Township of Warminster, PA
Bucks County
By using eCode360 you agree to be legally bound by the Terms of Use. If you do not agree to the Terms of Use, please do not use eCode360.
Table of Contents
Table of Contents
[Ord. 690, 9/10/2009]
1. 
The standards and requirements outlined herein shall be considered minimum safety standards and requirements for the promotion of the public health, morals, and general welfare.
2. 
Where literal compliance with the standards herein specified is clearly impractical, the Board of Supervisors may modify or adjust the standards to permit reasonable utilization of property while securing substantial conformance with the objectives of these regulations.
[Ord. 690, 9/10/2009]
1. 
All portions of a tract being subdivided shall be taken up in lots, streets, public lands or other proposed uses so that remnants and landlocked areas shall not be created.
2. 
Reserve strips controlling access to lots, public rights-of-way, public lands or adjacent private lands shall be prohibited unless their control is definitely placed with the Township under conditions approved by the Board of Supervisors.
3. 
In general, lot lines shall follow Township boundary lines rather than cross them.
4. 
Where trees, groves, waterways, scenic points, historic spots or other community assets and landmarks are located within a proposed subdivision or land development, every possible means to the fullest extent shall be provided to preserve these features.
5. 
Subdivisions or land developments shall be properly designed in order to prevent the necessity for excessive cut or fill.
6. 
Land subject to flooding or other hazards to life, health, or property and land deemed to be topographically unsuitable shall not be subdivided or developed for residential occupancy or for such other uses as may endanger health, life, or property, or aggravate erosion or flood hazards until all such hazards have been eliminated or unless adequate safeguards against such hazards are provided by the final plans. Such land within a subdivision or land development shall be set aside on the plan for uses that will not be endangered by periodic or occasional inundation or will not produce unsatisfactory living conditions.
7. 
Where flooding is known to have occurred within the area shown on the plan, such area shall be clearly marked "subject to periodic flooding" and no building or street shall be permitted in this area.
8. 
Areas provided or reserved for community facilities, such as churches, libraries, schools, parks, playgrounds, shopping and local business centers, should be adequate to provide for building sites, landscaping, and off-street parking as appropriate to the use proposed. The Board of Supervisors reserves the right to accept or refuse offers of dedication for public use.
9. 
All design and construction specifications which are not specifically listed in this chapter shall be those specified in the Pennsylvania Department of Transportation's Publication 408 Specifications and Roadway Construction Standards, or as may be amended.
[Ord. 690, 9/10/2009]
1. 
Subdivision and land development proposals and submissions must be in conformance with the following:
A. 
The proposals in the Warminster Township Comprehensive Plan for the area in which the submission is located.
B. 
The requirements in Chapter 27, Zoning, for the district in which the submission is located, and for the use requirements for which the land is to be developed.
C. 
The character of existing development near the location of the submission. The submission shall be complementary to the surrounding uses, and shall be laid out so that the best possible integration of existing and proposed streets and building orientations is achieved.
2. 
A finding by the Board of Supervisors that the submission does not conform to one or more of the above location criteria shall be sufficient reason for denying approval of the submission.
[Ord. 690, 9/10/2009]
1. 
The arrangement, character, extent, grade, and location shall conform to the Warminster Township Street Plan and shall be considered in their relation to existing and planned streets, to topographical conditions, to public convenience and safety, and in their appropriate relation to the proposed uses of the land to be served by such streets.
2. 
Proposed streets shall further conform to such county and state street and highway plans as have been prepared.
3. 
Where such is not in the Warminster Township Street Plan, the arrangement of streets in a subdivision or land development shall either provide for the continuation or appropriate projection of existing principal streets in surrounding areas, or conform to a plan for the neighborhood approved or adopted by the Board of Supervisors to meet a particular situation where topographical or other conditions make continuance or conformance to existing streets impractical.
4. 
Residential streets shall be so laid out that their use by through traffic will be discouraged; however street connectivity for local residents shall be considered for access to principal roadways. Warminster Township Board of Supervisors may require traffic calming measures as a design requirement on residential streets.
5. 
Where a subdivision or land development abuts or contains an existing or proposed expressway, arterial or collector street, the Board of Supervisors with the advice of the Planning Commission may require marginal access streets, reverse frontage lots with screen planting contained in a nonaccess reservation along the rear property line, extra deep lots with rear service alleys, or such other treatment as may be necessary for adequate protection of residential properties and to afford separation of through and local traffic.
6. 
Streets that are extensions of or obviously in alignment with existing streets shall bear the names of the existing streets. Street names shall not be repeated, and all street names shall be subject to the approval of the Board of Supervisors.
7. 
If the lots resulting from the original subdivision are large enough for resubdivision, or if a portion of the tract is not subdivided, suitable access to street openings for such an eventuality shall be provided.
8. 
Where the subdivision or land development adjoins unsubdivided acreage, stub streets shall be provided to the boundary lines with temporary easements for turnarounds.
9. 
Private streets are prohibited. They will be approved only if they are designed to meet public street standards.
10. 
Any development located along an existing bus route, or which proposed new roadways which may be incorporated into a bus route, shall provide adequate shelters for bus patrons at designated bus stop locations or as otherwise directed by the Planning Commission.
11. 
An applicant who encroaches within the legal right-of-way of a state highway is required to obtain a highway occupancy permit from the Pennsylvania Department of Transportation.
[Ord. 690, 9/10/2009]
1. 
Where a subdivision or land development abuts or contains an existing street of inadequate right-of-way width, a future right-of-way width shall be indicated on the plan to conform to the below standards.
2. 
Provision for additional street width may be required by the Board of Supervisors in specific cases for:
A. 
Public safety and convenience.
B. 
Parking in commercial or industrial areas and in areas of high density residential development.
C. 
Widening of existing streets where the minimum width outlined below does not meet with the specific requirements for the individual street.
D. 
At a minimum, existing streets shall receive mill and overlay for full width of roadway along property frontage.
3. 
