It is the intention of this article to prescribe such off-street parking and loading standards so as to meet the parking needs of employees and other persons making use of land uses, to minimize traffic conflicts, to minimize impacts on nearby land uses, to relieve congestion of streets and roads and to minimize dependence on private autos for access.
Existing structures and uses. Structures and uses in existence or for which building permits have been approved at the time of the adoption of this chapter shall not be subject to the parking or loading requirements of this article, provided that any parking and loading facilities then existing to serve such structures or uses shall not in the future be reduced except where they exceed such requirements, in which case, they not be reduced below such requirements. Required parking and loading facilities for the existing portion of such uses shall, however, be provided at the time of any enlargement of such existing structures or uses in the future.
New and expanded uses. The plan for any new building or use or any expansion of an existing building or use, including any new or expanded parking facilities, when submitted for a work permit, shall show the location, size, and type of improvement for the off-street parking or loading space required to fully comply with this chapter and the means of access to such space from the public right-of-way. Except for one- and two-family dwellings, no work permit shall be issued until such plan for parking and loading areas and access to them is approved by the Planning Board. (See § 285-83A.) The Planning Board shall determine that traffic access, traffic circulation and general layout of the facility is planned with regard to safety to traffic on the public street and safety and adequacy of access for cars and pedestrians using the parking facility. No certificate of occupancy shall be issued for any building or land use until the required off-street parking and loading space has been established or a variance has been granted therefrom by the Zoning Board of Appeals. New uses shall be deemed to include a change in the occupancy of a dwelling unit from that of a family, as defined in Article II of this chapter.
General. Off-street parking facilities, as defined in this chapter, shall be located on the same lot with the principal use to be served by the facility or on an adjacent lot under the same ownership. Such off-street parking facilities may be located in any required front, side or rear yard on the lot, except as provided in Subsection B.
Exception. Except as otherwise required:
Off-street parking and/or loading facilities shall not be permitted in the front yard of any use in an R-1 or R-2 district unless site plan approval (§ 285-25A) is granted by the Planning Board. Access by driveway or other means may be permitted in the front yard without review.
The required off-street parking spaces for two adjoining lots may be provided in a single common facility on one or both of said lots, if satisfactory assurances of continuation of the facility are provided as part of the hearing record during required site plan review.
All or part of the required off-street parking spaces may be provided for one or two uses on any lot within 300 feet of the use(s) to be served, such distances to be measured as a path which is available for the access of employees/residents and patrons taken from the primary entrance of the principal use(s) to the nearest pedestrian entrance to the parking area, provided that satisfactory assurances of continuation are provided as part of the hearing record during required site plan review. In such cases, a special use permit is also required only if said lot is in an R-3 or R-4 Zone. If a proposal includes the use of another's off-street parking lot, the applicant must produce a written agreement signed by the lot owner. This agreement must contain the length of time the permission is in effect, the exact location of spaces and any consideration paid for the spaces.
General. The minimum number of off-street parking and/or loading spaces required for any use is listed in §§ 285-52 through 285-66 by zone district and in § 285-91 by use. The Director shall determine the number of spaces required in cases of proposed use or expansions of uses not specifically listed. If his/her determination is challenged, he/she shall immediately request that the Zoning Board of Appeals adjudicate the challenge and indicate the number of spaces to be provided.
General. All off-street parking and loading facilities required to be provided under this article or proposed on a voluntary basis shall be designed to meet the following minimum standards and requirements. These requirements are intended to assure minimum standards of safety, convenience and appearance of such facilities and the community. The design and layout of all such facilities shall be approved by the Planning Board.
Stalls. Each space for automobile parking shall be a minimum of 162 square feet in area and shall be no less than feet in width and no less than 18 feet in length. An applicant may propose wheel stops constructed of bituminous, concrete, wood, plastic or other durable materials, provided that the stops do not lessen the 18-foot required length of said stall and do not unduly interfere with snow removal or impede drainage.
Area. Any parking/loading facility constructed pursuant to this chapter shall be of sufficient area that all maneuvers can be made without encroaching into or upon any public right-of-way, walkway or unpaved area within or adjoining the facility.
Grading. Parking and loading facilities shall be graded to provide adequate drainage (1/8 inch to the foot minimum) and safe movement (one inch to the foot maximum).
Material. Surfaces of parking facilities and related accessways hereafter constructed shall be of bituminous, concrete or other durable material placed in a manner that avoids dust and provides a smooth parking surface free from mounds and depressions.
Access. Curb cuts and/or driveway access widths at property lines shall be at least 20 feet but no more than 46 feet wide.
Marking. Individual parking and loading stalls shall be marked with painted lines (reflective white) four to six inches in width.
