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Town of Wakefield, MA
Middlesex County
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Table of Contents
Table of Contents
[HISTORY: Adopted by the Board of Health of the Town of Wakefield 1-10-1991. Amendments noted where applicable.]
GENERAL REFERENCES
Water — See Ch. 185.
These regulations are intended to protect the public health and general welfare by ensuring that private wells are constructed in a manner which will protect the quality of the groundwater derived from private wells.
A. 
These regulations are adopted by the Town of Wakefield Board of Health as authorized by MGL c. 111, § 31.
B. 
These regulations supersede all previous regulations adopted by the Board of Health pursuant to the construction of private wells.
A. 
As used in this chapter, the following terms shall have the meanings indicated:
AGENT
Any person designated and authorized by the Board to execute these regulations. The "agent" shall have all the authority of the appointing Board and shall be directly responsible to the Board and under its direction and control.
APPLICANT
Any person who intends to have a private well constructed.
AQUIFER
A water-bearing geologic formation, group of formations or part of a formation that contains sufficient saturated, permeable material to yield significant quantities of water to wells and springs.
BENTONITE GROUT
A mixture of bentonite (API Standard 13A) and water in a ratio of not less than one (1) pound of bentonite per gallon of water.
BOARD
The Board of Health of the Town of Wakefield, Massachusetts, or its authorized agent.
BUSINESS OF DIGGING OR DRILLING
A person who charges a fee for digging or drilling a well or a person who advertises for hire the availability to dig or drill wells within the Commonwealth of Massachusetts.
CASING
Impervious durable pipe placed in a boring to prevent the walls from caving and to serve as a vertical conduit for water in a well.
CERTIFIED LABORATORY
Any laboratory which has full certification by the Department of Environmental Protection as provided in the most recent edition of Certification Status of Commercial Environmental Laboratories.
CONCRETE
A mixture consisting of portland cement (ASTM Standard C150, Type 1 or API Standard 10, Class A), sand, gravel and water in a proportion of not more than five (5) parts of sand plus gravel to one (1) part cement, by volume, and not more than six (6) gallons of water. One (1) part cement, two (2) parts sand and three (3) parts gravel are commonly used with up to six (6) gallons of water.
NEAT CEMENT GROUT
A mixture consisting of one (1) bag [ninety-four (94) pounds] of portland cement (ASTM Standard C150, Type 1 or API Standard 10, Class A) to not more than six (6) gallons of clean water. Bentonite (API Standard 13A), up to two percent (2%) by weight of cement, shall be added to reduce shrinkage. Other additives, as described in ASTM Standard C494, may be used to increase fluidity and/or control setting time.
PERSON
An individual, corporation, company, association, trust or partnership.
PRIVATE WELL
Any dug, driven or drilled hole with a depth greater than its largest surface diameter developed to supply water intended and/or used for human consumption and not subject to regulation by 310 CMR 22.00.
PUMPING TEST
A procedure used to determine the characteristics of a well and adjacent aquifer by installing and operating a pump.
REGISTERED WELL DRILLER
Any person registered with the Department of Environmental Management, Division of Water Resources to dig or drill wells in the Commonwealth of Massachusetts.
SAND CEMENT GROUT
A mixture consisting of portland cement (ASTM Standard C150, Type 1 or API Standard 10, Class A), sand and water in the proportion of one (1) part cement to three (3) or four (4) parts sand, by volume, and not more than six (6) gallons of water per bag [ninety-four (94) pounds] of cement. Up to five percent (5%), by weight, of bentonite (API Standard 13A) shall be added to reduce shrinkage.
STATIC WATER LEVEL
The level of water in a well under nonpumping conditions.
STRUCTURE
A combination of materials assembled at a fixed location to give support or shelter, such as a building, framework, retaining wall, fence or the like.
B. 
The Department of Environmental Protection Private Well Guidelines contain a glossary of additional terms which may be incorporated into these regulations at the discretion of the Board.
A. 
The property owner or his designated representative shall obtain a permit from the Board of Health prior to the commencement of construction of a private well.
B. 
Each permit application to construct a well shall include the following:
(1) 
The property owner's name and address.
(2) 
The well driller's name and proof of valid state registration.
(3) 
A plan with a specified scale, signed by a registered surveyor or engineer, showing the location of the proposed well in relation to existing or proposed above- or below-ground structures.
(4) 
A description and location of visible prior and current land uses within two hundred (200) feet of the proposed well location which represent a potential source of contamination, including but not limited to the following:
(a) 
Existing and proposed structures.