Streets shall be constructed in accordance with the following requirements:
Minimum Requirements
Street Classification
Right-of-Way
(feet)
Cartway
(feet)
Curb
Sidewalk
Regional arterial
100
PennDOT
Yes
Yes
Community arterial
100
PennDOT/40
Yes
Yes
Community collector
80
40
Yes
Yes
Neighborhood collector
60
34
Yes
Yes
Local road/streets
50
26
Yes
Yes
Marginal access
40
20
Yes
Yes
Street Classification:
Regional arterial:
York Road (SR 263)
Street Road (SR 132)
County Line Road (SR 2038)
Jacksonville Road (SR 332) between Bristol Road and Street Road
Community arterial:
Bristol Road (SR 2025)
Mearns Road (SR 2077)
Davisville Road between Street Road and County Line Road
Jacksonville Road (SR 332) between Street Road and County Line Road
Community collector:
Valley Road
Norristown Road
Davisville Road between Bristol Road and Street Road
Johnsville Boulevard
Ivyland Road
Neighborhood collector:
Acorn Drive
Mueller Road
Carr Way
Park Avenue
Centennial Road
Penrose Lane
Cooper Drive
Phillips Road
Delmont Avenue
Roberts Road
Evergreen Avenue
St. David's Avenue
Henry Avenue
Sinkler Road
Hostman Avenue
Sunnemeade Avenue
Log College Drive
Sweetbriar Drive
Louis Drive
Victoria Road
Madison Avenue
Worthington Drive
Local road/streets:
All other two-way streets not previously identified.
Marginal access:
A secondary street which is parallel to and adjacent to an expressway, arterial road, or collector road; and which provides access to abutting properties and protection from through traffic.
4. 
Minimum street construction standards shall conform to Warminster Township general specifications for street paving.
[Ord. 690, 9/10/2009]
1. 
Horizontal alignment.
A. 
Horizontal curves shall be used when center lines are deflected in excess of 5°.
B. 
Minimum center-line radii for horizontal curves shall follow the following standards:
(1) 
Arterial streets: 500 feet.
(2) 
Collector streets: 300 feet.
(3) 
Local roads/streets: 150 feet.
C. 
A long radius curve shall be preferred in all cases to a series of curves and tangents.
D. 
A minimum tangent length measured at the center line of 100 feet shall be provided on streets between the PT (point of tangent) of the first curve and PC (point of curve) of the second curve. Two curves in reverse direction should be avoided unless joined together without a minimum one-hundred-foot tangent length, unless used for traffic calming purposes in residential areas and by approval of the Township Engineer.
E. 
Curves within arterial and/or collector streets shall be superelevated in accordance with Pennsylvania Department of Transportation, Design Manual, Part 2, Highway Design, as amended. On all superelevated areas, the crown shall be removed and slope shall be uniform from the inside to the outside of the pavement. Full super elevations will be attained at the PC and the PT with runouts as indicated in the Design Manual. The normal grade of the inside edge of the pavement or the center line of the pavement will be held as a base line from which all superelevation will be applied. The method to be used shall be as directed by the Township Engineer.
2. 
Sight distance.
A. 
The following clear sight triangles shall be provided and maintained at all intersections, as measured in all directions from center-line intersections. No existing or proposed structures or plantings, between two feet and seven feet above road center line shall be permitted in the clear sight triangle area.
(1) 
For thirty- to fifty-foot rights-of-way: 75 feet clear sight triangle.
(2) 
For greater than fifty-foot rights-of-way: one-hundred-thirty-foot clear sight triangle.
B. 
Minimum sight distances shall be maintained at all intersections and driveways. The minimum acceptable safe stopping sight distance (SSSD) values shall be computed from the following formula:
SSSD = 1.47VT + (V2)/[30(f + g/100)]
Where:
SSSD
=
Minimum safe stopping sight distance (feet)
V
=
85th percentile velocity of vehicle (miles per hour) or 10 mph over the proposed speed limit
t
=
Perception time of motorist (average: 2.5 seconds)
f
=
Coefficient of friction of pavement (see table below)
g
=
Percent grade of roadway divided by 100
85th Percentile Speed
Coefficient of Friction
Grade =
-10%
-5%
0%
5%
10%
25
0.38
166
155
147
140
135
30
0.35
230
210
196
185
177
35
0.34
299
269
249
233
221
40
0.32
389
345
314
291
274
45
0.31
487
425
383
353
330
50
0.30
600
517
462
422
392
55
0.30
706
605
538
490
454
60
0.29
852
721
634
573
528
[Ord. 690, 9/10/2009]
1. 
A minimum grade of 1% shall be established on all streets. A lesser grade may be used with prior approval of the Township Engineer.
2. 
A maximum grade of 5% shall generally apply to enable the installation of ADA compliant sidewalks. In hilly areas, a maximum grade of 6% on collector and primary streets and 10% on secondary streets for a maximum distance of 1,500 feet will be permitted, subject to approval by the Township Engineer.
3. 
A combination of minimum horizontal curve radii and maximum grades shall not be approved.
4. 
Vertical curves shall be used at changes of grade exceeding 1% and shall be designed in relation to the extent of grade change and to provide the following minimum sight distances:
A. 
For crests, each four-percent difference in gradient shall use one-hundred-twenty-five-foot length of curve.
B. 
For sags, each four-percent difference in gradient shall use one-hundred-foot length of curve.
C. 
Where the grade of any side street at the approach to an intersection exceeds 4%, a leveling area shall be provided. Leveling area shall not be greater than four-percent grade for a minimum distance of 50 feet from the edge of the through cartway.
5. 
Maximum grades within 100 feet of the outer perimeter of a turnaround shall not exceed 4% as measured along the center line of the street.
[Ord. 690, 9/10/2009]
1. 
Multiple intersections involving junction of more than two streets shall be avoided. Where this proves impossible, such intersections shall be designed with extreme care for both pedestrian and vehicular safety and upon approval by Township Engineer.
2. 
Streets shall be laid out to intersect as nearly as possible at right angles. No street shall intersect another street at an angle of less than 70°.
3. 
Proposed streets/roads shall not intersect on the same side of a major arterial or collector street at an interval of less than 800 feet.
4. 
Proper sight lines shall be maintained at all street intersections in accordance with § 22-506, Subsection 2, Sight distance, and Pennsylvania State Department of Transportation specifications and design standards for roads and streets.
5. 
Street curb intersections shall be rounded by a tangential arc with a minimum radius of 20 feet for secondary or local streets and 30 feet for primary or collector streets.
6. 
Streets entering opposite sides of another street, existing or proposed, shall be laid out either directly opposite one another or with a minimum offset of 125 feet between their center lines.
7. 
The approaches to an intersection shall follow a straight course for a minimum of 50 feet for secondary (local) streets and a minimum of 100 feet for arterial and collector streets.
[Ord. 690, 9/10/2009]
A cul-de-sac shall not be permitted unless the applicant can demonstrate to the satisfaction of the Township Engineer that construction of a through street is infeasible. A cul-de-sac shall be permitted only upon the approval of the Board of Supervisors subject to the following minimum standards:
A. 
Cul-de-sac streets shall be designed to permit future extension into adjacent undeveloped property. Unless future extension is clearly impractical or undesirable, the turnaround right-of-way shall be placed adjacent to property line and contained within an easement area. A right-of-way of the same width as the street shall be carried to the property line in such a way as to permit future extension of the street into the adjoining tract. At such time as such a street is extended, the overage created by the turnaround outside the boundaries of the extended street shall revert in ownership to the property owners fronting on the cul-de-sac turnaround.