Lighting. All parking facilities and access drives hereafter constructed for use by three or more private vehicles after 5:00 p.m. shall be lighted to maximize user safety and to adequately illuminate movement area. Illumination levels shall meet or exceed the recommended standards established by the Illuminating Engineering Society.
Division. Parking facilities shall be divided into blocks containing not more than 50 cars each. Division shall be made by dividers with or without walkways, as approved by the Planning Board.
Buffers and screening. With the exception of institutional zone district interior lots, a strip of land at least five feet in width shall be provided along the entire perimeter (exclusive of vehicular accessways) of any off-street parking facility constructed for more than five vehicles. (See also § 285-72.) Whenever any such strip abuts or is across a street from a residential use or residential district lot, a solid evergreen hedge or a solid fence at least five feet high shall be provided in the buffer strip. Such height shall be reduced to three feet on any side of the facility that adjoins a principal street and is within 30 feet of the curbline of the street.
Setbacks. Off-street parking lots shall be considered to have no setback other than that of Subsection A(9), above.
Landscaping. With the exception of Institutional Zone District interior lots, any off-street parking facility designed for use by 21 vehicles or more shall provide landscaped areas that cover 5% of the area of the parking facility in addition to the buffer strip of Subsection A(9). No landscaped area thus provided shall be less than 100 square feet in area. One indigenous tree species of two-inch or greater caliper must be provided for each 400 square feet of such landscaped area.
Snow removal. The applicant must provide information as to the proposed method and location of snow removal and stockpiling.
Stormwater disposal. The applicant must provide information as to the proposed flow of stormwater and method of collection.
Any off-street parking facility proposed to be constructed in a location where a structure with a cellar or basement was razed within four years preceding the date of the Planning Board review of the proposal may be exempt (at the option of the owner or beneficial user of the lot) from the material requirement of Subsection A(4) until the fourth anniversary of the razing. At the discretion of the Planning Board, the applicant may be required to mechanically compact said lot in accordance with Subsection A(4); and a uniform surface shall be maintained until the paving is completed. All terms of this article shall be met within 60 days of the fourth anniversary in such case, unless varied or granted a temporary permit by the Zoning Board of Appeals This exception shall not apply to nonresidential uses except for parking areas for employees and retail sales customers.
General facilities shall be provided as required for loading and unloading of trucks on the site of the use served. As a general requirement, all proposals for commercial, industrial and multifamily residential uses which will require servicing by trucks shall detail on the site plan the manner in which such servicing is to be provided, whether off-street provisions are required or not. Generally, where servicing is provided from a public right-of-way, the following principles should be followed:
Trucks should be parked for loading and unloading purposes on other than the principal street serving the use; on side streets or alleys, when available.
Servicing should be provided from other than the principal entrance of the use or uses.
When not available, effort shall be made to provide interior loading areas or to schedule appropriate loading and delivery times.
Loading area dimensions.
For commercial or industrial uses having up to 10,000 square feet of floor area, an accessible loading area of at least 250 square feet shall be provided.
For commercial or industrial uses having more than 10,000 square feet of floor area, an accessible loading area of at least 250 square feet shall be provided for the first 10,000 square feet of floor area. Additional loading area shall be provided at a rate of 250 square feet of accessible loading space for each additional 25,000 square feet (or portion thereof) of floor space.
Any lot hereafter constructed shall be maintained in good useful condition and in conformance with this article. Any off-street, parking lot not so maintained shall be considered a violation and shall be subject to §§ 285-20 and 285-37. Existing lots, whether or not in conformance with this chapter, shall be maintained in an orderly, clean and safe manner and a good state of repair or shall be considered a violation.
Due to the traffic-intensive nature of planned residential developments, as defined in § 285-57, additional nonassigned off-street parking is crucial to orderly development within this Zone district. The intent of this section is to provide a total number of spaces to be allocated between assigned and unassigned.
Institutional land uses generate very high volumes of vehicular traffic of all types. Additionally, institutions tend to develop in a very densely concentrated fashion. The net result is continuous vehicular and pedestrian conflict. This necessitates a need for comprehensive planning in relation to off-street parking.
At the occasion of the first site plan application under this chapter by an Institutional Zone property owner (applicant), said applicant shall file in the office of the City Engineer a comprehensive plan for parking for said institution. Said plan shall have at a minimum the following elements:
A map indicating the location of all off-street parking facilities defined as either district perimeter or district interior and traffic flow both on and off site.
Upon filing subsequent site plans, the applicant shall be required to update both the required map and schedule.
[Amended 10-4-1990; 12-3-2009 by L.L. No. 4-2009; 5-7-2015 by Ord. No. 51; 6-2-2016 by Ord. No. 45]
The Schedule of Off-Street Parking shall be as follows: