.

§ 235-57 Water facilities.

A. 
Water facilities shall be provided in accordance with Parts 4 and 5 of Chapter 270, Zoning.
B. 
If the proposed method of public water supply service is found to be feasible, a letter or formal agreement from a water service provider regulated by the Pennsylvania Public Utilities Commission and approved and permitted by the Department of Environmental Protection must be submitted to the Township.
C. 
The Board of Supervisors will approve individual on-lot groundwater or community water systems only when the hydrogeologic and groundwater assessment report indicates and the Township hydrogeologist and/or Township Engineer concur that:
(1) 
Justification detailed in this chapter cannot be met and the project necessitates consideration of this method;
(2) 
The water supply yield is adequate for the type of development proposed; and
(3) 
The installation of such systems will not endanger or decrease the groundwater supplies of properties adjacent to the land development.
D. 
The hydrogeologic and groundwater assessment report procedures. A hydrogeologic and groundwater assessment report is required to be submitted at the time of the submission of the application in accordance with § 235-36.

§ 235-58 Stormwater drainage.

A. 
Facilities to accommodate stormwater drainage as a result of the proposed development of any tract of land under this chapter must conform to the requirements of Chapter 221, Stormwater Management, as well as Chapter 105, Construction and Materials Specifications.
B. 
Existing drainageways. Where a subdivision is traversed by a watercourse, drainageway, channel, or stream, there shall be provided a drainage easement conforming substantially with the line of such watercourse, drainageway, channel or stream in accordance with Part 6, § 270-59, of Chapter 270, Zoning. All other drainageways and stormwater conveyance facilities shall be provided with an easement that shall be not less than 20 feet wide, or of such greater width as will be adequate to preserve the unimpeded flow of natural drainage or for the purpose of widening, deepening, relocating, improving or protecting such stormwater conveyance facilities, or for the purpose of installing a stormwater sewer.

§ 235-59 Utility requirements.

Utility line installation. In developments of four or more lots, electric, telephone and all other utility facilities shall be installed underground. The developer shall be required, prior to final plan approval, to obtain a letter from the appropriate utility company confirming that the developer has entered into an agreement to provide for an underground electric and telephone system in accordance with the Pennsylvania Public Utility Commission Investigation Docket No. 99, as amended, or has obtained a waiver from said Pennsylvania Public Utility Commission to allow overhead electric and telephone facilities.

§ 235-60 Utility easements.

A. 
Width and location. When easements are required for any utility serving a subdivision or land development, they must be a minimum of 20 feet wide per utility, centered over the proposed utility.
B. 
Natural gaslines. All natural gaslines must be installed in compliance with the ASA Code B31, 80, 1958, as amended. The minimum distance from a natural gasline to a dwelling unit or other structure must be as required by the applicable transmission or distributing company.
C. 
Petroleum lines. Between a proposed dwelling unit or other structure and the center line of a petroleum or petroleum products transmission line which may traverse the subdivision or land development, there must be a minimum distance of 100 feet measured in the shortest distance.
D. 
All subdivisions and/or land development plans containing utility easements or rights-of-way shall include a note stating that:
"The Owner shall not construct, plant, or maintain any structures, fences, trees, shrubbery, etc. within the sanitary sewer, stormwater or utility right-of-way easement in order to ensure a free and clear access to all facilities. Bituminous paving, commingling of sanitary sewer, stormwater or utilities, or a change in ground contours within the right-of-way easement will be permitted only with written consent of the Township."

§ 235-61 Recreation areas; fees in lieu of dedication.

A. 
Where the Township considers that a local recreation site is necessary to carry out the purpose of the Comprehensive Plan, the Township may require the applicant or developer to dedicate a portion of such site in accordance with the following standards:
(1) 
The land to be dedicated must be of suitable size, dimensions, topography, access, and general character for the proposed use.
(2) 
The amount of land so required for this purpose must not exceed 0.057 acre of land for each lot or dwelling unit shown on the final plan.
B. 
Where the application of these area standards would result in an open space or recreation site too small to be usable, or if a suitable local recreation site cannot be properly located in the land development, as determined by the Township, a payment of a fee in lieu of dedication of such land is required. The following procedures must be followed:
(1) 
The amount of the fee must be substantially equal to the value of the land that would be set aside if the standards specified above were to be applied.
(2) 
The fee must be paid to the Township prior to the approval of the final plan.
(3) 
All moneys paid to the Township in this manner must be kept in an interest-bearing capital reserve fund established as provided by law. Moneys in such capital reserve fund must be used only for the acquisition of land or equipment for park and recreation or open space purposes.
(4) 
The provisions of these regulations governing the setting and collection of fees in lieu of land dedication shall not be utilized until the Township has established an interest-bearing capital reserve fund or escrow account.
(5) 
Upon request of any person who paid any fee under this section, the Township shall refund such fee, plus interest accumulated thereon from the date of payment, if the Township has failed to utilize the fee paid for the purposes set forth in this section within five years from the date such fee was paid.
C. 
In lieu of requiring the dedication of a recreation or park site, or a fee for this purpose, the Board of Supervisors may permit a private site to be used if:
(1) 
In its judgment the purposes of these regulations regarding recreation and park sites will be accomplished; and
(2) 
The private site is permanently devoted to recreation and park use and adequately secured for such use by deed covenants or other private restrictions.

§ 235-62 Common open space; recreational facilities.