B. 
Permanent cul-de-sac streets shall be kept to a minimum and shall not exceed 500 feet in length or serve as access to more than 12 dwelling units, whichever is more restrictive, unless specifically authorized by the Board of Supervisors. The minimum length of a cul-de-sac shall be 250 feet. For the purposes of this chapter, cul-de-sac length is measured from the intersection of the proposed right-of-way lines of the intersecting streets, or in the case of a proposed cul-de-sac intersecting an existing street, from the intersection of the proposed right-of-way line and ultimate right-of-way line of the existing street, to the center of the turnaround area.
C. 
Cul-de-sac streets, whether permanent or temporary, shall be provided with a turnaround at the closed end having a minimum radius to the edge of the finished street or curbline of not less than 40 feet. Permanent cul-de-sac streets shall be provided at the terminus with a right-of-way radius of 60 feet.
D. 
A planted island may be provided in the center of the cul-de-sac turnaround, which shall be maintained by a lot owner or homeowners' association. The planted island shall have a radius of 30 feet with a twenty-foot-wide cartway around the island. A fifty-foot paving radii shall be provided to transition the cartway at the entrance and exit of the turnaround. The turnaround shall be restricted to one-way traffic. Landscaping of the island shall be subject to the approval of the Township.
E. 
Commercial and industrial cul-de-sac streets shall be reviewed for adequacy by the Township Engineer. When deemed necessary by the Township Engineer, additional cartway and/or right-of-way radius may be required.
F. 
A snow storage area shall be provided along the right-of-way of the turnaround. The snow storage area shall be contained within an easement not less than 15 feet measured from the right-of-way line and of sufficient length as deemed necessary by the Township to provide adequate snow storage area.
G. 
Prospective purchasers of any property located either entirely or partially on a temporary cul-de-sac, as defined above, shall be advised by the owners of such property or their authorized agents or representatives that such property is so located on a temporary cul-de-sac. Actual purchasers of any property located either entirely or partially on a temporary cul-de-sac shall signify, in writing, that they have been advised that the property to be purchased is either entirely or partially on a temporary cul-de-sac. A signed copy of such writing shall be delivered and received by the Township before settlement of the property takes place.
H. 
Drainage, where feasible, shall be toward the open end of the cul-de-sac.
[Ord. 690, 9/10/2009]
1. 
Driveways shall be so located, designed, and constructed as to provide the adequate sight distance, for all anticipated turning movements into and out of the proposed driveway, as discussed previously in § 22-506, Subsection 2, Sight distance. A stopping area, measured 20 feet behind the right-of-way line, shall be provided not to exceed a four-percent grade.
2. 
Driveways, where provided, shall be located not less than 40 feet from the intersection corner of corner lots and shall provide access to the street of lower classification when a corner lot is bounded by streets of two different classifications as herein defined.
3. 
Driveway entrances for nonresidential and high-density residential developments may be depressed in order to permit a freer and safer movement of vehicles.
4. 
Minimum design standards for driveways and entrance and exit drives shall be as follows:
A. 
A minimum width of 12 feet for one-way use only.
B. 
A minimum width of 25 feet for two-way use.
C. 
A maximum width of 35 feet at the street line and 54 feet at the curbline, unless otherwise approved by the Township Engineer.
[Amended by Ord. 737, 1/19/2017]
D. 
A minimum side setback of five feet shall be provided for all residential driveways. Nonresidential driveways and residential driveways for more than five vehicles shall be set back a minimum of 15 feet.
5. 
An applicant who encroaches within the legal right-of-way of a state highway, or proposes a change in the use or intensity of use for an existing driveway, is required to obtain a highway occupancy permit from the Pennsylvania Department of Transportation.
[Ord. 690, 9/10/2009; as amended by Ord. 737, 1/19/2017]
1. 
A drive-through facility is any vehicle-related commercial facility where a service is provided, or goods, food, or beverages are sold, to the operator of or passengers in a car without the necessity of the operator or passengers disembarking from the vehicle. Any facility which proposes a drive-through or drive-up window as an accessory facility to a retail, service, financial, eating place, or other use where customers are served in their vehicles shall be subject to the following requirements.
2. 
General standards. A drive-through facility is subject to the following standards:
A. 
The drive-through facility shall be designed so as not to impede or impair vehicular and pedestrian traffic movement or exacerbate the potential for pedestrian/vehicular conflicts.
B. 
A drive-through facility with the drive-through service area/facility located in an existing or proposed shopping center shall have circulation patterns that are integrated with that of the center.
C. 
An on-site circulation pattern is to be provided for drive-through facility traffic that separates such traffic from that of walk-in/sit down/takeout patrons.
D. 
The driveway entrance and exit lane of a drive-through facility must be set back at least 100 feet from an intersection.
3. 
Drive-through lanes and bypass/escape lanes.
A. 
A bypass lane/escape lane shall be provided for all drive-through facilities.
B. 
The drive-through lanes shall not be the sole ingress and egress to the site.
C. 
The design of a drive-through lane and bypass lane/escape lane shall minimize the blocking, crossing, or passing through of off-street parking areas and minimize crossing of, or the need to be crossed by, pedestrian accessways for patrons.
D. 
Drive-through lanes shall be marked by signs which indicate the entrance and exit for the drive-through lane. The direction of traffic flow for the drive-through lane and bypass lane/escape lane shall be clearly marked.
E. 
Delayed service parking areas shall be located a minimum of 20 feet from the point where the drive-through lane and bypass lane/escape lane merge.
4. 
Stacking distance.
A. 
A stacking area is to be provided for vehicles waiting for service in the drive-through lane that is separated from other traffic circulation on the site. Stacking shall not be provided in parking aisles or in driveways provided for on-site circulation.
B. 
The stacking distance shall be as follows:
Use
Maximum Number of Vehicles
Lane Length
(feet)
Restaurant
6
132
Bank
6
132
Car wash
10
220
Dry cleaner
2
44
Pharmacy
7
154
Other uses
6
132
5. 
Lane width.
A. 
Drive-through lanes are to be separated from the bypass lane/escape lane and parking aisles by painted lines. The lanes shall be a minimum of 12 feet wide. If two or more parallel drive-through lanes are provided, they shall each be a minimum of 10 feet wide.
B. 
A bypass lane/escape lane shall be a minimum of 10 feet wide.
6. 
Application requirements. A traffic impact study shall be submitted to provide information which will be used to determine the necessary stacking area and the impact the proposal will have upon local traffic circulation. The traffic impact study shall address the following issues:
A. 
Nature of the product or service being offered.