(b) 
Subsurface sewage disposal systems.
(c) 
Subsurface fuel storage tanks.
(d) 
Public ways.
(e) 
Utility rights-of-way.
(f) 
Any other potential sources of pollution.
(5) 
Proof that the owner of any property abutting the applicant's property has been notified of the applicant's intention to install a well.
(6) 
A permit fee of fifty dollars ($50.).
C. 
The permit shall be on site at all times that work is taking place. Each permit shall expire one (1) year from the date of issuance unless revoked for cause. Permits may be extended for one (1) additional six-month period, provided that a written request is received by the Board prior to the one-year expiration date. No additional fee shall be charged for a permit extension, provided that there is no change in the plans for the proposed well.
D. 
Well construction permits are not transferable.
E. 
The Board may choose to require additional information pertaining to the location of waste sites, underground storage tanks, agricultural land uses and/or utility rights-of-way that are within five hundred (500) to one thousand (1,000) feet of the well site.
F. 
The Board may choose to indicate that applicants for well construction permits may be required to obtain plumbing and/or building permits.
A. 
The issuance of water supply certificate by the Board shall certify that the private well may be used as a drinking water supply. A water supply certificate must be issued for the use of a private well prior to the issuance of an occupancy permit for an existing structure or prior to the issuance of a building permit for new construction which is to be served by the well.
B. 
The following shall be submitted to the Board of Health to obtain a water supply certificate:
(1) 
A well construction permit.
(2) 
A copy of the water well completion report as required by the Division of Water Resources (313 CMR 3.00).
(3) 
A copy of the pumping test report required pursuant to § 445-7 of these regulations
(4) 
A copy of the water quality report required pursuant to § 445-8 of these regulations.
C. 
Upon the receipt and review of the above documents, the Board shall make a final decision on the application for a water supply certificate. A final decision shall be in writing and shall comprise one (1) of the following actions:
(1) 
Issuance of a water supply certificate.
(2) 
Denial of a water supply certificate, specifying the reasons for the denial.
(3) 
Issuance of a conditional water supply certificate with those conditions which the Board deems necessary to ensure fitness, purity and quantity of the water derived from that private well. Said conditions may include, but not be limited to, requiring treatment or additional testing of the water.
D. 
It is highly recommended that the Board develop standardized forms for information requested of private well owners by these regulations. Such forms may include the following: well construction permit application, pumping test report, water quality report and/or water supply certificate application.
A. 
In locating a well, the applicant shall identify all potential sources of contamination which exist or are proposed within two hundred (200) feet of the site. When possible, the well shall be located upgradient of all potential sources of contamination and shall be as far removed from potential sources of contamination as possible, given the layout of the premises.
B. 
Each private well shall be accessible for repair, maintenance, testing and inspection. The well shall be completed in a water-bearing formation that will produce the required quantity of water under normal operating conditions.
C. 
All private wells shall be located at least ten (10) feet from any property line. The center line of a well shall, if extended vertically, clear any projection from an adjacent structure by at least five (5) feet.
D. 
All private wells shall be located a minimum of twenty-five (25) feet from the normal driving surface of any public roadway or a minimum of fifteen (15) feet from the road right-of-way, whichever is greater.
E. 
Each private well shall be located at least twenty-five (25) feet laterally from the normal high-water mark of any lake, pond, river, stream, ditch or slough. When possible, private water systems shall be located in areas above the one-hundred-year floodplain.
F. 
A suction line or well shall be located a minimum of ten (10) feet from a building sewer constructed of durable, corrosion-resistant material with watertight joints or fifty (50) feet from a building sewer constructed of any other type of pipe; fifty (50) feet from a septic tank; one hundred (100) feet from a leaching field: and one hundred (100) feet from a privy.
G. 
Water supply lines shall be installed at least ten (10) feet from and eighteen (18) inches above any sewer line. Whenever water supply lines must cross sewer lines, both pipes shall be constructed of Class 150 pressure pipe and shall be pressure tested to assure watertightness.
H. 
The Board reserves the right to impose minimum lateral distance requirements from other potential sources of contamination not listed above. All such special well location requirements shall be listed, in writing, as a condition of the well construction permit.
I. 
No private well, or its associated distribution system, shall be connected to either the distribution system of a public water supply system or any type of waste distribution system.
A. 
The applicant shall submit to the Board for review and approval a pumping test report. The pumping test report shall include the name and address of the well owner; well location, referenced to at least two (2) permanent structures and landmarks; date the pumping test was performed; depth at which the pump was set for the test; location of the discharge line; static water level immediately before pumping commenced; discharge rate and, if applicable, the time the discharge rate changed; pumping water levels and respective times after pumping commenced; maximum drawdown during the test; duration of the test, including both the pumping time and the recovery time during which measurements were taken; recovery water levels and respective times after cessation of pumping; and reference point used for all measurements.
B. 
In order to demonstrate the capacity of the well to provide the required volume of water, a pumping test shall be conducted in the following manner:
(1) 
The volume of water necessary to support the household's daily needs shall be determined using the following equation: (number of bedrooms plus 1 bedroom) x (110 gallons per bedroom) x (a safety factor of 2) = number of gallons needed daily.
(2) 
The storage capacity of the well shall be determined using the measured static water level and the depth and radius of the drill hole or casing.
(3) 
The required volume shall be calculated by adding the volumes of water in Subsection B(1) and (2). It is this volume of water that must be pumped from the well within a twenty-four-hour period.
C. 
The pumping test may be performed at whatever rate is desired. Following the pumping test, the water level in the well must be shown to recover to within eighty-five percent (85%) of the prepumped static water level within a twenty-four-hour period.
D. 
Example 1. For a one-bedroom house with a well that is eight (8) inches in diameter and contains two hundred (200) feet of standing water:
(1) 
(1 bedroom + 1 bedroom) = (2 bedrooms) x (110 gallons per bedroom) x (2) = 440 gallons needed daily.
(2) 
The volume of an eight-inch well is two and sixty-hundredths (2.60) gallons for every foot of length. Therefore: (200 feet of standing water) x (2.60 gallons per foot) = 522 gallons.
(3) 
440 gallons + 522 gallons = 962 gallons that must be pumped from the well in twenty-four (24) hours or less to demonstrate suitable capacity.
E. 
Example 2. For a four-bedroom house with a well that is six (6) inches in diameter and contains one hundred (100) feet of standing water:
(1) 
(4-bedroom house + 1 bedroom) = (5 bedrooms) x (110 gallons per bedroom) x (2) = 1,100 gallons needed daily.
(2) 
The volume of a six-inch well is one and forty-eight-hundredths (1.48) gallons for every foot of length. Therefore: (100 feet of standing water) x (1.48 gallons per foot) = 148 gallons.
(3) 
1,100 gallons + 148 gallons = 1,248 gallons that must be pumped from the well in twenty-four (24) hours or less to demonstrate suitable capacity.
F. 
The Department of Environmental Protection Private Well Guidelines, in the section entitled "Water Quantity (Pumping Test)," provide a table of values listing gallons of water per foot of depth for various casing or hole diameters and a table of flow volumes in gallons per minute and corresponding flow volumes in gallons per day.
A. 
After the well has been completed and disinfected and prior to using it as a drinking water supply, a water quality test shall be conducted.
B. 
A water sample shall be collected either after purging three (3) well volumes or following the stabilization of the pH, temperature and specific conductance in the pumped well. The water sample to be tested shall be collected at the pump discharge or from a disinfected tap in the pump discharge line. In no event shall a water treatment device be installed prior to sampling.
C. 
The water quality test, utilizing methods approved by the Environmental Protection Agency for drinking water testing and not methods used for analyzing wastewater, shall be conducted by a certified laboratory and shall include analysis for the following parameters:
(1) 
Parameters.
Parameter
Maximum Acceptable Limit
Coliform bacteria
1 per 100 milliliters
Nitrogen (nitrate)
10 milligrams per liter
Turpidity
1 turpidity unit
Benzene
0.005 milligram per liter
Carbon tetrachloride
0.005 milligram per liter
Paradichlorobenzene
0.005 milligram per liter
1.2 Dichloroethane
0.005 milligram per liter
1.1 Dichloroethylene
0.007 milligram per liter
1.1.1 Trichloroethane
0.20 milligram per liter
Trichloroehtylene
0.005 milligram per liter
Vinyl chloride
0.002 milligram per liter
(2) 
Sodium: greater than twenty (20) milligrams per liter is of concern to persons on low-sodium diets.
(3) 
Indicator parameters.