A. 
An effective common open space system should tie together a number of diverse recreational activity areas with adequate pedestrian pathways and auto/bicycle access for the residents it is intended to serve. As many homes as possible should have direct access to the open space of a development. Developed common open space generally should not be isolated in one corner of a project.
B. 
Active recreation should be visibly close but shall not interfere with the privacy of adjacent residents. It should be designed to accommodate the recreation needs of the project's intended age groups.
C. 
Recreational facilities. The following guidelines should be considered:
(1) 
Pathways and bikeways. Use to connect common open space between recreational facilities and between residential buildings and other uses. Vehicular conflicts with common open space pathways are discouraged.
(2) 
Internal bicycle paths. In planned developments where internal bicycle paths are proposed and primarily intended to provide access for occupants of such developments, the following pathway width design guidelines shall be observed:
Pathway Type
Pathway Width
(feet)
One-way bikeway shared with pedestrians
8
Two-way bikeway shared with pedestrians
12
One-way independent bikeway path
4
Two-way independent bikeway path
8
(3) 
Play lots.
(a) 
Minimum of 2,000 square feet for toddlers and up to 5,000 square feet for older children. Primarily used by preschool age children.
(b) 
Facilities include swings, slides, play sculptures, and benches for parents.
(c) 
Effective service radius of one play lot would be 1/8 mile.
(d) 
Approximately one play lot for each 200 persons or 50 children.
(4) 
Playgrounds. Designed for a variety of uses. Equipment should reflect the patronage. Sandboxes and play sculpture for young children; basketball courts or backboards for older youths; paved areas for various activities; and shuffleboard areas for the elderly.
(5) 
Tennis. Two courts for each 100 dwelling units. Automobile parking should be provided on the basis of three spaces per court together with appropriate bicycle parking facilities.
(6) 
Swimming pools.
(a) 
The size of pools should generally be based on the number of dwelling units as follows:
Number of Dwelling Units
Pool Size
(square feet)
Under 50
800 to 1,000
50 to 100
1,000 to 1,300
101 to 150
1,200 to 1,500
151 to 200
1,400 to 1,800
Over 200
1,800 up
(b) 
In larger developments, a series of smaller pools relating to individual housing groups should be considered instead of a centrally located, large pool. Wading pools should be provided where the anticipated child population indicates that they will be used.
(7) 
Community buildings. In planned developments of over 150 dwelling units, consideration should be given toward a recreation center/community multipurpose building. Such facilities should be within walking or easy biking distance of the majority of residents it is intended to serve.
(8) 
Other amenities. Consider jogging trails and exercise areas in an adult-oriented project. Provide benches and sitting areas along pathways where appropriate and particularly where they can incorporate or provide views of a significant landscape feature, recreational facility or interesting site design of the project. Consider an area reserved for small garden plots in larger developments.

§ 235-63 Public neighborhood sites.

In large-scale land developments, the dedication of sites for other appropriate public uses, such as but not limited to schools, library, and public service buildings, may be required. Such areas or sites must be of a character, extent, and location as to be clearly related to the local and neighborhood needs of the residents of the development. No land may be required for dedication which would primarily serve the need of the Township as a whole as distinguished from the development or neighborhood.

§ 235-64 Landscape plan requirements.