B. 
Method by which product or service is being offered (e.g., window service or brought to vehicle by employee).
C. 
Time required to service typical customer.
D. 
Arrival rate for patrons.
E. 
Peak demand hour.
F. 
Anticipated vehicular stacking required.
G. 
Anticipated traffic generation.
H. 
Diagram of traffic flow, stacking and pedestrian crossings.
[Ord. 690, 9/10/2009]
1. 
Automobile parking facilities shall be provided off street in accordance with the requirements of Chapter 27, Zoning.
2. 
Parking space dimensions shall be no less than those listed in the following table:
Angle of Parking
Stall Width
(feet)
Stall Length
(feet)
Drive Aisle
One-Way
(feet)
Drive Aisle
Two-Way
(feet)
90°
9
18
20
24
60°
9
20
18
24
45°
9
19
14
24
Parallel
9
22
12
24
The length of the spaces shall be measured perpendicular to the curb for ninety-degree spaces and parallel to the space for angle parking.
3. 
At no time shall angle or perpendicular parking be permitted along the public streets. All parking lots and bays permitting parking other than parallel shall be physically separated from the street and confined by curbing.
A. 
Curbing may be eliminated if grassed swales and/or bioretention facilities, designed in accordance with Chapter 26, Part 4, and the Pennsylvania Stormwater Best Management Practices Manual, December 2006 or latest edition, are provided adjacent to parking areas.
4. 
Handicapped parking stalls shall be installed in all parking lots as close and convenient to building entrances as is reasonable. The specific number and location of handicapped stalls shall meet current ADA requirements, except where additional spaces are deemed necessary by the Board of Supervisors, with the advice of the Township Planning Commission and Engineer.
5. 
All dead-end parking lots shall be designed to provide sufficient back-up area for the end stalls of the parking lot and shall make provisions for vehicle turnaround in the event the lot is full.
6. 
Parking row shall be limited to 12 spaces when single-stacked, 24 spaces if double-stacked. A ten-foot wide, curbed refuge island shall be provided after a maximum of 12 parking spaces.
7. 
So as to eliminate the creation of very large parking areas, the Township shall have the right to require a division of parking areas for each 100 cars or fraction thereof. The division may be by a ten-foot planting strip, a four-foot grade separation, or any combination of planting strip and grade separation as is deemed appropriate by the Planning Commission.
8. 
Parking areas shall be designed so that each motor vehicle may proceed to and from the parking space provided for it without requiring the moving of any other motor vehicle.
9. 
No less than a five-foot radius of curvature shall be permitted for all curblines in all parking areas
10. 
Except at entrance and exit drives, all parking areas shall be set back from the future right-of-way line at least 15 feet. The distance between this required setback and the future cartway shall be maintained as a planting strip.
11. 
The use of pervious pavement in parking areas, in accordance with Chapter 26, Appendix C,[1] "Pervious Hardscaping Credit Criteria," is encouraged. The construction of all automobile parking areas not intended to be pervious shall be in accordance with the Warminster Township Specifications and Design Standards for Street and Roads.
[1]
Editor's Note: Appendix C is located at the end of Chapter 26.
12. 
In vertical or stacked parking structures, the following additional requirements shall apply:
A. 
A minimum of 5% of the spaces shall be provided with charging ports for electric vehicles.
B. 
A maximum of 10% of the parking stalls may be designated for compact cars. Compact car stalls may be reduced to eight feet in width and 15 feet in length.
[Ord. 690, 9/10/2009]
1. 
The minimum width of combination sidewalk and curb shall be six feet. Where the sidewalk and curb are separated by an unpaved section, the minimum width of the sidewalk alone shall be five feet along all streets, unless otherwise specified by the Warminster Township Supervisors. Residential areas shall have a three-foot planting strip between the curb and sidewalk with a four-foot wide sidewalk, all other areas to have a three-foot planting strip and five-foot sidewalk. Where sidewalk width is reduced to four feet, passing areas, five feet by five feet minimum, shall be provided every 200 feet.
2. 
The grades and paving of the sidewalk shall be continuous across driveways except in nonresidential and high-density residential developments and in certain other areas where heavy traffic volume dictates special treatment.
3. 
The thickness of all sidewalks shall be constructed in accordance with the Warminster Township Specifications and Design Standards for Streets and Roads.
4. 
Sidewalks shall be laterally pitched at a slope not less than 1/8 inch per foot to provide for adequate surface drainage and not more than 2% to provide for accessibility in accordance with PennDOT and ADA standards.
[Amended by Ord. 737, 1/19/2017]
5. 
At corners and pedestrian street-crossing points, sidewalks shall be extended to the curb with access ramps designed in accordance with PennDOT and ADA design standards.
6. 
Sidewalks shall not exceed a five-percent grade. Steps or a combination of steps and ramps, designed in accordance with PennDOT and ADA standards, shall be utilized to maintain the maximum grades.
7. 
Sidewalks adjacent to angle-type parking areas shall have sufficient additional width to permit pedestrian movement beyond the bumper overhang area.
8. 
Sidewalks shall be built in accordance with all the requirements of the Warminster Township Specifications and Design Standards for Streets and Roads.
9. 
Access ramps shall be provided and constructed in accordance with Warminster Township general specifications for sidewalk and in accordance with Pennsylvania Department of Transportation Design Manual and ADA requirements.
[Ord. 690, 9/10/2009]
1. 
Street name plates shall be of metal construction; all corners shall be rounded; the lettering shall be of standard proportions and spacing in accordance with one of the alphabets used by the Pennsylvania Department of Transportation. The lettering shall be such as required by the Board of Supervisors. The plates shall be horizontal. The lower edge of the name plate shall be a minimum of seven feet above the ground level or curb. The name plate shall be attached to the standard by rust-proof metal fasteners.
2. 
The standard shall be rust-proof metal and shall be of sufficient length to permit the same to be embedded in the ground a distance of not less than three feet, as hereinafter provided, and to permit the lower edge of the street name plate to be a minimum of seven feet above the ground level or curb, as hereinafter provided. Upon erection, the standard shall be embedded in a concrete base for a depth of not less than three feet below the surface of the ground. Suitable backfill material shall be placed in the hole around the post in successive layers not exceeding 12 inches in depth, measured loose. Each layer of backfill shall be thoroughly tamped to secure maximum practical density so that the post will be plumb and rigid. Posts shall not be installed in freezing or thawing weather. The standard shall be of such metal construction as to hold the name plate rigidly in a proper and permanent position and prevent it from swaying in the wind.
3. 
The signs shall be located with a view to making them seen at all times with a minimum of effort by both pedestrian and vehicular traffic and as close to the side of the cartway or curb as practical but no part of the name plate shall be permitted to overhang any part of the cartway or curb.