Parameter
Recommended Upper Limit
Recommended Lower Limit
Alkalinity
100 milligrams per liter
30 milligrams per liter
Calcium
150 milligrams per liter
50 milligrams per liter
Chloride
250 milligrams per liter
— 
Color
15 color units
— 
Copper
1 milligram per liter
— 
Hardness
200 milligrams per liter
50 milligrams per liter
Iron
0.3 milligram per liter
— 
Magnesium
Relative scale
— 
Maganese
0.05 milligram per liter
— 
Nitrogen (ammonia)
0.1 milligram per liter
0.015 milligram per liter
Nitrogen (nitrite)
1 milligram per liter
— 
Odor
3 threshold odor number
— 
pH
8.5
6.5
Potassium
Relative scale
— 
Sediment
Visual observation
— 
Sulfate
250 milligrams per liter
— 
Total dissolved solids
500 milligrams per liter
— 
D. 
Following a receipt of the water quality test results, the applicant shall submit a water quality report to the Board which includes:
(1) 
A copy of the certified laboratory's test results.
(2) 
The name of the individual who performed the sampling.
(3) 
Where in the system the water sample was obtained.
E. 
The Board reserves the right to require retesting of the above parameters or testing for additional parameters when, in the opinion of the Board, it is necessary due to local conditions or for the protection of the public health, safety and welfare. All costs and laboratory arrangements for the water testing are the responsibility of the applicant.
F. 
The Board may choose to collect the water sample or may require that the water sample be collected by the Board's agent or by an employee of the certified lab performing the analyses.
G. 
For wells completed in bedrock, the Board may require tests for radon, arsenic and selenium. In areas where current or historical land use includes agriculture, the Board may require testing for pesticides, herbicides and arsenic. The Department of Environmental Protection Private Well Guidelines, in the section entitled "Water Quality and Water Testing," include acceptable limits for these additional parameters.
H. 
Following the initial water quality test for a new well, the Board may require or recommend that the applicant have the water tested periodically. The Department of Environmental Protection Private Well Guidelines, in the section entitled "Water Quality and Water Testing," provide recommendations for the frequency of testing for various parameters.
I. 
The Board may choose to require that a water quality test be conducted any time that the property on which the well is located changes ownership.
A. 
Pursuant to 313 CMR 3.00, no person in the business of digging or drilling shall construct a well unless registered with the Department of Environmental Management, Division of Water Resources.
B. 
Any work involving the connection of the private well to the distribution system of the residence must conform to the local plumbing code. All electrical connections between the well and the pump controls and all piping between the well and the storage and/or pressure tank in the house must be made by a pump installer or registered well driller, including the installation of the pump and appurtenance in the well or house.
C. 
A physical connection is not permitted between a water supply which satisfies the requirements of these regulations and another water supply that does not meet the requirements of these regulations without prior approval of the Board.
D. 
General well design and construction.
(1) 
All private water supply wells shall be designed such that:
(a) 
The materials used for the permanent construction are durable in the specific hydrogeologic environment that occurs at the well site.
(b) 
No unsealed openings will be left around the well that could conduct surface water or contaminated groundwater vertically to the intake portion of the well or transfer water from one formation to another.
(2) 
Permanent construction materials shall not impart toxic substances, taste, odors or bacterial contamination to the water in the well.
(3) 
The driller shall operate all equipment according to generally accepted standards in the industry and shall take appropriate precautions to prevent damage, injury or other loss to persons and property at the drilling site.
(4) 
Well construction design shall ensure that surface water does not enter the well through the opening or by seepage through the ground surface. Construction site waste and materials shall be disposed of in such a way as to avoid contamination of the well and the aquifer. During any time that the well is unattended, the contractor shall secure the well in such a way as to prevent either tampering with the well or the introduction of foreign material into the well.
(5) 
Well yield shall be measured and recorded at least every fifty (50) feet during drilling.
(6) 
All water used for drilling, well development or to mix a drilling fluid shall be obtained from a source which will not result in contamination of the well or the water-bearing zones penetrated by the well. Water shall be conveyed in clean, sanitary containers or waterlines and shall be chlorinated to an initial concentration between fifty (50) milligrams per liter and one hundred (100) milligrams per liter. A free-chlorine residual of ten (10) milligrams per liter shall be maintained in any water used at the drill site. Water from wetlands, swamps, ponds and other similar surface features shall not be used.
(7) 
All drilling equipment, including pumps and down hole tools, shall be cleaned and disinfected prior to drilling each new well or test hole.