A. 
It is the purpose of this section to establish minimum standards for the provision, installation and maintenance of landscape plantings in order to achieve a healthy, beautiful and safe community. Furthermore, it is the intent of this section to:
(1) 
Improve the appearance of all areas through the incorporation of open space into development in ways that harmonize and enhance the natural and built environment.
(2) 
Improve environmental quality by recognizing the numerous beneficial effects of landscaping upon the environment, including but not limited to the improvement of air quality, the maintenance of areas essential for stormwater management and aquifer recharge and reducing air, noise, heat and chemical pollution.
(3) 
Maintain and increase the value of land by requiring landscaping to be incorporated into development, thus becoming by itself a valuable capital asset.
(4) 
Provide direct and important physical and psychological benefits to human beings through the use of landscaping to reduce noise and glare and to soften the harsher aspects of development.
(5) 
Preserve existing natural vegetation and incorporate native plants and plant communities into landscape design.
(6) 
Establish procedures and standards for the administration and enforcement of the landscaping requirements of this chapter.
B. 
Landscape plan.
(1) 
All landscaping shall be drawn to scale on a site development plan and submitted to the Zoning Officer prior to the issuance of a zoning permit or with the preliminary or final subdivision and land development application. The landscape plan shall contain the following data as a minimum:
(a) 
All on-site inventory identifying type, size and height of existing plant materials.
(b) 
A plant schedule describing plant materials, including names (common and botanical), location, qualities, caliper sizes, heights, spread, and spacing at installation.
(c) 
Location, height and type of plant material or other materials proposed for:
[1] 
Landscaping: general;
[2] 
Landscaping: parking lot;
[3] 
Street and shade trees; and
[4] 
Screening, buffering and fencing.
(d) 
The manner in which trees and shrubs are to be planted shall be indicated on a tree and shrub planting detail.
(e) 
The manner in which lawn areas and ground cover are to be planted shall be indicated on a ground cover detail.
(f) 
A description of how existing healthy trees are proposed to be retained and protected from damage during construction shall be described in the construction detail.
(g) 
Size, height, location and material of proposed seating, lighting, planters, sculptures and water features.
(h) 
Location and dimension of sight triangles as defined § 235-46.
(2) 
Plants defined as invasive or noxious weeds, as defined by the United States Department of Agriculture (USDA) Plants Database specifically for Pennsylvania and the Pennsylvania Departments of Conservation and Natural Resources (PA DCNR) Plants Database, shall be prohibited in the Township.
C. 
Minimum planting specifications.
(1) 
Deciduous trees shall have a minimum caliper measurement of 2 1/2 inches, measured a minimum of six inches above the soil line.
(2) 
Coniferous trees shall have a minimum height of six feet.
(3) 
Evergreen shrubs, except for those used as low ground covers, shall have an average height of 20 inches.
(4) 
Deciduous shrubs shall have an average height of 30 inches.
(5) 
Trees with less than three inches in caliper shall be properly staked or trees with more than three inches in caliper shall be guyed and be properly protected for a period of one year from the date of planting.
(6) 
Any nylon rope used in balling the tree must be cut and removed from the root ball.
(7) 
Trees and shrubs shall be hardy, not prone to disease or pests and suitable for use as a screening hedge including dense foliage.
(8) 
Shrubs and ground cover to be used on slopes steeper than 3:1 shall be chosen from vegetation determined to be acceptable for erosion control. No more than 50% of berm area may be composed of ornamental grass or legume mixture.
(9) 
Mulch for grass seed mix must be straw mulch as specified in PennDOT Publication 408 ("Pub. 408"), except that slopes steeper than 3:1 shall receive erosion control blankets/mats as specified in Pub. 408. Mulch shall be placed around trees, shrubs and ground cover. Mulch shall be shredded bark or other organic mulch, if approved by Township officials, in continuous beds surrounding vegetation. Mulch shall not be the sole cover but shall be used in conjunction with vegetative ground cover which shall cover 95% of the area within two years of planting. A system of staking, matting and/or netting shall be installed on slope/mound areas steeper than 3:1 to be mulched, but that will not inhibit vegetative growth and that will not be visible two years after planting.
(10) 
Stabilization measures shall include erosion control blankets or mats as specified in PennDOT Pub. 408 for slopes steeper than 3:1.
D. 
Native plant requirement. The use of native species benefits land developers by reducing landscape maintenance costs and will benefit the community and the environment by reestablishing a native plant community.
(1) 
Native plants shall be selected from the United States Department of Agriculture (USDA) Plants Database specifically for Pennsylvania and the Pennsylvania Departments of Conservation and Natural Resources (PA DCNR) Plants Database.
(2) 
At least 100% of all required landscape plantings shall be native plants, except that a minimum of 30% of the vegetation chosen for erosion control shall be native plants.
(3) 
Suggested street trees are native tree species, cultivars of native species and, infrequently, hybrids of native species. Street trees shall be selected based upon information available from Street Tree Fact Sheets by H.D. Gerhold, W.N. Wandell and N.L. Lacasse, a publication of the Municipal Tree Restoration Program.
E. 
Landscaping requirements for specific projects.
(1) 
Attached residential development. For single-family attached (townhouse) or multifamily residential development projects, or for residential projects including a mixture of dwelling unit types, the following landscaping standards shall be applied.
(a) 
A minimum of two planting units (PUs) shall be required for every proposed dwelling unit.
(b) 
For multifamily residential development projects, or those projects which include a mixture of dwelling unit types, credit for up to 50% of the minimum landscaping quantity requirements may be given for retaining existing major deciduous trees on the site, provided that the following conditions apply:
[1] 
The major deciduous trees are in good health.
[2] 
The major deciduous trees are located within 25 feet of at least one dwelling unit.
[3] 
The applicant agrees to replace any major deciduous tree which contributes to the minimum quantity of landscaping with another major deciduous tree if it should die within two years of the completion of the development.
(c) 
Common residential parking lots shall be designed and landscaped in accordance with § 235-50 of this chapter. Interior and perimeter landscaping elements required by § 235-50 may contribute to no greater than 50% of the minimum landscaping quantity requirements for a residential development project.
(2) 
Detached residential development. For single-family detached or single-family semidetached residential development projects, the following landscaping standards shall be applied:
(a) 
A minimum of one planting (PU) unit shall be required for every proposed dwelling unit.
(b) 
At least one major deciduous tree shall be planted at intervals of between 50 and 70 feet along both sides of all streets of the residential development. Such major deciduous trees shall be located between the sidewalk and the building setback line.
(c) 
The required shade trees shall be planted at least five feet from the sidewalk. No shade trees shall be planted between the sidewalk and the curb.
(d) 
Where a residential project is proposed which required 25 or more planting units of landscaping, the landscaping plan required by this chapter shall be prepared and certified by a licensed landscape architect in the Commonwealth of Pennsylvania.
(3) 
Nonresidential development. For all nonresidential development, the following landscaping standards shall be applied:
(a) 
Quantity of landscaping. The following quantities of landscaping shall be provided:
[1] 
A minimum of one planting unit (PU) shall be provided for each 20 linear feet of center line along adjacent and interior roads.
[2] 
A minimum of two planting units (PUs) shall be provided for every 1,000 square feet, or fraction thereof, of building coverage.
(b) 