4. 
Street name plates, standards, installations, and locations shall be subject to the approval and inspection of the Township Engineer.
[Ord. 690, 9/10/2009]
All curbs shall be constructed in accordance with the Warminster Township Specifications and Design Standards for Streets and Roads.
[Ord. 690, 9/10/2009]
1. 
The lengths, widths, and shapes of blocks shall be determined with regard to:
A. 
The planned use of the land.
B. 
Zoning requirements as to lot size, dimensions, and minimum lot area per dwelling unit.
C. 
Need for convenient access.
D. 
Control and safety of street traffic.
E. 
The limitations and opportunities of the topography.
2. 
In general, all blocks in a subdivision shall have a minimum length of at least 500 feet and a maximum length of 1,600 feet.
3. 
Whenever practicable, blocks shall be of such width as to provide two tiers of lots of the minimum size permitted under the applicable zoning classification, except in the case of lots along a major thoroughfare where the lot fronts on an interior street.
4. 
Modifications of the above requirements are possible in multifamily, commercial, and industrial developments.
5. 
Pedestrian crosswalks, not less than eight feet wide and with flush curbing not less than five feet wide at each end shall be required where deemed essential to provide circulation or access to schools, playgrounds, shopping centers, transportation, and other community facilities.
[Ord. 690, 9/10/2009]
1. 
The size, shape, and orientation of lots shall be appropriate for the location of the subdivision and for the type of development and use contemplated.
2. 
Lot dimensions shall conform to the requirements of Chapter, Zoning.
3. 
All lots shall abut on a street. Lots where the front and rear property lines abut streets shall be prohibited, except in the case of reverse frontage lots along major thoroughfares.
4. 
In general, side lot lines shall be at right angles or radial to the street line.
5. 
The depth and width of lots reserved or laid out for commercial and industrial uses shall be adequate to provide for off-street parking.
6. 
Lots excessively deep in relation to width, or lots excessively irregular in shape, are to be avoided. A proportion of 2 1/2 in depth to one in width is generally accepted as a proper maximum.
7. 
House numbers shall be assigned in accordance with Township requirements.
[Ord. 690, 9/10/2009]
1. 
Blocks and lots shall be graded to secure proper drainage away from buildings and to prevent the collection of stormwater in pools.
2. 
All drainage provisions shall be of such design as to carry surface waters to the nearest practical street, storm drain, or natural watercourse.
3. 
The owner shall construct and/or install such drainage structures and/or pipes which are necessary to prevent erosion damage and to satisfactorily carry off such surface waters.
4. 
No excavation shall be made with a cut face steeper in slope than one horizontal to one vertical, except under one or more of the following conditions:
A. 
The excavation is located so that a line having a slope of one horizontal to one vertical and passing through any portion of the cut face will be entirely inside of the property lines of the property on which the excavation was made.
B. 
The material in which the excavation is made is sufficiently stable to sustain a slope of steeper than one horizontal to one vertical, and a written statement of an engineer or geologist, licensed by the Commonwealth of Pennsylvania and experienced in erosion control and/or soil mechanics, to that effect is submitted to the Township Engineer and approved by him. The statement shall state that the site has been inspected and that the deviation from the slope specified hereinbefore will not result in injury to persons or damage to property.
C. 
A concrete, segmental block, or stone masonry wall, constructed in accordance with approved standards, is provided to support the face of the excavation with approval of the Township Engineer.
5. 
No fill shall be made which creates any exposed surface steeper in slope than 1 1/2 horizontal to one vertical except under one or more of the following conditions:
A. 
The fill is located so that settlement, sliding, or erosion will not result in property damage or be a hazard to adjoining property, streets, alleys, or buildings.
B. 
A written statement from an engineer, licensed by the Commonwealth and experienced in erosion control and/or soil mechanics, certifying that he has inspected the site and that the proposed deviation from the slope specified above will not endanger any property or result in property damage, is submitted to and approved by the Township Engineer.
C. 
A concrete, segmental block, or stone masonry wall, constructed in accordance with approved standards, is provided to support the face of the excavation.
6. 
The top or bottom edge of slopes shall be a minimum of five feet from property or right-of-way lines of streets or alleys in order to permit the normal rounding of the edge without encroaching on the abutting property.
[Ord. 690, 9/10/2009]
1. 
Easements with a minimum width of 20 feet shall be provided as necessary for utilities and drainage.
2. 
To the fullest extent possible, easements shall be centered on or adjacent to rear or side lot lines.
3. 
Nothing shall be permitted to be placed, planted, set or put within the area of an easement. The area shall be kept as lawn.
4. 
Where a subdivision or land development is traversed by a watercourse, there shall be provided a drainage easement or right-of-way conforming to the requirements of § 22-602, Subsection 8, Riparian buffer. The Township may require such drainageway improvements to effectively improve the quality and character of such drainageway or watercourse.
5. 
Where stormwater or surface water will be gathered within the subdivision or land development and discharged or drained in volume over lands within or beyond the boundaries of the subdivision or land development, the applicant or owner shall reserve or obtain easements over all lands affected thereby, which easements shall be adequate for such discharge of drainage and for the carrying off of such water and for the maintenance, repair, and reconstruction of the same, including the right of passage over and upon the same by vehicles, machines, and other equipment for such purposes, and which shall be of sufficient width for such passage and work. The owner shall convey, free of charge or cost, such easements to the Township upon demand.
[Ord. 690, 9/10/2009; as amended by Ord. 737, 1/19/2017]
The owner, developer, or subdivider shall provide stormwater management in accordance with Chapter 26, Part 4, Stormwater Management, Chapter 26, Part 5, Neshaminy Creek Watershed Stormwater Management, Pennypack Creek Watershed Stormwater Management Ordinance, and as follows:
A. 
Applicability.
(1) 
This section shall apply to all areas of Warminster Township. Regulated activities include:
(a) 
Land development.
(b) 
Subdivision.
(c) 
Construction of new or additional impervious surfaces (driveways, parking lots, etc.).
(d) 
Construction of new buildings or additions to existing buildings.
(e) 
Redevelopment.
(f) 
Diversion or piping of any natural or man-made stream channel.
(g) 
Installation of stormwater systems or appurtenances thereto.
(h) 
Prohibited or polluted discharges.
(i) 
Alteration of the natural hydrologic regime.
(j) 
Nonstructural and structural stormwater management best management practices (BMPs) or appurtenances thereto.
(2) 
Stormwater management design and criteria such as stormwater runoff peak rate requirements and districts, runoff calculation methodology, stormwater management plan requirements, operations and maintenance requirements, etc., shall be as described in this section, the Chapter 26, Part 4, Stormwater Management, Chapter 26, Part 5, Neshaminy Creek Watershed Stormwater Management, and Pennypack Creek Watershed Stormwater Management Ordinance.