(8) 
All drilling fluids shall be nontoxic. Drilling fluid additives shall be stored in clean containers and shall be free of material that may adversely affect the well, the aquifer or the quality of the water to be pumped from the well. Surfactants should be biodegradable. The use of biodegradable organic polymers shall, when possible, be avoided.
(9) 
All wells, including those that have been hydrofractured, shall be developed in order to remove fine materials introduced into the pore spaces or fractures during construction. One (1) or more of the following methods shall be used for development: overpumping, backwashing, surging, jetting and air-lift pumping.
(10) 
The completed well shall be sufficiently straight so that there will be no interference with installation, alignment, operation or future removal of the permanent well pump.
(11) 
The Department of Environmental Protection Private Well Guidelines, in the section entitled "General Well Design and Construction," provide additional considerations for the construction of wells.
E. 
Well casing.
(1) 
Private water supply wells shall be constructed using either steel or thermoplastic well casing. The casing shall be of adequate strength and durability to withstand anticipated formation and hydrostatic pressures, the forces imposed on it during installation and the corrosive effects of the local hydrogeologic environment.
(2) 
Steel casing shall be used with cable tool drilling or when the casing is installed in an open drill hole in which formation materials may suddenly collapse against the casing.
(3) 
All casing used in the construction of private water supply wells shall be free of pits, breaks, gouges, deep scratches and other defects. If previously used casing is installed, it shall be decontaminated and disinfected prior to installation.
(4) 
Installation of water well casing shall be done in a manner that does not alter the shape, size or strength of the casing and does not damage any of the joints or couplings connecting sections of the casing. A standard drive shoe shall be used when casing is installed. The drive shoe shall be either welded or threaded to the lower end of the string of casing and shall have a beveled metal cutting edge forged, cast or fabricated for this specific purpose.
(5) 
Upon completion of the installation procedure, the entire length of the casing above the intake shall be watertight.
(6) 
For wells completed above grade, the casing shall extend at least twelve (12) inches above the finished ground surface unless the well is located in a floodplain. For wells constructed in a floodplain, the casing shall extend at least two (2) feet above the level of the highest recorded flood. The top of the casing shall be reasonably smooth and level.
(7) 
Concrete casing may be used for dug wells.
(8) 
Steel casing.
(a) 
Steel casing shall consist of Schedule 40 pipe that complies with materials standards approved by the American Water Works Association.
(b) 
Segments of steel casing shall be coupled by using threaded casing or couplings or by welding the joint. Recessed or reamed and drifted couplings shall be used on threaded casing, and no threads shall be left exposed once the joint is completed. When welded casing joints are used, they shall conform to the most recent revision of AWWA C206, Standard for Field Welding of Steel Water Pipe. The weld shall be at least as thick as the wall thickness of the well casing and shall be fully penetrating. When completed, a welded casing joint shall have a tensile strength equal to or greater than that of the casing.
(9) 
Thermoplastic casing.
(a) 
Thermoplastic casing used in the construction of private water supply wells shall be capable of withstanding pressures equal to or greater than two hundred (200) pounds per square inch and shall conform to the most recent revision of ASTM Standard F480, Specification for Thermoplastic Water Well Casing Pipe and Couplings Made in Standard Dimension Ratios (SDR). In addition, the casing and couplings shall meet the requirements of the most recent revision of National Sanitation Foundation Standard Number 14, entitled "Plastics Piping System Components and Related Materials." Materials complying with Standard Number 14 can be recognized by the marking "NSF-WC."
(b) 
Thermoplastic casing shall be stored in such a manner as to prevent deformation, sagging or bending. Storage of thermoplastic casing and couplings in direct sunlight shall be avoided.
(c) 
Thermoplastic casing shall be installed only in an oversized drill hole and shall not be driven, pushed or forced into a formation. Thermoplastic casing shall be joined by mechanical means only. When pulling back thermoplastic well casing to expose a well screen, the force applied shall not exceed the casing weight.
(10) 
Dug wells are not recommended and, in communities where they are allowed, they should be permitted only as a last resort. The following may be added for communities which allow dug wells:
(a) 
Concrete casing.
[1] 
Concrete water well casing consists of either precast concrete pipe or concrete which has been poured in place. This type of casing shall be used only for the construction of dug wells.
[2] 
Precast concrete pipe shall be at least three (3) inches thick, meet or exceed ASTM C67 Class III specifications and be free of blemishes. Joints between pipe segments shall be sealed with a continuous, solid ring rubber gasket having a circular cross section with a diametrical tolerance of plus or minus one-sixty-fourth (1/64) of an inch. Gaskets shall be of sufficient volume to substantially fill the recess provided when the pipe joint is assembled. A properly sized gasket will form a pressure-tight seal when it is compressed between the pipe segments.