Credit for existing vegetation. Credit for up to 50% of the minimum landscaping quantity requirements may be given for retaining major deciduous trees on the site, provided that the following conditions apply:
[1] 
The major deciduous trees are in good health.
[2] 
The major deciduous trees are located within 25 feet of the nonresidential use.
[3] 
The applicant agrees to replace any major deciduous tree which contributes to the minimum quantity of landscaping with another major deciduous tree if it should die within two years of the completion of the development.
(c) 
Additional requirements. The following additional landscaping requirements shall be applied to nonresidential development projects:
[1] 
A minimum ten-foot wide planting area shall be provided along all property lines which abut residential zoning districts or properties. A dense screen of deciduous trees, evergreen trees and/or shrubs, planted in such a pattern to form a six-foot-high screen within three years, is required.
[2] 
Where a nonresidential project is proposed which requires five or more planting units of landscaping, the landscape plan required by this chapter shall be prepared and certified by a licensed landscape architect in the Commonwealth of Pennsylvania.
(4) 
Parking lots. Parking lots shall be designed to conform to the following requirements:
(a) 
Landscaping within the parking area of all off-street parking lots containing 25 or greater parking spaces shall be required and shall be provided with the following:
[1] 
Terminal landscaped islands shall be provided at both ends of all rows of parking spaces. Terminal landscaped islands shall be designed to protect parking vehicles, to help define the traffic circulation pattern of the parking lot and to provide landscaping area.
[2] 
Each terminal landscaped island shall measure not less than five feet in width and 15 feet in length.
[3] 
Each terminal landscaped island shall include at least one minor deciduous tree, with the remaining area landscaped with appropriate ground cover or grass.
[4] 
Where parking space rows are proposed with 20 or more parking spaces, one mid-row landscaped island shall be provided for every 20 contiguous parking spaces. Mid-row landscaped islands shall have the same requirements as terminal landscaped islands.
[5] 
A landscaped divider strip between abutting rows of parking shall be installed. Landscaped divider strips shall be designed to help define the traffic circulation pattern, to provide visual breaks within the parking area and to help separate pedestrian and vehicular traffic. Landscaped divider strips shall be a minimum of five feet in width.
[6] 
At least one minor deciduous tree shall be planted for every twenty-foot interval within the landscaped divider strip. The remaining area of the divider strip shall be landscaped with ground cover or grass. Unpaved pedestrian walkways may be substituted for a portion of the required ground cover or grass to facilitate pedestrian movements through the parking lot.
[7] 
Curbing or wheel stops shall be provided around all terminal landscaped islands and landscaped divider strips to prevent vehicular encroachment.
(b) 
All parking lots shall be surrounded by a perimeter landscaping strip which meets the following requirements:
[1] 
Perimeter landscaped areas shall be provided around the perimeter of all parking areas, except where one side of the parking area is bounded by a principal structure.
[2] 
The minimum width of the perimeter landscaping area around a parking area shall be 10 feet, measured outward from the edge of the parking lot.
[3] 
At least one minor deciduous tree shall be planted for every twenty-four foot interval within the perimeter landscaping area. The remaining area of the perimeter landscaping strip shall be landscaped with appropriate ground cover or grass.
F. 
Screening, buffering and fencing standards.
(1) 
Screening, buffering and fencing shall be provided in accordance with Part 10 of Chapter 270, Zoning.
(2) 
Screening.
(a) 
Level 1 screening materials. Level 1 screening shall include but is not limited to:
[1] 
Evergreen trees: minimum five-foot planting height;
[2] 
Deciduous trees: minimum two-inch caliper and six-foot planting height; and
[3] 
Shrubs: eighteen-inch planting height, reaching a minimum of 30 inches within two years. All shrubs (deciduous or evergreen) must have a minimum spread of 12 inches when planted.
(b) 
Level 2 screening materials. Level 2 screening shall include but is not limited to:
[1] 
Evergreen trees: minimum five-foot planting height;
[2] 
Deciduous trees: minimum two-inch caliper and six-foot planting height; and
[3] 
Shrubs: eighteen-inch planting height, reaching a minimum of 30 inches within two years. All shrubs (deciduous or evergreen) must have a minimum spread of 12 inches when planted.
(c) 
Level 3 screening materials. Level 3 screening shall include but is not limited to:
[1] 
Fencing: minimum six-foot-high freestanding/retaining wall or solid fence;
[2] 
Evergreen tree screen: minimum of eight-foot tree planting height; and
[3] 
Berm: berm slopes of 3:1 or less, with an eight-foot minimum top width.
G. 
Installation standards.
(1) 
The landscape contractor shall furnish and install and/or dig, ball, burlap or transplant all plant materials listed on the landscape plan. Bare root is not permitted for any tree.
(2) 
All plants shall be nursery grown. Plants taken from cold storage shall not be acceptable.
(3) 
A professional horticulturist/nurseryman shall be consulted to determine proper time to move and install plant material so that stress to the plant is minimized. Planting of deciduous material may occur during winter months; provided that there is no frost in the ground and that frost-free topsoil planting mixtures are used.
(4) 
The landscape contractor shall excavate all plant pits, hedge trenches and/or shrub beds as follows:
(a) 
All pits shall be generally circular in outline, with vertical sides. Tree pits shall be deep enough to allow 1/8 of the ball to be above the existing grade. Tree pits must be minimum of 10 inches larger on every side than the ball of the tree.
(b) 
If areas are designated as shrub beds or hedge trenches, they shall be cultivated to at least 18 inches in depth. Areas designated for ground cover shall be cultivated to at least 12 inches in depth.
(5) 
After cultivation, all plantings shall be mulched with a minimum three-inch layer of organic mulch or another similar material, approved by the Township Supervisors, over the area of the planting.
H. 
Maintenance requirements.
(1) 
The owner or assigns of land subject to this chapter shall be responsible for the maintenance of landscaping in good condition so as to present a healthy, neat and orderly landscape area.
(2) 
All pruning should be accomplished according to good horticultural standards. Plants shall be pruned only as necessary to promote healthy plant growth. Unless approval is provided by the Board of Supervisors, plants shall be allowed to attain their normal size and shall not be severely pruned in order to permanently maintain growth at a reduced height.
(3) 
Grass shall be mown as required to encourage deep root growth.
(4) 
All roadway, curb and sidewalk components included in such landscape plans shall be edged in order to prevent encroachment from adjacent landscaped areas.
(5) 
Watering:
(a) 
All watering of planted areas shall be managed so as to:
[1] 
Maintain healthy flora;
[2] 
Make plant material more drought tolerant;
[3] 
Avoid excessive turf growth;
[4] 
Minimize fungus growth;
[5] 
Stimulate deep root growth;
[6] 
Minimize leaching of fertilizer; and
[7] 
Minimize cold damage.
(6) 
All sight triangles shall remain clear, and any plant which could endanger safety such as unstable limbs shall be removed and the plant material replaced. It shall be the responsibility of the property owner to ensure all plantings and architectural elements are maintained to provide a safe environment.
(7) 
All landscaping required by this chapter shall conform to the following guarantees:
(a) 
The installation of required landscaping, in accordance with the approved landscape plan, shall be guaranteed in accordance with the requirements of this chapter.
(b) 
In addition, any required vegetative element which dies within 18 months of planting shall be replaced by the developer. Any vegetative element which, within 18 months of planting or replanting, is deemed, in the opinion of the Code Enforcement Officer, not to have survived or to have grown in a manner uncharacteristic of its type shall be replaced. Substitutions for certain species of plants may be made only when approved by the Board of Supervisors.[1]
[1]
Editor's Note: Amended at time of adoption of Code (see Ch. 1, General Provisions, Art. I).

