[HISTORY: Adopted by the Town Board of the Town of New Castle 4-12-2011 by L.L. No. 7-2011; amended in its entirety 5-29-2018 by L.L. No. 9-2018. Subsequent amendments noted where applicable.]
Zoning — See Ch. 60.
Environmental quality review — See Ch. 65.
Streets and sidewalks — See Ch. 111.
Subdivision of land — See Ch. 113.
Wetlands — See Ch. 137.
Editor’s Note: This local law also repealed former Ch. 121, Tree Preservation, adopted 8-18-1992 by L.L. No. 13-1992, as amended.
The Town of New Castle finds and declares that the preservation of trees within the Town is necessary to protect the health, safety and general welfare of the Town of New Castle because trees provide shade, impede soil erosion, aid water absorption and retention, inhibit excess runoff and flooding, enhance air quality, offer a natural barrier to noise, provide a natural habitat for wildlife, provide screening, enhance property values and add to the aesthetic quality of the community. Trees also can reduce air-conditioning costs by providing shade and can reduce cooling and heating costs by serving as windbreaks, resulting in energy efficiency for the heating of buildings. Trees reduce levels of carbon dioxide and return oxygen to the atmosphere, and buffer views of development. By maintaining the existing character of the Town, they enhance property values and contribute to the significance of historic buildings, structures and places in the Town. Trees serve as an amenity that satisfies residents' psychological and aesthetic needs.
As used in this chapter, the following terms shall have the meanings indicated:
- A person requesting a tree removal permit from the Town or a person to whom a tree removal permit has been given.
- APPROVING AUTHORITY
- The Town Environmental Coordinator shall be the approving authority, except that the Planning Board shall be the approving authority for any tree removal permit application that is associated with property subject to a pending site plan, subdivision, special permit or other environmental permit application in accordance with the zoning requirements of the Town of New Castle. The Zoning Board shall be the approving authority for any tree removal permit application that is associated with property subject to a pending special permit application before the Zoning Board that is not subject to any Planning Board permit (e.g., wetland permit, steep slopes permit, stormwater pollution prevention plan).
- An individual who has demonstrated knowledge and competency as evidenced by a current International Society of Arboriculture arborist certification.
- The standard for trunk measurement of nursery stock. The caliper of the trunk shall be taken six inches above the ground for up to and including four-inch caliper size, and 12 inches above the ground for trees of larger diameters.
- Removal of 10 or more trees in a quarter-acre area on any lot within a calendar year.
- CONSERVATION BOARD
- The Conservation Board of the Town of New Castle, New York.
- CRITICAL ROOT ZONE
- The minimum area beneath a tree in a concentric circle centering on the subject tree's trunk with a radius equal in feet to 1.5 times the number of inches of the trunk's diameter at breast height (4.5 feet).
- DEAD TREE
- A tree that is dead or that has been determined by a certified arborist to be damaged beyond salvaging or in an advanced state of decline (where an insufficient amount of live tissue, green leaves, limbs or branches exist to sustain life).
- DIAMETER AT BREAST HEIGHT (DBH)
- A standard measurement of trees made at 4 1/2 feet above-ground level on the uphill side.
- ENVIRONMENTAL COORDINATOR
- The Environmental Coordinator of the Town of New Castle, New York, or the person acting in that capacity, as designated by the Town Board.
- ENVIRONMENTAL REVIEW BOARD
- The Environmental Review Board of the Town of New Castle, New York.
- HAZARDOUS TREE
- A tree that possesses a structural defect or one whose location and/or position poses a foreseeable danger to persons or property, as determined by the Town Arborist, or certified arborist in consultation with the Town Arborist.
- Damage to a tree foreseeably leading to tree death or permanent damage to tree health, including a wound resulting from any activity, including but not limited to excessive pruning, cutting, trenching, excavating, altering the grade, paving or compaction, bruising, scarring, tearing or breaking roots, bark, trunk, branches or foliage or application of herbicide or poisoning. A wound resulting from normal pruning shall not constitute an "injury" for purposes hereof.
- Any individual person, firm, partnership, association, corporation, company, organization or legal entity of any kind, including public agencies and municipal corporations.
- PLANNING BOARD
- The Planning Board of the Town of New Castle, New York.