F. 
Well screen.
(1) 
A well screen is necessary for all drilled wells that are completed in unconsolidated formations. Wells completed in bedrock do not require a screen unless the bedrock formation is brittle in nature or has a potential for collapse. The well screen aperture openings, screen length and diameter shall be selected so as not to limit the aquifer's water-yielding characteristics while preventing access of soil particles that would detract from well efficiency and yield.
(2) 
The Department of Environmental Protection Private Well Guidelines, in the section entitled "Well Screen," include a discussion about screen materials and construction, joints, sealing and methods of installation.
G. 
Grouting and sealing.
(1) 
Private wells drilled in bedrock shall be grouted from the top of the weathered rock interface to fifteen (15) feet into competent bedrock. Either neat cement grout or sand cement grout shall be used, and it shall be emplaced using standard grouting techniques as described in the Department of Environmental Protection Private Well Guidelines.
(2) 
All wells completed with the casing extending above grade shall have a surface seal designed to eliminate the possibility of surface water flowing down the annular space between the well casing and the surrounding backfilled materials. The surface seal shall extend to a depth below the local frost line.
(3) 
Refer to the Department of Environmental Protection Private Well Guidelines, the section entitled "Protective Well Seals," for details about materials and methods used for grouting.
H. 
Pumps and pumping equipment.
(1) 
All pumps shall be installed either below the frost line with a pitless adapter or in some other heated and protected sanitary location. Aboveground pumps shall be installed in sheltered, dry, accessible locations and shall be protected from freezing.
(2) 
Shallow-well pumps shall be installed as near the well or water source as possible to minimize suction lift.
(3) 
Deep-well reciprocating pumps shall be installed directly over the well. Submersible and helical rotor pumps must be installed in the well. A deep-well jet pump may be offset from the well.
I. 
Wellhead completion.
(1) 
Well casing shall not be cut off below the land surface unless a pitless adapter or a pitless unit is installed or an abandoned well is being permanently plugged. Well casing terminating above grade shall extend at least twelve (12) inches above the predetermined ground surface at the wellhead, except when the well is located in a floodplain. When a well is located in a floodplain, the well casing shall extend at least two (2) feet above the level of the highest recorded flood. The top of the well casing shall be reasonably smooth and level.
(2) 
Any well, except a dug well, that does not terminate in the base of a pump shall be equipped with a sanitary seal or watertight cap designed to prevent surface water and foreign matter from entering the well. A flowing artesian well shall be equipped with a shutoff valve and backflow preventer so that the flow of water can be stopped completely when the well is not in use.
(3) 
All wells, except flowing artesian and dug wells, shall be vented. The opening of the vent pipe shall be covered with a twenty-four-mesh corrosion-resistant screen and shall be large enough to prevent water from being drawn into the well through electrical conduits or leaks in the seal around the pump when the pump is turned on. The vent pipe shall terminate in a downward position at or above the top of the casing.
(4) 
All connections to a well casing made below ground shall be protected by either a pitless adapter or a pitless unit that complies with the most recent revision of National Sanitation Foundation Standard Number 56, entitled "Pitless Well Adapters."
(5) 
Above-grade connections into the top or side of a well casing shall be at least twelve (12) inches above the established ground surface or two (2) feet above the level of the highest known flood, whichever is higher. Above-grade connections shall be sealed so that they are watertight.
(6) 
The ground immediately surrounding the well casing shall be sloped downward and away from the well in all directions to eliminate the possibility of surface water ponding.
(7) 
The Department of Environmental Protection Private Well Guidelines, in the section entitled "Wellhead Completion," contain illustrations and a more detailed discussion about wellhead completion, including capping, venting, connections and grading.
J. 
Disinfection.
(1) 
Upon completion of well construction, the well contractor shall disinfect the well. If a pump is to be installed by the well contractor immediately upon completion of the well, the contractor shall disinfect the well and the pumping equipment after the pump has been installed.
(2) 
If the pump is not installed upon completion of the well, the pump contractor shall, upon installation, disinfect the well and the pumping equipment. The pump contractor shall also disinfect the entire water supply system after any maintenance or repair work is done on the pump.
(3) 
When a well is disinfected, the initial chlorine concentration shall be one hundred (100) milligrams per liter throughout the entire water column.