§ 235-65 Lighting requirements.

A. 
Purpose. To require and set minimum standards for outdoor lighting to:
(1) 
Provide for and control lighting in outdoor public places where public health, safety and welfare are potential concerns.
(2) 
Protect drivers and pedestrians from the glare of nonvehicular light sources.
(3) 
Protect neighbors and the night sky from nuisance glare and light trespass from improperly selected or poorly placed, aimed, applied, maintained or shielded light sources.
(4) 
Promote energy-efficient lighting design and operation.
(5) 
Protect and retain the intended visual character of the various venues of the Township.
B. 
Applicability.
(1) 
Lighting shall be provided as required in accordance with Part 10 of Chapter 270, Zoning.
(2) 
The Board of Supervisors may require lighting be incorporated for other uses, applications and locations or may restrict lighting in any of the above uses or applications when health, safety and welfare are issues.
(3) 
The glare-control requirements in Part 10 of Chapter 270, Zoning, apply to lighting in all uses, applications and locations.
C. 
Lighting requirements.
(1) 
The lighting requirements for all land development occurring in the Designated Growth Area, as defined in Chapter 270, Zoning, shall be in accordance with the following:[1]
(a) 
A community lighting system shall be installed in proposed land developments. Light posts shall be located along one side of the street and at all intersections in the development, and shall be utilized to upgrade any existing intersections.
(b) 
All lighting fixtures shall be in accordance with Chapter 105, Construction and Materials Specifications.
[1]
Editor's Note: Amended at time of adoption of Code (see Ch. 1, General Provisions, Art. I).
(2) 
The lighting requirements for all land development occurring within the Rural Growth Area, as defined in Chapter 270, Zoning, shall be in accordance with the following:
(a) 
Lighting shall be provided at all proposed street intersections. Lighting fixtures shall be provided in accordance with Chapter 105, Construction and Materials Specifications.
(b) 
Homes shall be provided with an individual lamppost.
(c) 
All lighting fixtures shall be in accordance with Chapter 105, Construction and Materials Specifications.
D. 
Plan submission. For subdivision and land development applications where site lighting is required by this chapter, is otherwise required by the Township or is proposed by the applicant, lighting plans shall be submitted to the Township for review and approval with preliminary and final subdivision/land development plan applications and conditional use applications and shall contain the following:
(1) 
A plan or plans of the site, complete with all structures, parking spaces, building entrances, traffic areas (both vehicular and pedestrian), vegetation that might interfere with lighting, and adjacent uses that might be adversely impacted by the lighting. The lighting plan shall contain a layout of all proposed fixtures by location, orientation, aiming direction, mounting height and type. The submission shall include, in addition to existing and proposed area lighting, all other exterior lighting, e.g., architectural, building entrance, landscape, flag, sign, etc.
(2) 
A ten-foot-by-ten-foot illuminance grid (point-by-point) plot of maintained horizontal footcandles overlaid on the site plan, plotted out to 0.0 footcandle, which demonstrates compliance with the light trespass, intensity and uniformity requirements as set forth in this chapter or as otherwise required by the Township. When the scale of the plan, as judged by the Township, makes a ten-foot-by-ten-foot grid plot illegible, larger grid spacing may be permitted.
(3) 
The maintenance (light-loss) factors, IES candela file nomenclature, lamp-lumen ratings and specific lamp manufacturer's lamp ordering nomenclature, used in calculating the presented illuminance levels.
(4) 
Description of the proposed equipment, including fixture catalog cuts, photometrics, glare reduction devices, lamps, on/off control devices, mounting heights, pole foundation details and mounting methods.
(5) 
When landscaping plans are involved, they shall contain the lighting fixture locations and shall demonstrate that the site lighting and landscaping have been coordinated to minimize conflict between vegetation and intended light distribution, both initially and at vegetation maturity.
(6) 
When requested by the Township, the applicant shall also submit a visual-impact plan that demonstrates that appropriate steps have been taken to mitigate the potential consequences of on-site and off-site glare and to retain the intended character of the Township. This plan may require the inclusion of initial vertical footcandle values at specific off-site venues, e.g., bedroom windows of adjacent residential uses.
(7) 
Plan notes. The following notes shall appear on the lighting plan:
(a) 
Post-approval alterations to lighting plans or intended substitutions for approved lighting equipment shall be submitted to the Township for review and approval.
(b) 
The Township reserves the right to conduct post-installation inspections to verify compliance with the requirements of this chapter and approved lighting plan commitments, and, if deemed appropriate by the Township, to require remedial action at no expense to the Township.
(c) 
All exterior lighting shall meet IESNA full-cutoff criteria unless otherwise approved by the Township.
(d) 
The installer shall notify the Township to arrange for inspection and approval of all exterior lighting, including building-mounted lighting, prior to its installation.
E. 
Streetlighting dedication.
(1) 
When streetlighting is to be dedicated to the Township, the applicant shall be responsible for all costs involved in the lighting of streets and street intersections until the street is accepted for dedication.
(2) 
Prior to dedication and in the event of the formation of a homeowners' association and/or property management declaration, the Township shall require said agency to enter into an agreement guaranteeing the Township payment of all costs associated with dedicated streetlighting.
(3) 
Assumption of costs of dedicated streetlighting. Upon dedication of public streets, the Township shall assess the homeowners' association, individual property owners, or corporations, as may be necessary to collect all revenues required that are directly or indirectly associated with all costs of each specific streetlighting fixture. These costs shall include:
(a) 
Administration.
(b) 
Collection.
(c) 
Proration of nonpayables.
(d) 
Actual utility electrical charges.
(e) 
Maintenance and maintenance contracts for maintenance of fixtures and associated equipment.