- REGULATED LANDSCAPE BUFFER ZONE
- A natural and/or landscaped area consisting of vegetative screening measured from each property line of a residentially zoned property towards the interior of such property as follows:
- REGULATED TREE
- A tree subject to regulation in this chapter.
- Any of the following:
- SELECTIVE CUTTING
- The periodic removal of individual trees or small groups of trees from a large area so that the age and size classes of trees within an area are mixed, both in age and diameter, to improve overall sustainability of the forest.
- SPECIMEN TREE
- A tree with a DBH of 18 inches or larger, and small native or ornamental flowering trees with a DBH of eight inches or larger.
- STREET TREE
- Any tree growing within the street right-of-way, outside of private property.
- STRUCTURAL DEFECT
- Any natural occurring or secondary conditions such as cavities, poor branch attachment, cracks, or decayed wood in the trunk, crown, or roots of a tree that may contribute to structural failure.
- TIMBER HARVESTING
- Any operation in which a landowner or representative of the landowner removes trees for commercial purposes. "Timber harvest" shall include only selective cutting of timber.
- The Town of New Castle, New York.
- TOWN ARBORIST
- The Environmental Coordinator of the Town of New Castle shall be the Town Arborist provided the Environmental Coordinator is an arborist as defined in this chapter.
- TOWN BOARD
- The Town Board of the Town of New Castle, New York.
- Any living woody plant with a DBH of four inches or more.
- TREE BANK FUND
- A fund to be established and administered by the Town Board providing for the payment of fees as mitigation for removal of trees where tree replacement requirements cannot be met on-site. Refer to § 121-8 for more details regarding Tree Bank Fund.
- TREE REMOVAL PERMIT
- A permit granted under this chapter, which allows the removal of regulated trees as defined herein.
- TREE REPLACEMENT
- The number of trees to be replaced as part of the permit requirements for securing a tree removal permit as provided in § 121-6.
- TREE REPLACEMENT PLAN (TRP)
- A plan that identifies areas where existing trees are to be preserved and where proposed replacement trees are to be planted on a property to meet minimum requirements, as well as methods of tree protection to be undertaken on the site and other pertinent information.
- WILDLIFE HABITAT
- The arrangement of food, water, shelter or cover and space necessary to ensure the existence and survival of wildlife.
- ZONING BOARD
- The Zoning Board of Appeals of the Town of New Castle, New York.
Except as provided in § 121-4, Activities permitted by right, or as otherwise described below, it shall be unlawful to conduct, directly or indirectly, any of the following activities within the territory of the Town of New Castle, unless and until a tree removal permit shall have been obtained pursuant to § 121-5:
Within the regulated landscape buffer zone, any removal of a tree with a DBH of four inches or more.
Outside of the regulated landscape buffer zone, any removal of a tree with a DBH of eight inches or more.
Any removal of a specimen tree.
Removal of any street tree within the Town's designated right-of-way.
Work to be conducted on or within the critical root zone of any street tree.
The following activities are permitted by right without the requirement of a permit:
Removal of any tree not regulated by this chapter.
Removal of any dead tree, hazardous tree or other tree that creates an actual or ongoing emergency condition. The Environmental Coordinator may request verification and/or photograph documentation, which demonstrates that such tree was dead, hazardous or created an actual or ongoing emergency.
Forest management activities:
On property assessed under § 480-a of the Real Property Tax Law and for which a certificate of approval by the New York State Department of Environmental Conservation (NYSDEC) is on file with the Town; or
On property participating in any other NYSDEC approved forest management or stewardship program, for which a NYSDEC approved forest management or stewardship plan is on file with the Town, and which is undertaken in accordance with best management practices of forestry accepted by NYSDEC and the provisions of that program or plan.
Any removal of trees to be done by or on behalf of the Town of New Castle.
Any removal of trees required by public entities, agencies or electrical utilities that by operation of law are exempt from the permit requirements of this chapter. All public entities, agencies and electrical utilities shall provide notification to the Town Arborist and to the property owner of property where tree removal will be conducted, prior to the removal of any tree or trees.