(3) 
The standards contained in this section shall apply as minimum design standards; however federal, state, and other Warminster Township regulations may impose additional standards subject to their jurisdiction. The more stringent requirements of this section, federal, state, and other Warminster Township regulations shall apply to any activity which requires compliance with other ordinances and regulations of Warminster Township.
(4) 
Earth disturbance activities and associated stormwater management controls are also regulated under existing state law and implementing regulations. This section shall operate in conjunction with those parallel requirements; the requirements of this section shall be no less restrictive in meeting the purposes of this section than state law.
(5) 
No regulated activities within the municipality shall commence until the requirements of this section and all other applicable stormwater management criteria are met.
(6) 
All best management practices (BMPs) used to meet the requirements of federal, state, and Warminster Township regulations shall conform to the state water quality requirements and any more stringent requirements as set forth by the Township.
(7) 
Developers shall construct and/or install stormwater management facilities, on site and off site, as necessary to meet the stormwater management design and criteria provided by these and other Warminster Township requirements and to:
(a) 
Prevent erosion damage and to satisfactorily carry off, detain or retain, and control the rate of release of stormwater.
(b) 
Manage the anticipated peak discharge from property being subdivided or developed and existing runoff being contributed from all land at a higher elevation in the same watershed.
(c) 
Convey stormwater along or through the property to a natural outfall. If a developer concentrates dispersed stormwater flow or redirects stormwater flow to exit at another location on the property, the developer is responsible for constructing an adequate channel on the adjacent property and on all downstream properties until a natural outfall is reached.
1) 
Natural outfall shall have sufficient capacity to receive stormwater without deterioration of the facility and without adversely affecting property in the watershed. This natural outfall may be a river, creek or other drainage facility so designated by Warminster Township for the proposed system.
(8) 
Additional studies and higher levels of control than the minimum provided in these and other Warminster Township requirements and criteria may be required by the Board of Supervisors to ensure adequate protection to life and property.
B. 
Retention of existing watercourses and natural drainage features.
(1) 
Whenever a watercourse, stream or intermittent stream is located within a development site, it shall remain open in its natural state and location and shall not be piped.
(2) 
The existing points of natural drainage discharge onto adjacent property(ies) shall not be altered without the written approval of the affected property owners.
(3) 
No stormwater runoff or natural drainage shall be so diverted as to overload existing drainage systems (including existing stormwater management facilities) or create flooding.
(4) 
The Board of Supervisors may require a developer to provide a permanent easement along any watercourse located within or along the boundary of any property being subdivided or developed. The purpose of any such easement shall be for the maintenance of the channel of any watercourse; and the terms of the easement shall prohibit excavation, the placing of fill or structures and any alterations which may adversely affect the watercourse. The easement shall be provided for Zone 1 of the riparian buffer in accordance with § 22-602, Subsection 8. The developer will retain the easement until such time as one of the following is accomplished:
(a) 
The easement is offered for dedication by the developer and accepted by Warminster Township.
(b) 
If an easement acceptable to the Township is established, the maintenance shall then be the responsibility of the individual lot owners over whose property the easement passes. For land developments, the maintenance shall then be the responsibility of the owner.
(c) 
A homeowners' association or other approved legal entity, approved by Warminster Township, assumes responsibility for the maintenance of the development, including the retention of the watercourse easement.
C. 
Runoff control measures or best management practices (BMPs).
(1) 
Stormwater runoff which may result from regulated activities shall be controlled by permanent stormwater runoff BMPs that will provide the required standards within this section, Chapter 26, Part 4, Stormwater Management, Chapter 26, Part 5, Neshaminy Creek Watershed Stormwater Management, and Pennypack Creek Watershed Stormwater Management Ordinance, or other requirements of Warminster Township. The methods of stormwater control or best management practices (BMPs) which may be used to meet the required standards are described in this section and "Pennsylvania Stormwater Best Management Practices Manual," December 2006, as amended. The choice of BMPs is not limited to those referenced in this section and/or the manual. Any selected BMP must meet or exceed the required standards.
(2) 
Any stormwater facility located on state highway rights-of-way shall be subject to approval by the Pennsylvania Department of Transportation.
(3) 
Developers are encouraged to use BMPs other than the minimum BMPs specified in this subsection, if appropriate, to provide for additional water quality improvement and groundwater recharge. In evaluating potential stormwater BMPs, the order of preference shall be as follows:
(a) 
Infiltration BMPs.
(b) 
Wet ponds.
(c) 
Artificial wetlands.
(d) 
Minimum first flush detention or dual purpose detention (where appropriate).
(4) 
Infiltration best management practices (BMPs). Infiltration BMPs shall be designed in accordance with the design criteria and specifications in the PA BMP Manual and shall meet the following minimum requirements:
(a) 
A detailed soils evaluation of the project site shall be performed to determine the suitability of infiltration BMPs per protocol in Chapter 26, Part 4, Stormwater Management, Chapter 26, Part 5, Neshaminy Creek Watershed Stormwater Management, and Pennypack Creek Watershed Stormwater Management Ordinance. The evaluation shall be performed by a qualified professional and, at a minimum, address soil permeability, depth to bedrock, susceptibility to sinkhole formation, and subgrade stability. The site testing shall include adequate sampling of all portions of the site not limited by one-hundered-percent protected natural resources to determine areas of the property which are suitable for infiltration BMPs. The general process for designing infiltration BMPs shall be:
1) 
Analyze hydrologic soil groups as well as natural and man-made features within the site to determine general areas of suitability for infiltration BMPs.
2) 
Provide field testing data at the elevation of the proposed infiltration zone (bottom surface of the infiltration facility) to determine appropriate percolation rate and/or hydraulic conductivity. Field testing guidelines are identified in Appendix B of Chapter 26, Part 4, Stormwater Management, Appendix A of Chapter 26, Part 5, Neshaminy Creek Watershed Stormwater Management, and the Pennypack Creek Watershed Stormwater Management Ordinance.[1]
[1]
Editor's Note: Said appendixes are included at the end of Chapter 26.
3) 
Design infiltration BMPs for required stormwater volume based on field-determined capacity per Subsection C(4)(a)2 above.
(b) 
Soil characteristics. Subject to the specific considerations in Subsection C(4)(f) below:
1) 
Infiltration BMPs are particularly appropriate in hydrologic soil groups A and B, as described in the SCS TR-55 Manual.
2) 
Low-erodibility factors ('K' factors) are preferred for the construction of basins.
3) 
There shall be an infiltration and/or percolation rate sufficient to accept the additional stormwater load and to drain completely as determined by field tests.