§ 235-66 Conservation subdivision design and construction standards.

The standards for resource conservation, as set forth in this article, shall apply to all subdivision and land developments in the Township. Chapter 270, Zoning, Part 6, § 270-74, Open space and greenway design standards, shall apply to all subdivision and land developments within the Conservation Subdivision Overlay District. (See Part 6, Article XII, of Chapter 270, Zoning.) In addition to the design and construction standards described in the Article V above, the following requirements shall be met when engineering a subdivision or land development plan for a conservation subdivision as defined in § 235-7.
A. 
General standards to minimize adverse impacts. All subdivisions and land developments shall avoid or minimize adverse impacts on the Township's natural, cultural and historic resources, as defined below.
B. 
Groundwater resources. This section is intended to ensure that the Township's limited groundwater resources are protected for purposes of providing water supplies for its residents and businesses, and to protect the base flow of the Township's surface waters. These regulations shall be applied in conjunction with those provided for in other sections of this chapter, dealing with groundwater conservation and replenishment.
(1) 
The proposed subdivision and land development of any tract shall be designed to cause the least practicable disturbance to natural infiltration and percolation of precipitation to the groundwater table, through careful planning of vegetation and land disturbance activities, and the placement of streets, buildings and other impervious surfaces in locations other than those identified on the existing resources and site analysis plan as having the greatest permeability where precipitation is most likely to infiltrate and recharge the groundwater.
C. 
Stream valleys, swales, springs, and other lowland areas. The Township's Open Space Plan describes and maps stream valleys (which include stream channels and floodplains), swales, springs and other lowland areas as resources that warrant restrictive land use controls because of flooding hazards to human life and property, their groundwater recharge functions, their importance to water quality and the health of aquatic communities, and their wildlife habitats. They are generally poorly suited for on-site subsurface sewage disposal systems.
(1) 
The following activities shall be minimized:
(a) 
Disturbance to streams and drainage swales.
(b) 
Disturbance to year-round wetlands, areas with seasonally high-water tables, and areas of surface water concentration.
(c) 
Because of their extreme limitations, stream valleys, swales and other lowland areas warrant designation as greenway lands. They may also require adjoining buffer lands to be included in the greenway, to be determined by an analysis of the protection requirements of such areas on a case-by-case basis. In certain instances, seasonal high-water table soils may be excluded from the greenway where it can be demonstrated that they are suitable for low-density residential uses and conventional on-site sewage systems.
D. 
Woodlands. Woodlands occur extensively throughout the Township, often in association with stream valleys and wet areas, poor and erodible agricultural soils, and moderate-to-steep slopes.
(1) 
Woodland conditions within the Township vary with respect to species composition, age, stocking, and health. They range from relatively recent post-agricultural young stands to mature mixed-age forests. Most woodland in the Township represents one or more of the following resource values:
(a) 
As soil stabilizers, particularly on moderate-to-steep slopes, thereby controlling erosion into nearby streams, ponds, impoundments and roads. A closely related function is their enhancement of groundwater recharge.
(b) 
As a means of ameliorating harsh microclimatic conditions, in both summer and winter.
(c) 
As a source of wood products, i.e., poles, saw timber, veneer and firewood.
(d) 
As habitats for woodland birds, mammals and other wildlife.
(e) 
As recreation resources for walkers, equestrians, picnickers and other related outdoor activities.
(f) 
As visual buffers between areas of development and adjacent roads and properties.
(2) 
Because of their resource values, all woodlands on any tract proposed for subdivision or land development shall be evaluated by the applicant to determine the extent to which such woodlands should be designated partly or entirely as greenway or development lands. Evaluation criteria shall include:
(a) 
Configuration and size.
(b) 
Present conditions, i.e., stocking, health and species composition.
(c) 
Site potential, i.e., the site's capabilities to support woodlands, based upon its topographic, soil and hydrologic characteristics.
(d) 
Ecological functions: i.e., in protecting steep slopes, erodible soils, maintaining stream quality and providing for wildlife habitats.
(e) 
Relationship to woodlands on adjoining and nearby properties and the potential for maintaining continuous woodland areas.
(3) 
The evaluation of the tract's woodlands shall be undertaken by a forester, landscape architect, horticulturist or another qualified professional acceptable to the Township. This evaluation shall be submitted as a report and made a part of the application for a preliminary plan. At a minimum, that report shall include one or more maps indicating boundaries and conditions of woodland areas accompanied by a report addressing the criteria in Subsection D(1) above.
(4) 
In designing a subdivision and land development plan for any tract, the applicant shall be guided by the following standards:
(a) 
Healthy woodlands exceeding one acre shall be preserved and designated as greenway areas, to the maximum extent possible. Proposed site improvements shall be located, designed and constructed to minimize the loss or degradation of woodland areas.
(b) 
Subdivisions shall be designed to preserve woodlands along roadways, property lines and lines occurring within a site such as streams, swales, stone fences and hedgerows. Such lines and the native vegetation associated with them shall be preserved as buffers between adjacent properties and between areas being subdivided within a property. Preservation shall include ground, shrub, understory and canopy vegetation.
(c) 
Disturbance or removal of woodlands occupying environmentally sensitive areas shall be undertaken only when approved by the Board and on a limited, selective basis to minimize the adverse impacts of such actions. This shall include but not necessarily be limited to, vegetation performing important soil stabilizing functions on wet soils, stream banks and sloping lands.
(d) 
No clearing or earth disturbance (except for soil analysis for proposed sewage disposal systems) shall be permitted on a site before the completion of subdivision and land development agreements. The determination of sight distance clearances along roadways shall be made graphically and not by clearing on-site prior to plan approval.
E. 
Upland rural-agricultural areas. These areas comprise fields, pastures, meadows, and former agricultural areas in early stages of woodlands succession, with fences, stone walls, tree copses and hedgerows, typically bordered by stream valleys and upland woodlands. These comprise the Township's historic working landscape, dotted with historic houses, barns and other structures. They give the Township much of its rural character. They also contain the greatest concentration of prime agricultural soils. Because of their openness and high visibility, development in these areas is likely to be most readily seen and disruptive to the historic landscape. They sometimes provide habitat for wildlife, in conjunction with nearby woodlands and stream valleys. However, it is recognized that these areas also frequently offer the fewest constraints for development.
(1) 
Several elements of these working landscapes lend themselves to incorporation into the Township's greenway network. These include prime agricultural soils and natural features which visually punctuate the landscape, such as hedgerows, tree copses, stone walls, and visually prominent places such as knolls and hilltops.
(2) 
These areas can also accommodate development, with preferred locations being the nonprime agricultural soils and lower topographic settings where development will be visually less obtrusive. Compact clustered residential designs, with coordinated architectural and landscape architectural themes, are encouraged in highly visible locations where future development cannot be avoided (such as at the far edge of open fields).
F. 
Slopes. Moderately sloping lands (12% to 25%) and steeply sloping lands (over 25%) are prone to severe erosion if disturbed. Erosion and the resulting overland flow of soil sediments into streams, ponds and public roads, are detrimental to water quality and aquatic life, and a potential hazard to public safety.
(1) 
Areas of steep slope shall be preserved in accordance with § 270-58 of Chapter 270, Zoning, and as required below.
(2) 
All grading and earthmoving on slopes exceeding 12% shall be minimized.
(3) 
No site disturbance shall be allowed on slopes exceeding 25% except grading for a portion of a driveway accessing a single-family dwelling when it can be demonstrated that no other routing which avoids slopes exceeding 25% is feasible.
(4) 
On slopes of 12% to 25%, the only permitted grading beyond the terms described above shall be in conjunction with the placement of a single-family dwelling, its access driveway and the septic system (which should typically be designed with a long, narrow drainage field following the land contours.
(5) 
Grading or earthmoving on all sloping lands of 12% or greater shall not result in earth cuts or fills whose highest vertical dimension exceeds six feet, except where in the judgment of the Board no reasonable alternatives exist for construction of roads, drainage structures and other public improvements, in which case such vertical dimensions shall not exceed 12 feet. Roads and driveways shall follow the line of existing topography to minimize the required cut and fill. Finished slopes of all cuts and fills shall be as required to minimize disturbance of natural grades.
G. 
Significant natural areas and features. Natural areas containing rare or endangered plants and animals, as well as other features of natural significance exist throughout the Township. Some of these have been carefully documented, e.g., by the Statewide Natural Diversity Inventory, whereas, for others, only their general locations are known. Subdivision applicants shall take all reasonable measures to protect significant natural areas and features either identified by the Township's Map of Potential Conservation Lands or by the applicant's existing resources and site analysis plan (as required in § 235-38) by incorporating them into proposed greenway areas or avoiding their disturbance in areas proposed for development.
H. 
Historic structures and sites. When the presence of historic sites is suspected within the development area by the West Manheim Township Board of Supervisors, the developer shall contact Historic York, Inc., and the Pennsylvania Historic and Museum Commission (PHMC). A copy of all correspondence from Historic York, Inc., and the PHMC, shall be provided to the Township along with a description of any architectural and nonstructural site improvements that will be used to protect the integrity of the historic site.
(1) 
All subdivisions and land developments shall comply with the historic preservation standards of Chapter 270, Zoning.
(2) 
Plans requiring subdivision and land development approval shall be designed to protect existing historic resources of all classes. The protection of an existing historic resource shall include the conservation of the landscape immediately associated with and significant to that resource, to preserve its historic context. Where, in the opinion of the Board of Supervisors, a plan will have an impact upon an historic resource, the developer shall mitigate that impact to the satisfaction of the Board by modifying the design, relocating proposed lot lines, providing landscape buffers, or other approved means.
(3) 
Township participation, review and approval of the applicant's interaction with the State Historical and Museum Commission with regard to the preservation of historic resources, as required for DEP approval of proposed sewage disposal systems, shall be required prior to plan approval.
I. 
Historic rural road corridors and scenic viewsheds. All applications for subdivision and land development shall attempt to preserve the scenic visual corridors along such roads by incorporating them into greenway areas or otherwise providing for building setbacks and architectural designs to minimize their intrusion. In instances, where such designs fail to satisfactorily protect corridors, applicants will be required to provide naturalistic landscape buffers to minimize their adverse visual impacts. The species specified for such buffers shall be selected on the basis of an inventory of tree and shrub species found in existing hedgerows and along wooded roadside edges in the vicinity of the development proposal.
J. 
Trails.
(1) 
When a subdivision or land development proposal is traversed by or abuts an existing trail customarily used by pedestrians and/or equestrians, the governing body may require the applicant to make provisions for continued recreational use of the trail.
(2) 
The applicant may alter the course of the trail within the tract for which development is proposed under the following conditions:
(a) 
The points at which the trail enters and exits the tract remain unchanged.
(b) 
The proposed alteration exhibits quality trail design according to generally accepted principles of landscape architecture (For example: Bureau of State Parks publication Non-Motorized Trails).
(c) 
The proposed alteration does not coincide with a paved road intended for use by motorized vehicles.
(3) 
When trails are intended for public or private use, they shall be protected by a permanent conservation easement on the properties on which they are located. The width of the protected area in which the trail is located should be a minimum of 10 feet. The language of the conservation easement shall be to the satisfaction of the governing body upon recommendation of the Municipal Solicitor.
(4) 
The land area permanently designated for trails for public use may be credited toward the greenway land requirement described in Chapter 270, Zoning.
(5) 
An applicant may propose and develop a new trail. If said trail is available for use by the general public and connects with an existing trail, the land area protected for said trail may be credited toward the open space requirement described in Part 6 of Chapter 270, Zoning.
(6) 
Trail improvements shall demonstrate adherence to principles of quality trail design.
(7) 
Trails shall have a vertical clearance of no less than 10 feet.
(8) 
Width of the trail surface shall comply with the requirements of § 235-62.
(9) 
No trail shall be designed with the intent to accommodate motorized vehicles.