Any person seeking to conduct or causing to be conducted any activity listed in § 121-3 shall file an application for a tree removal permit for such removal with the approving authority as hereinafter provided, in hard copy and in an electronic file format. Except when the Planning Board or Zoning Board is the approving authority, the application for a tree removal permit shall not be subject to a public hearing. For all applications for removal of three or more trees, notice of the application shall be mailed by the applicant, on a form provided by the Town, by certified mail, return receipt requested, to all property owners of record within 100 feet of the boundaries of the property on which the proposed regulated activity will be conducted. A list of the names to whom notice of the application was sent and proof of such mailing shall be submitted as part of the application for the tree removal permit. The approving authority shall make its determination based upon its inspection of the property and the description of the proposed removal contained on the application. The application shall, at a minimum, include the following information:
The name and address of the property owner and applicant, if different.
The street address and Tax Map designation of the property where the removal is sought.
A statement of authority from the owner for any agent making application for a permit.
A general description of the proposed removal(s) and purpose.
A completed tree replacement plan based on the tree replacement requirements in § 121-6. The approving authority may waive this requirement if it is determined that, because of site constraints, it is impracticable or impossible to replace certain trees, or where the approving authority determines that, because of relevant site planning considerations, tree replacement is not warranted. The approving authority may consider payment of a fee to the Tree Bank Fund to satisfy the unmet portion of tree replacement requirements. A tree replacement plan shall include the following:
Tree removal permit applications involving any clearing shall also include:
An inventory of existing trees proposed to be removed as follows:
All existing trees four inches in DBH, located within the regulated landscape buffer zone, and all existing trees eight inches in DBH, located outside of the regulated landscape buffer shall be surveyed for species (common name), size (DBH) and tree condition rating. Trees to be removed shall be listed within table that shows species, size and condition and included with the application form; and
Each existing tree in the inventory shall be assessed by a certified arborist as per standards outlined by the International Society of Arboriculture.
A tree replacement plan submitted in conjunction with any clearing action shall be certified by a professional forester, landscape architect or arborist, drawn to a scale no less detailed than one inch equals 20 feet. The tree replacement plan, in addition to the requirements in § 121-5 above and § 121-6, shall include the following:
An explanation as to why a proposed activity prompting the removal cannot be located on a different portion of the site or on another lot under the applicant's ownership and control.
Additional information as needed, such as the study of flood, erosions or other hazards at the site and the effect of any protective measures that might be taken to reduce such hazards, and other information deemed necessary by the approving authority to evaluate the proposed removal in terms of the goals and standards of this chapter.
An application fee and inspection fee in such amounts as are set forth by resolution of the Town Board in the Master Fee Schedule, which may be amended.
All information relating to a tree removal permit application, including but not limited to the application itself, and additional required materials or information (if any) shall be maintained on file in the office of the Town Building and Engineering Department.
The approving authority for all applications shall be the Town's Environmental Coordinator, except that the Planning Board or Zoning Board shall be the approving authority for any tree removal permit application that is associated with property subject to a pending site plan, subdivision, special permit or other environmental permit application in accordance with the zoning requirements of the Town of New Castle.
Applications for tree removal permits under this chapter, except for those submitted to the Planning Board or Zoning Board under § 121-5D, shall be approved, approved with conditions, denied, or returned to the applicant, requesting further action on the application, within 21 business days of the receipt of a complete application.
Application for tree removal permits may relate to multiple activities regulated under this chapter and may be issued for activity to take place during the twelve-month period following the issuance of the tree removal permit, it being the intent of this chapter that no more than one tree removal permit shall be required per applicant per year, irrespective of the amount and nature of removal sought.
Professional review fees.
The Planning Board or Zoning Board, in review of any application for a tree removal permit, may refer such application to such planner, engineer, environmental expert, attorney or other professional as the Planning Board or Zoning Board shall deem reasonably necessary to enable it to review such application as required by law. Fees charged by such professionals shall be in accord with fees usually charged for such services in the Metropolitan New York region and pursuant to contractual agreement between the Town and such professional. All such charges shall be paid by the Town upon the submission of a Town voucher. The applicant shall reimburse the Town for the cost of such professional review upon submission of a copy of the voucher or its equivalent or, at the discretion of the Planning Board or Zoning Board, in accordance with the escrow account procedure set forth below. The payment of such fees shall be required in addition to any and all other fees required by this chapter or any other Town law, ordinance or regulation.