4) 
A minimum of 10 feet of undisturbed fill or compacted impermeable material shall separate the foundation wall of any building and an infiltration BMP.
5) 
A minimum of 50 feet of undisturbed fill or compacted impermeable material shall separate water supply wells and an infiltration BMP.
6) 
A minimum of 50 feet shall separate a septic system disposal area and an infiltration BMP unless specific circumstances allow for a reduced separation distance.
7) 
Infiltration in native soils without prior fill or disturbance is preferred but not always possible. Areas that have experienced historic disturbance or fill are suitable for infiltration provided sufficient time has elapsed and the soil testing indicates that infiltration is feasible. In disturbed areas it may be necessary to infiltrate at a depth beneath soils that have previously been compacted by construction methods or long periods of mowing.
8) 
The infiltration system shall have positive overflow controls to prevent storage within one foot of the finished surface grade.
9) 
Surface inflows shall be designed to prevent direct discharge of sediment into the infiltration system.
(c) 
Any infiltration BMP shall be capable of completely infiltrating the impounded water within 48 hours from the peak of the storm.
(d) 
Special attention shall be paid to proper installation of infiltration-oriented stormwater management systems during construction and to careful avoidance of soil compaction during site development.
(e) 
Caution shall be exercised where salt or chloride would be a pollutant since soils do little to filter this pollutant, and it may contaminate the groundwater. Caution shall be exercised where infiltration is proposed in source water protection areas. The qualified design professional shall evaluate the possibility of groundwater contamination from the proposed infiltration/recharge facility and perform a hydrogeologic justification study if required by the Township Engineer.
(f) 
Infiltration BMPs shall be constructed on soils with an infiltration rate of a minimum of 0.25 inch per hour, including a safety factor of 50% applied for design purposes (e.g., for soil which measured 0.5 in/hr, the BMP design should use 0.25 in/hr to insure safe infiltration rates after construction) and shall have the following separation between the bottom of the facility and seasonal high water table and/or bedrock and/or groundwater (limiting zones);
1) 
For runoff from impervious surfaces associated with residential land use and/or pervious surface runoff associated with both residential uses and nonresidential uses: a minimum depth of 36 inches between the intended bottom of facility and limiting zones.
2) 
For runoff from impervious surface associated with nonresidential uses: a minimum depth of 36 inches between the bottom of facility and limiting zones. The minimum required separation between the limiting zone may be increased at the Township's discretion if project specific conditions, such as anticipated contaminants, dictate greater prevention of groundwater contamination.
3) 
For rooftop runoff: a minimum depth of 24 inches between the intended bottom of the facility and limiting zones.
(g) 
Soils with infiltration rates in excess of 6.0 inches per hour may require an additional soil buffer, such as an organic layer over the bed bottom, if the cation exchange capacity (CEC) is less than five and pollutant loading is expected to be significant.
(h) 
All infiltration BMPs shall be designed to, as a minimum:
1) 
Provide adequate storage to accommodate the volume of runoff calculated as the difference between the predevelopment runoff volume and the post-development runoff volume based on the largest required design storm.
2) 
Control the post-development peak rate of runoff to the predevelopment peak rate of runoff for design storms greater than one-year, twenty-four-hour storm.
3) 
Provide an overflow or spillway which safely permits the passing of runoff greater than that occurring during the largest design storm.
4) 
Release rate requirements of the Chapter 26, Part 4, Stormwater Management, Chapter 26, Part 5, Neshaminy Creek Watershed Stormwater Management, and Pennypack Creek Watershed Stormwater Management Ordinance may be met by use of infiltration BMPs alone or in combination with other facilities.
(5) 
Wet pond and artificial wetland best management practices (BMPs).
(a) 
Wet pond and artificial wetland BMPs shall be designed in accordance with the design criteria and specifications in the PA BMP Manual.
(b) 
Artificial wetland facilities shall meet the following minimum requirements:
1) 
At least 80% of the wetland shall be developed as a shallow water emergent wetland, with a water depth between eight inches and 12 inches. It is recommended that the shallow water emergent wetland area be separated into high marshes (zero to six inches below normal water surface) and low marshes (six to 18 inches below normal water surface). The remainder shall be constructed as open water with depths between two feet and four feet.
2) 
The length of the constructed treatment wetland between the inflow and outflow points shall be maximized. The minimum length to width ratio for all wetland systems shall be 3:1. A medial berm may be used to reduce flow width and improve flow distribution and length.
3) 
Constructed treatment wetlands shall be constructed on hydric or wet soils and/or soils which have an infiltration rate of less than 0.1 inch per hour. A base flow of 0.10 cfs/50 acres is recommended for all constructed treatment wetland facilities, unless a source of recharge is available such as a natural spring or well.
4) 
A shallow forebay shall be provided adjacent to all inflow areas, unless the inflow area provides less than 10% of the total inflow to the facility. The forebay serves to enhance sediment trapping and pollutant removal, as well as concentrating accumulated sediment in an area where it can be readily removed. To create a forebay, a baffle may be introduced to restrict hydraulic communication between the inlet and the remainder of the retention basin. The minimum standards for forebays are as follows:
a) 
Minimum length shall be 10 feet.
b) 
Sufficient storage volume shall be provided to trap sediment between clean-out intervals (typically five to 15 years). At a minimum, the forebay shall be sized to contain 0.25 inch per impervious acre of contributing drainage.
c) 
The forebay shall be three to five feet deep.
d) 
The height of the berm or baffle separating the forebay from the pond shall be one foot below the one-year water surface elevation or at the normal water surface elevation, whichever is higher.
e) 
The forebay shall be accessible and stabilized to accommodate equipment used in removing accumulated sediment.
5) 
A planting plan prepared by a landscape architect shall be developed for the artificial wetland showing all proposed aquatic, emergent, and upland plantings. The planting plan shall be developed to provide a diversity of species resulting in a dense stand of wetland vegetation.
(c) 
Retention basins/wet ponds shall meet the following minimum requirements:
1) 
Constructed treatment wetlands shall be constructed on hydric or wet soils and/or soils which have an infiltration rate of less than 0.1 inch per hour. A base flow of 0.10 cfs/50 acres is recommended for all constructed treatment wetland facilities, unless a source of recharge is available such as a natural spring or well.
2) 
The length of the pond between the inflow and outflow points shall be maximized, and an irregular shoreline shall be provided. The minimum length to width ratio for all wetland systems shall be 2:1.