§ 235-67 Residential subdivisions with open space greenway land.

A. 
Resource inventory and analysis. The tract's resources shall be delineated on an existing resources and site analysis plan, as required in § 235-38C(2).
B. 
Four-step design process. Following the resource inventory and analysis, all residential subdivisions with open space greenway land shall generally follow a four-step design process as described below. Applicants will be required to document the design process as described in § 235-38D.
(1) 
Step 1: Delineation of Open Space Greenway Land and Development Areas. Open space greenway land and development areas shall be delineated according to the following procedure, as illustrated below, using as an example a hypothetical fifty-acre subdivision parcel.
Total tract area
50 acres
Adjusted tract area (ATA)
40 acres
Minimum greenway requirements
Constrained land
10 acres
Add secondary conservation areas (50% of ATA)
20 acres
Total
30 acres
Development areas (50% of ATA)
20 acres
(a) 
All lands deducted from the gross tract to determine adjusted tract area, shall be delineated in their entirety as "constrained land," comprising 10 acres in the illustration.
(b) 
Additional minimum acreage requirements for greenway areas consist of "secondary conservation areas," to be calculated on the basis of the standards in Part 6 of Chapter 270, Zoning. In the example, a minimum of 50% of the adjusted tract area (or 20 acres) must be Class B greenway lands.
(c) 
Total greenway area requirements are the sum of constrained land and secondary conservation areas which, in the example, comprise 30 acres. All primary conservation areas (floodplains, wetlands, and slopes greater than 25%) shall be contained within the greenway lands.
(d) 
The locations and boundaries of primary conservation areas shall follow the actual boundaries of floodplains, wetlands and slopes.
(e) 
The locations and boundaries of secondary conservation areas shall be based upon the applicant's analysis of the tract's resource features, using the design standards in § 235-38. The applicant shall also be guided by any written recommendations provided by the Township Board of Supervisors regarding the delineation of secondary conservation areas lands, following the site inspection or the presketch conference.
(f) 
Development areas constitute the remaining lands of the tract outside of the designated greenway areas, which in the above example consist of 20 acres, where house sites, streets and lots are to be delineated in accordance with Steps 2, 3 and 4, below.
(2) 
Step 2: Location of House Sites. Applicants shall identify house site locations in the tract's designated development areas, designed to fit the tract's natural topography, served by adequate water and sewerage facilities, and provide views of and access to adjoining greenway areas (without encroaching upon them in a manner visually intrusive to users of such areas). House sites should be located no closer than 100 feet and 50 feet to primary and secondary conservation areas, respectively.
(3) 
Step 3: Alignment of Streets and Trails.
(a) 
With house site locations identified, applicants shall delineate a street system to provide vehicular access to each house in a manner conforming to the tract's natural topography and providing for a safe pattern of circulation and ingress and egress to and from the tract.
(b) 
Streets shall avoid or at least minimize adverse impacts on the greenway areas. To the greatest extent practicable, wetland crossings and new streets or driveways traversing slopes over 15% shall be avoided.
(c) 
Street connections shall generally be encouraged to minimize the number of new culs-de-sac to be maintained and to facilitate easy access to and from homes in different parts of the tract (and on adjoining parcels).
(d) 
A tentative network of trails shall also be shown, connecting streets with various natural and cultural features in the conserved greenway lands. Potential trail connections to adjacent parcels shall also be shown, in areas where a municipal trail network is envisioned.
(4) 
Step 4: Design of Lot Lines. Lot lines for the subdivision should be drawn as the last step in the design procedure. They should follow the configuration of house sites and streets in a logical and flexible manner.

§ 235-68 Greenway design review standards.