At the time of submission of any application for tree removal permit approval, the Planning Board or Zoning Board may require the establishment of an escrow account from which withdrawals shall be made to reimburse the Town for the cost of professional review services. The applicant shall then provide funds to the Town for deposit into such account, in the amount to be determined by the Planning Board or Zoning Board based upon its evaluation of the nature and complexity of the application. The applicant shall be provided with copies of any Town voucher, or its equivalent, for such services as they are submitted to the Town. When the balance in such escrow account is reduced to 1/3 of its initial amount, the applicant shall deposit additional funds into such account to restore the balance in such account to the amount of the initial deposit. If such account is not replenished in 30 days after the applicant is notified, in writing, of the requirements for such additional deposit, the Board may suspend its review of the application. A building permit or certificate of occupancy or use shall not be issued unless all professional consultant review fees charged in connection with the applicant's project have been reimbursed to the town. After all pertinent charges have been paid, the Town shall refund to the applicant any funds remaining on deposit.
A stormwater pollution prevention plan ("SWPPP") consistent with the requirements of Chapter 108A, Stormwater Management and Erosion and Sediment Control, shall be required for any tree removal permit approval that qualifies as or authorizes a land development activity as defined in Chapter 108A. The SWPPP shall meet the performance and design criteria and standards in Chapter 108A. The approved tree removal permit shall be consistent with the provisions of that chapter.
All existing trees are subject to replacement.
Tree replacement shall occur on-site, except where the approving authority determines that, because of site constraints, it is impracticable or impossible to do so, or where the approving authority determines that, because of relevant site planning considerations, it is not warranted. The approving authority may consider payment of a fee to the Tree Bank Fund to satisfy the unmet portion of tree replacement.
The total aggregate diameter of trees removed shall be replaced with new trees according to the following percentages:
Trees with a DBH of four inches to 17 inches, subject to replacement of 25% of the aggregate diameter of trees removed.
Specimen trees (18 inches DBH or greater) and specimen ornamental trees (eight inches DBH or greater), subject to replacement of 50% of the aggregate diameter of trees removed.
Tree replacement plans that consist of more than 10 new trees shall incorporate at least three separate tree genera whereby no single tree genus accounts for more than 33% of all newly planted trees. Exceptions to this requirement may be authorized by the approving authority, when site specific conditions may warrant such a change.
Replanted trees shall be ecologically compatible with the site and neighboring properties. Replanted trees shall be of the same or similar species as those removed when practical. See Appendix A for a list of recommended tree and shrub species. Invasive trees shall not be allowed under any circumstances. Deviations from the Recommended Tree and Shrub List are acceptable with prior approval from the approving authority. Standards for transplanting of trees and shrubs shall follow the International Society of Arboriculture publication "Tree and Shrub Planting Manual."
Editor's Note: Said appendix is on file in the Town offices.
At a minimum, 50% of the replacement trees shall be canopy (overstory) trees (mature height greater than 40 feet).
At a minimum, 25% of the replacement trees shall be understory trees (mature height less than 40 feet).
All replacement trees shall be a minimum of 2 1/2 inch caliper. For evergreen trees, a minimum size of eight to 10 feet balled and burlapped is required.
An applicant may substitute a total of eight two-gallon-size shrubs (minimum of three feet in height) to replace one tree.
The approving authority may reduce the total required tree replacement DBH where the trees proposed for removal include invasive species, such as Norway Maples.
In making its determination to grant, deny or grant with conditions a tree removal permit under this chapter, the approving authority shall consider the following factors:
Whether the proposed removal is consistent with the purpose and findings of this chapter as set forth in § 121-1 of this chapter.
The possible or practicable alternatives to the proposed removal.
Effect on the critical root zone.
Whether the removal(s) will have significant negative effects upon:
Erosion potential and drainage patterns in the vicinity.
Growth of existing adjacent vegetation.
Property values of nearby properties.
The health, safety or welfare of the residents of New Castle or its neighboring communities.
Solar access of nearby properties.
Whether the tree or trees to be removed are of species listed on the New York State list of endangered trees or trees of special concern.
Whether the tree or trees are located near existing or proposed improvements.
In cases where the Town's Environmental Coordinator is the approving authority, the applicant will be notified of permit decisions within 21 business days of the application being received by the Town. If the permit is denied, the applicant will be notified in writing by the approving authority of the reason or reasons for such denial.
If the approving authority requires payment of a fee to the Tree Bank Fund to satisfy the unmet portion of the tree replacement requirements, the applicant shall pay a fee in such amount as set forth by resolution of the Town Board in the Master Fee Schedule, which may be amended.