(4) 
For newly constructed or altered wells in which the pump is not immediately installed, the chlorine concentration used to disinfect the well shall be one hundred (100) milligrams per liter. Upon installation of the pump, disinfection of the well, the pumping equipment and the distribution system, if connected, shall be accomplished with a chlorine concentration of one hundred (100) milligrams per liter.
(5) 
The disinfectant solution shall remain undisturbed in the well for a minimum of two (2) hours. After all the chlorine has been flushed from the water supply system, a water sample shall be collected and submitted to a state-certified laboratory. For new wells, the sample shall be tested pursuant to § 445-8 of these regulations. For wells which have undergone repair, the sample shall be tested for coliform bacteria and any other parameters deemed appropriate by the Board.
A. 
Abandoned wells, test holes and borings shall be decommissioned so as to prevent the well, including the annular space outside the casing, from being a channel allowing the vertical movement of water.
B. 
The owner of the private well shall decommission the well if the well meets any of the following criteria:
(1) 
Construction of the well is terminated prior to completion of the well.
(2) 
The well owner notifies the Board that the use of the well is to be permanently discontinued.
(3) 
The well has, after extended use, been out of service for at least three (3) years.
(4) 
The well is a potential hazard to public health or safety and the situation cannot be corrected.
(5) 
The well is in such a state of disrepair that its continued use is impractical.
(6) 
The well has the potential for transmitting contaminants from the land surface into an aquifer or from one aquifer to another and the situation cannot be corrected.
C. 
The property owner shall be responsible for ensuring that all abandoned wells and test holes or borings associated with private well installation are properly plugged. Only registered well drillers may plug abandoned wells, test holes and borings.
D. 
In the case of new well construction, all test holes and borings shall be plugged before the well driller completes work at the site.
E. 
Abandoned wells or borings shall be completely filled with a grout which cures with a final permeability of less than 1 x 10-7 centimeters per second. Wells shall be plugged with neat cement grout, sand cement grout, concrete or bentonite grout.
F. 
Regardless of the type used, the grout:
(1) 
Shall be sufficiently fluid so that it can be applied through a tremie pipe from the bottom of the well upward.
(2) 
Shall remain as a homogeneous fluid when applied to the subsurface rather than disaggregating by gravity into a two-phase substance.
(3) 
Shall be resistant to chemical or physical deterioration.
(4) 
Shall not leach chemicals, either organic or inorganic, that will adversely affect the quality of the groundwater where it is applied.
G. 
The plugging materials shall be introduced at the bottom of the well or boring and placed progressively upward to a level approximately four (4) feet below the ground surface. Sealing materials shall never be poured from the land surface into the well, borehole or annular space being sealed.
H. 
The contractor shall emplace the surface seal no sooner than twenty-four (24) hours after the well or boring has been plugged. Before the surface seal is placed, casing remaining in the hole shall be cut off. The remaining four (4) feet at the top of the well or boring shall then be filled with concrete. The top of the seal shall comprise a concrete slab above the top of the plugged well or boring. This concrete slab shall be at least six (6) inches thick and shall be at least two (2) feet greater in diameter than the well casing or borehole wall.
I. 
The Department of Environmental Protection Private Well Guidelines, in the section entitled "Decommissioning Abandoned Wells, Test Holes and Dry or Inadequate Borings," contain a more comprehensive discussion of plugging procedures and other aspects of decommissioning.
J. 
In addition to the above requirements, the Board may choose to require that the well driller submit a well decommissioning report to the Board. The Department of Environmental Protection Private Well Guidelines, in the section entitled "Decommissioning Abandoned Wells, Test Holes and Dry or Inadequate Borings," contain specific recommendations for the contents of a well decommissioning report.
A. 
The Board shall investigate violations of these regulations and/or violations of any water supply certificate conditions and may take such actions as the Board deems necessary for the protection of the public health and the enforcement of these regulations.
B. 
If an investigation reveals a violation of these regulations or the water supply certificate conditions, the Board shall order the private well owner to comply with the violated provision(s).
C. 
These orders shall be in writing and served in the following manner:
(1) 
Personally, by any person authorized to serve civil process;
(2) 
By any person authorized to serve civil process by leaving a copy of the order at the well owner's last and usual place of abode;
(3) 
By sending the well owner a copy of the order by registered or certified mail, return receipt requested, if the well owner is within the commonwealth; or
(4) 
If the well owner's last and usual place of abode is unknown or outside the commonwealth, by posting a copy of the order in a conspicuous place on or about the premises and by advertising it for at least three (3) out of five (5) consecutive days in one (1) or more newspapers of general circulation within the municipality wherein the private well affected is situated.