A. 
Prioritized list of resources to be conserved. The design of greenway lands in any subdivision or land development plan shall reflect the standards set forth in § 235-69, resources identified on the Map of Potential Conservation Lands and, to the fullest extent possible, incorporate any of the following resources if they occur on the tract (listed in order of significance):
(1) 
Stream channels, floodplains, wet soils, swales, springs and other lowland areas, including adjacent buffer areas which may be required to insure their protection.
(2) 
Significant natural areas of species listed as endangered, threatened, or of special concern, such as those listed in the Statewide Natural Diversity Inventory.
(3) 
Moderate-to-steep slopes, particularly those adjoining watercourses and ponds, where disturbance and resulting soil erosion and sedimentation could be detrimental to water quality.
(4) 
Healthy woodlands, particularly those performing important ecological functions such as soil stabilization and protection of streams, wetlands and wildlife habitats.
(5) 
Areas where precipitation is most likely to recharge local groundwater resources because of topographic and soil conditions affording high rates of infiltration and percolation.
(6) 
Hedgerows, groups of trees, large individual trees of botanic significance, and other vegetation features representing the site's rural past.
(7) 
Class I, II and III agricultural soils as defined by the USDA Natural Resource Conservation Service.
(8) 
Historic structures and sites.
(9) 
Visually prominent topographic features such as knolls, hilltops and ridges, and scenic viewsheds as seen from public roads (particularly those with historic features).
(10) 
Existing trails connecting the tract to other locations in the Township.
B. 
Other design considerations. The configuration of proposed greenway lands set aside for common use in residential subdivisions shall comply with the following standards:
(1) 
They shall be free of all structures except historic buildings, stone walls, and structures related to greenway uses. The governing body may grant approval of structures and improvements required for storm drainage, sewage treatment and water supply within the greenway, provided that such facilities would not be detrimental to the greenway (and that the acreage of lands required for such uses is not credited towards minimum greenway acreage requirements for the tract, unless the land they occupy is appropriate for passive recreational use).
(2) 
They shall generally not include parcels smaller than three acres, have a length-to-width ratio of less than 4:1, or be less than 75 feet in width, except for such lands specifically designed as neighborhood greens, playing fields or trail links.
(3) 
They shall be directly accessible to the largest practicable number of lots within the subdivision. Nonadjoining lots shall be provided with safe and convenient pedestrian access to greenway land.
(4) 
They shall be suitable for active recreational uses to the extent deemed necessary by the governing body, without interfering with adjacent dwelling units, parking, driveways, and roads.
(5) 
They shall be interconnected wherever possible to provide a continuous network of greenway lands within and adjoining the subdivision.
(6) 
They shall provide buffers to adjoining parks, preserves or other protected lands.
(7) 
Except in those cases where part of the greenway is located within private house lots, they shall provide for pedestrian pathways for use by the residents of the subdivision. Consideration shall be given to providing for public access on such trails if they are linked to other publicly accessible pathway systems within the Township. Provisions should be made for access to the greenway lands, as required for land management and emergency purposes.
(8) 
They shall be undivided by public or private streets, except where necessary for proper traffic circulation.
(9) 
They shall be suitably landscaped either by retaining existing natural cover and wooded areas and/or according to a landscaping plan to protect greenway resources.
(10) 
They shall be made subject to such agreement with the Township and such conservation easements duly recorded in the office of the County Recorder of Deeds as may be required by the governing body for the purpose of preserving the common open space for such uses.
(11) 
They shall be consistent with the Township's Comprehensive Plan and its Open Space Plan.
C. 
Ownership and maintenance. Applicants shall demonstrate compliance with greenway ownership and maintenance standards in Part 6 of Chapter 270, Zoning.

§ 235-69 Dedication of greenway land for public use.

Land set aside for public recreational use and the "fee-in-lieu" alternative. The following standards shall apply to new subdivisions. All actions by the governing body under this section must also be consistent with the provisions of the state enabling legislation.
A. 
Applicants for new residential developments involving 10 or more dwelling units shall be required to set aside 5% of their gross tract acreage as undivided recreational land designated for public usage. Such land shall be suitable for active and/or passive recreation, with at least half the land suitable for active sports, where such facilities are required by the governing body.
B. 
In lieu of a setting aside for public usage, two alternatives exist for the applicant proposing subdivision involving 10 or more dwellings:
(1) 
The applicant may offer a set-aside land limited to recreational usage by the residents of the proposed subdivision. If land is set aside in this manner for private recreational use, it shall also be permanently protected through a conservation easement enforceable by the Township and/or a land trust, prohibiting future nonrecreational (or commercial recreational) uses.
(2) 
The applicant may offer to pay a fee to the Township in lieu of any recreational land set aside. Situations in which it would be appropriate for the Township to accept such offers include cases where the land would not provide a particular public benefit because of its small size or location. Exceptions to this rule, where public use of relatively small land areas would still be appropriate, include situations in which the land could be used to buffer or extend public parks or public school grounds, or could provide potential linkage in a future Township trail network.
C. 
The decision whether to accept a fee-in-lieu offer by the applicant shall lie with the Board, which shall also establish the amount of the fee in lieu, based upon the Township's estimated cost of acquiring land that is similar in area and attributes, which would better serve public recreational needs. In appraising alternative sites, the Township shall be guided by the site selection criteria contained in its Open Space Plan. Such estimates shall be based on discussions with realtors or appraisers familiar with land values in the locality. All such fees collected shall be deposited in an interest-bearing account earmarked for recreational land or facility provision by the Township, and the applicant shall be informed of the use to which the fee will be put. Alternatively, the Board may establish a flat fee (based on discussions with realtors or appraisers familiar with land values in the area) for general use with subdivision applicants.
D. 
In subdivisions involving fewer than five dwelling units where, in the judgment of the governing body, there would be no particular public benefit accruing from a public dedication (as described above), or from a set aside for shared private recreational usage among the subdivision lot owners, the applicant may offer to place a conservation easement on certain areas of land within individual house lots where certain environmentally sensitive features are present, without conferring common access rights or privileges for the subdivision residents or the broader public. The percentage of land that is thus protected shall generally be not less than 20% of the gross land area of the subdivision. This land may be access-restricted not only from the public but also from other residents in the subdivision.
E. 
In subdivisions with fewer than 10 dwelling units, where there would be no particular benefit accruing from a public dedication (as described above), the recreational land that is part of the requirement for undivided open space shall be designated for private shared recreational usage among the subdivision lot owners.

§ 235-70 Conservation practices during site preparation and cleanup.

A. 
Protection of vegetation from mechanical injury. Where earthwork, grading, or construction activities will take place in or adjacent to woodlands, old fields or other significant vegetation or site features, the governing body may require that the limit of disturbance be delineated and vegetation protected through installation of temporary fencing or other approved measures. Such fencing shall be installed prior to commencing of and shall be maintained throughout the period of construction activity.
B. 
Protection of vegetation from grading change. Grade changes to occur at any location of the property shall not result in an alteration to soil or drainage conditions which would adversely affect existing vegetation to be retained following site disturbance, unless adequate provisions are made to protect such vegetation and its root systems.
C. 
Protection of vegetation from excavations.
(1) 
When digging trenches for utility lines or similar uses, disturbances to the root zones of all woody vegetation shall be minimized.
(2) 
If trenches must be excavated in the root zone, all disturbed roots shall be cut as cleanly as possible. The trench shall be backfilled as quickly as possible.
D. 
Protection of topsoil.
(1) 
No topsoil shall be removed from the site.
(2) 
Prior to grading operations or excavation, topsoil in the area to be disturbed shall be removed and stored on site.
(3) 
Topsoil removed shall be redistributed and stabilized as quickly as possible following the establishment of required grades for a project or project phase. All exposed earth surfaces shall be stabilized by hydroseeding on slopes of less than 10%, and by sodding, hydroseeding, or riprap on slopes exceeding 10%.
(4) 
Grading and earthmoving operations shall be scheduled to minimize site disturbance during the period from November 1 to April 1, when revegetation of exposed ground is difficult.