Purpose. The Tree Bank Fund shall be a fund to receive in-lieu payments from applicants to satisfy tree replacement requirements as set forth in § 121-6, which cannot be met on-site where the approving authority determines that it is impracticable or impossible to do so, or where the approving authority determines that, because of relevant site planning considerations, it is not warranted as determined by the approving authority. In addition, any public or private entities that wish to donate to the Town of New Castle to provide trees to be planted may donate to the Tree Bank Fund for said purpose.
Applicability. The Tree Bank Fund applies to all properties seeking tree removal permit approval in the Town of New Castle pursuant to this chapter.
Use of funds.
Payments and contributions to the Tree Bank Fund shall be used for the sole purpose of planting and maintaining trees, including fertilizing and trimming, and other applicable landscaping projects for public benefit on public property or private property within a public easement with the Town of New Castle. Funds should, if feasible, first be applied to projects within the closest proximity to where the tree removal has occurred.
Funds in the Tree Bank Fund shall be administered by the Director of Planning in consultation with the Environmental Coordinator. Projects and fund allocation shall be approved by the Town of New Castle Town Board.
Proposed landscaping may include trees, shrubs, and other permanent plant materials. Planting and maintenance includes purchase, transportation, mulching, watering, fencing and labor associated with replacement plantings, and other applicable landscaping. The Tree Bank Fund may be used to fund other associated project tasks including the installation of irrigation systems to support plantings, design, tree inventory, tree boxes, and soil amendments that enhance and promote long-term sustainability of plantings.
Public lands include parks, preserves, public open spaces, community and civic facilities, and land within public rights-of-way within the Town of New Castle.
The Director of Planning, in consultation with the Environmental Coordinator, shall provide an annual report of the Tree Bank Fund to include an itemized list of receipts and expenses, a list of projects completed, and the current balance remaining in the fund. The Annual Report shall also include a list of proposed projects and an estimated budget for the following year. The Annual Report shall be submitted to the Town Board annually by November 15 for review and approval.
Required contribution. The required contribution shall be $200 per tree, plus a fifteen-percent contingency. Payment into the Tree Bank Fund shall be made prior to the issuance of any tree, building or other applicable permit by the approving authority.
Any permit issued pursuant to this chapter may contain such conditions as the approving authority deems necessary to ensure compliance with the legislative intent of this chapter.
The approving authority may require, prior to the commencement of any clearing authorized under any tree removal permit pursuant to this chapter, that the applicant post a bond or other security deemed acceptable to the approving authority in such amount and with surety and conditions sufficient to secure compliance with the conditions and limitations set forth in the tree removal permit.
The planting of less than 10 replacement trees may require a monitoring plan for at least five years, but no more than 10 years, the length of said monitoring program shall be determined by the approving authority. The planting of 10 or more trees shall require a monitoring plan for at least five years, and a maintenance bond of 35% of the cost of the plants and labor to install replacement trees for at least five years, the length of said monitoring program and maintenance bond shall be determined by the approving authority.
The approving authority may suspend or revoke a tree removal permit in the form of a stop-work order if it finds that the applicant has not complied with any or all of the terms of such tree removal permit, has exceeded the authority granted in the permit; or has failed to undertake the project in the manner set forth in the approved application.
The applicant shall be provided written notice of such stop-work order as soon as reasonably practicable but no later than three days after issuance of the same, which notice shall be delivered personally or by certified mail and addressed to the applicant's address as shown on the tree removal permit. Immediately upon the receipt of a stop-work order, applicant and anyone acting on applicant's behalf shall cease all work being undertaken pursuant to the tree removal permit. Such applicant shall be entitled to a hearing before the approving authority after work has been stopped. If such a hearing is requested by the applicant, in writing, within five days of receipt of notice of the stop-work order, such hearing shall be scheduled by the approving authority within 10 days of receipt of request of a hearing. After the close of the hearing, the approving authority may confirm, modify or cancel the stop-work order.
The approving authority shall set forth in writing its findings and reasons for revoking or suspending any tree removal permit pursuant to this section and keep a copy in the permit application file.