A. 
The private well owner to whom any order has been served may request a hearing before the Board by filing with the Board within seven (7) days after the day the order was served a written petition requesting a hearing on the matter. Upon receipt of such petition, the Board shall set a time and place for such hearing and shall inform the well owner thereof in writing. The hearing shall be commenced not later than thirty (30) days after the day on which the order was served. The Board, upon application of the well owner, may postpone the date of hearing for a reasonable time beyond such thirty-day period if, in the judgment of the Board, the well owner has submitted a good and sufficient reason for such postponement. At the hearing the well owner shall be given an opportunity to be heard and to show why the order should be modified or withdrawn. After the hearing, the Board shall sustain, modify or withdraw the order and shall inform the well owner, in writing, of its decision. If the Board sustains or modifies the order, it shall be carried out within the time period allotted in the original order or in the modification.
B. 
Every notice, order or other record prepared by the Board in connection with the hearing shall be entered as a matter of public record in the office of the Clerk of the town or in the office of the Board.
C. 
If a written petition for a hearing is not filed with the Board within seven (7) days after the day an order has been served or if, after a hearing, the order has been sustained in any part, each day's failure to comply with the order as issued or modified shall constitute an additional offense.
Any person aggrieved by the final decision of the Board may seek relief therefrom within thirty (30) days in any court of competent jurisdiction, as provided by the laws of this commonwealth.
Any person who violates any provision of these regulations or who fails to comply with any order by the Board for which a penalty is not otherwise provided in any of the General Laws shall, upon conviction, be fined not less then ten dollars ($10.) nor more than five hundred dollars ($500.). Each day's failure to comply with an order shall constitute a separate violation.
A. 
The Board may, after a public hearing, grant a variance to the application of these regulations when, in its opinion, the enforcement thereof would do manifest injustice and the applicant has demonstrated that the equivalent degree of protection will still be provided to the private water supply without strict application to particular provisions of these regulations.
B. 
Every request for a variance shall be made in writing and shall state the specific variance sought and the reasons therefor. The writing shall contain all the information needed to assure the Board that, despite the issuance of a variance, the public health and environment will be protected. Notice of the hearing shall be given by the Board, at the applicant's expense, at least ten (10) days prior thereto by certified mail to all abutters of the property upon which the private well is located and by publication in a newspaper of general circulation in the town. The notice shall include a statement of the variance sought and the reasons therefor. Any grant or denial of a variance shall be in writing and shall contain a brief statement of the reasons for approving or denying the variance. A copy of each variance shall be conspicuously posted for thirty (30) days following its issuance and shall be available to the public at all reasonable hours in the office of the Town Clerk or office of the Board of Health. No work shall be done under any variance until thirty (30) days elapse from its issuance, unless the Board certifies, in writing, that an emergency exists.
C. 
Any variance may be subject to such qualification, revocation, suspension, condition or expiration as is provided in these regulations or as the Board expresses in its grant of the variance. A variance may otherwise be revoked, modified or suspended, in whole or in part, only after the holder thereof has been notified, in writing, and has been given an opportunity to be heard, pursuant to § 445-12 of these regulations.
If any provision of these regulations or the application thereof is held to be invalid by a court of competent jurisdiction, the invalidity shall be limited to said provision(s), and the remainder of these regulations shall remain valid and effective. Any part of these regulations subsequently invalidated by a new state law or modification of an existing state law shall automatically be brought into conformity with the new or amended law and shall be deemed to be effective immediately, without recourse to a public hearing and the customary procedures for amendment or repeal of such regulation.
A. 
These regulations were adopted by vote of the Town of Wakefield, Massachusetts, Board of Health at its regularly scheduled meeting held on January 10, 1991, and are to be in full force and effect on and after January 11, 1991. Before said date, these regulations shall be published and a copy thereof shall be placed on file in the Board of Health offices and filed with the Department of Environmental Quality Engineering, Division of Water Supply in Boston.
B. 
These regulations or any portions thereof may be amended, supplemented or repealed from time to time by the Board, with notice as provided by law, on its own motion or by petition.
The issuance of a well permit shall not be construed as a guaranty by the Board or its agents that the water system will function satisfactorily or that the water supply will be of sufficient quality or quantity for its intended use.