The tree removal permit shall be valid for one year from the date of its issuance, including approved tree removals and any required tree replacements, or other permit conditions, unless a different term is otherwise specified by the approving authority. All tree removal permits shall expire upon completion of the work specified therein. The validity of any work duly completed pursuant to an existing tree removal permit shall not be affected by the expiration of the tree removal permit, but such work shall not be continued beyond the expiration date. Tree removal permits may be renewed by the approving authority upon application submitted at least 21 days before the expiration of the original tree removal permit. Standards for issuance of renewals shall be the same for the issuance of tree removal permits.
No tree removal permit granted pursuant to this chapter shall remove an applicant's obligation to comply in all respects with the applicable provisions of any other federal, state or local law or regulation, including but not limited to the securing of any other required tree removal permit or approval.
In the case of an application decided by an approving authority other than the Planning Board or Zoning Board of Appeals, the applicant or any other party aggrieved by such determination may seek review by appealing to the Environmental Review Board.
Any party aggrieved or affected by the determination of the Town's Environmental Coordinator, with respect to a tree removal permit may, within 10 business days of such determination, appeal to the Environmental Review Board. The application must set forth the reasons for such appeal.
The Environmental Review Board shall conduct a public hearing on the appeal at its next scheduled meeting and shall, based upon the standards contained herein and the facts of the matter, deny, grant or grant with conditions the permit being sought.
The applicant shall mail, by certified mail, return receipt requested, at least 10 days before such hearing, notice of the hearing to all property owners of record within 100 feet of the boundaries of the property on which the proposed regulated activity will be conducted. A list of the names to whom notice of the application was sent and proof of such mailing shall be submitted to the Environmental Review Board prior to the hearing.
The tree permit which is the subject of the appeal shall be stayed pending determination of the appeal; provided, however, that the Environmental Coordinator may authorize work as may be necessary in order to mitigate any ongoing environmental impacts or hazardous condition.
A determination by the Environmental Review Board, Planning Board, or Zoning Board of Appeals to grant or deny a tree removal permit may be reviewed, by the applicant or any other aggrieved person by the commencement of an action pursuant to the provisions of Article 78 of the Civil Practice Law and Rules within 30 days of the filing of such a determination with the Town Clerk.
Any site for which an application has been submitted shall be subject to inspection upon notice to the property owner and applicant at any reasonable time, including weekends and holidays, by the approving authority or its designated representatives. The applicant, by making application for such tree removal permit, shall be deemed to have given its consent to such inspection.
Within 30 days after completion of all removals authorized under a tree removal permit issued in accordance with this chapter, the applicant shall notify the Environmental Coordinator of such completion.
Within 30 days of such notification of completion of work, the Environmental Coordinator shall inspect the removal site for compliance with all conditions of the permit.
When all removal(s) authorized under a tree removal permit are deemed to be completed in an acceptable fashion according to conditions of the tree removal permit, the Environmental Coordinator shall issue a certificate of completion which shall be accompanied by cancellation or return of any bond posted for such purpose.
When removals authorized under a tree removal permit are deemed not acceptable, the Environmental Coordinator shall so notify the applicant. The notification of noncompliance shall include a list of all conditions in violation of the terms of the tree removal permit and shall specify a time limit for the correction of all items so listed.
Any person who violates any provision of this chapter shall be guilty of an offense, punishable by a fine of $250 per tree of four inches to 12 inches DBH; $750 per tree of 12 inches to 18 inches DBH; $1,500 per tree of 18 inches to 24 inches DBH, and $2,500 per tree of 24 inches or more DBH. Each violation of the provision of this chapter shall be a separate and distinct offense. In addition, any offender may be ordered by the court to replant trees that were improperly removed, insofar as that is possible. The court shall specify a reasonable time for completion of such restoration, which shall be effected under the supervision of the approving authority. The fines remitted to the Town shall be deposited into the dedicated Tree Bank Fund.
In addition to the penalties outlined in § 121-17A above, the Town shall not issue a building permit, temporary certificate of occupancy or certificate of occupancy for any property for which a violation of this chapter has been served until said violation is dismissed or resolved to the satisfaction of the approving authority or court, as is appropriate.
The Town Engineer, Deputy Town Engineer, Building Inspectors, Code Enforcement Officers and the Town Environmental Coordinator are hereby authorized to issue stop-work orders, appearance tickets and summonses for violation of this chapter.
If any provision of this chapter shall be held for any reason to be invalid, such determination shall not invalidate any other provision hereof, which other provisions shall remain in full force and effect.