3) 
A shallow forebay shall be provided adjacent to all inflow areas, unless the inflow area provides less than 10% of the total inflow to the facility. The forebay serves to enhance sediment trapping and pollutant removal, as well as concentrating accumulated sediment in an area where it can be readily removed. To create a forebay, a baffle may be introduced to restrict hydraulic communication between the inlet and the remainder of the retention basin. The minimum standards for forebays are as follows:
a) 
Minimum length shall be 10 feet.
b) 
Sufficient storage volume shall be provided to trap sediment between clean-out intervals (typically five to 15 years). At a minimum, the forebay shall be sized to contain 0.25 inch per impervious acre of contributing drainage.
c) 
The forebay shall be three to five feet deep.
d) 
The height of the berm or baffle separating the forebay from the pond shall be one foot below the one-year water surface elevation or at the normal water surface elevation, whichever is higher.
e) 
The forebay shall be accessible and stabilized to accommodate equipment used in removing accumulated sediment.
f) 
Nonerodible material shall be used to construct the forebay berm. Armoring, such as riprap, is generally preferred to stabilize the upgradient face of the berm.
4) 
Wet ponds shall be designed with public safety as a primary concern. An aquatic safety bench shall be provided around the perimeter of the permanent pool. The aquatic safety bench shall be a minimum of 10 feet wide with a maximum slope of 10:1. A 3:1 slope shall lead from the edge of the safety bench toward the deep water portion of the pond for at least 15 feet. Slopes on the remainder of the pond below the permanent pool elevation shall be a maximum of 2:1. The portion of the pond devoted to storage and peak attenuation of storm runoff, the terrestrial bench, shall be nearly level and shall be planted with shrubs and trees that shade the pool and mitigate thermal impacts. Terrestrial bench shall be at least 10 feet wide.
5) 
A planting plan prepared by a landscape architect shall be developed for the wet pond showing all proposed aquatic, emergent, and upland plantings.
6) 
The perimeter slope above the terrestrial bench shall have a maximum slope of 4:1.
7) 
Wet ponds shall have a deep water zone to encourage gravity settling of suspended fines and to prevent stagnation and possible eutrophication. The maximum depth shall not exceed eight feet.
8) 
Wet ponds shall be capable of being substantially drained by gravity flow. Where possible, wet ponds shall be equipped with a manually operated drain that can be secured against unauthorized operation.
9) 
The preferred method of low flow discharge from a pond is a submerged, reverse-slope pipe that extends downward from the outlet structure to an inflow point one foot below the normal water surface elevation. Alternative methods may be employed and shall include provisions to prevent debris clogging of the structure.
(6) 
Bioretention facilities and rain gardens.
(a) 
All concentrated discharges directed to a bioretention facility shall be conveyed through a pretreatment filter strip. The filter strip shall be designed to reduce the incoming velocities and to filter out coarser sediment particles. Examples of pretreatment filter strips include sand or gravel diaphragms, grass swales, sand filters, stone check dams, etc.
(b) 
Bioretention facilities shall meet the following minimum standards:
1) 
Minimum width of 10 feet, excluding side slopes.
2) 
Minimum length of 20 feet.
3) 
Minimum length to width ratio of 2:1.
4) 
Maximum shallow ponding depth of six inches.
5) 
Minimum planting soil bed depth of two feet for herbaceous plants and three feet for trees and shrubs.
(c) 
All bioretention facilities shall incorporate an organic mulch layer. The organic mulch layer shall be standard landscape style, single or double, shredded hardwood mulch or chips. The mulch layer shall be well aged, uniform in color, and free of other materials such as weed seed, soil roots, etc. The mulch layer shall be applied to maximum depth of three inches. Grass clippings shall not be used as mulch material.
(d) 
Planting soil shall be a loam soil capable of supporting healthy vegetative cover. Soils shall be amended with a composted organic material consisting of 20% to 30% compost material and 70% to 80% soil base, preferably topsoil. A soil analysis of the planting bed soil shall verify that the soils meet the following:
1) 
pH range between 5.5 and 6.5.
2) 
Organic matter content 5% to 10%.
3) 
Magnesium provided at 35 pounds per acre minimum.
4) 
Phosphorus provided at 75 pounds per acre minimum.
5) 
Potassium provided at 85 pounds per acre minimum.
6) 
Soluble salts shall be less than 500 ppm.
7) 
Clay content between 0% and 10%.
8) 
Silt content between 30% and 55%.
9) 
Sand content between 35% and 60%.
(e) 
All bioretention facilities shall incorporate landscaping and shall be provided with a landscaping plan prepared by a landscape architect that meets the following standards:
1) 
Plant species shall be selected based on the ability to tolerate urban stresses, such as pollutants, variable soil moisture and ponding fluctuations. A list of acceptable native plants is provided in the PA BMP Manual.
2) 
A minimum of three species each of trees, shrubs, and/or herbaceous plants shall be selected to insure diversity.
(f) 
In cases where the coefficient of permeability of the existing soils is less than 0.1 inch per hour, an underdrain facility shall be provided. The underdrain facility shall be protected from sediment accumulation with filter fabric.
(g) 
Where underdrain is proposed, an eight-inch deep sand bed shall be provided between the planting soil bed and the underdrain system.
(h) 
An overflow spillway or storm drain shall be provided to adequately convey the fifty-year storm event. The spillway or storm drain facility shall be set above the maximum proposed ponding depth.
(7) 
Permeable pavement.
(a) 
The type of permeable pavement material (perforated brick pavers, concrete grid pavers, porous bituminous concrete, porous concrete, etc.) shall be determined based on required surface infiltration rates, total surface area of pavement, and proposed use of the pavement/parking area.
(b) 
Permeable pavements shall be constructed with a perimeter overflow edge. The edge is intended to intercept runoff from the pavement if for any reason the permeable surface were to become clogged. The perimeter overflow edges shall connect directly into the base layer of the pavement.
(c) 
Soil percolation/infiltration rates shall equal or exceed 0.2 inch per hour. Soils with infiltration rates in excess of 6.0 inches per hour may require an additional soil buffer, such as an organic layer over the bed bottom, if the cation exchange capacity (CEC) is less than five and pollutant loading is expected to be significant.
(d) 
Permeable pavement recharge beds shall dewater within 72 hours.
(e) 
A minimum depth of 24 inches between the intended bottom of the facility and the seasonal high water table and/or bedrock and/or groundwater (limiting zones). The minimum required separation between the limiting zone may be increased at the Township's discretion if project specific conditions, such as anticipated contaminants, dictate greater prevention of groundwater contamination.
(f) 
All recharge bed bottoms shall be flat (0% slope). Porous pavement surface slopes shall not exceed 2% and are encouraged to be designed at 1%. In certain cases, the Township may allow surface slopes up to 3% if natural grades are left largely undisturbed.
(8) 
Extended detention/dual-purpose detention.
(a) 
Detention basin BMPs shall be designed in accordance with the design criteria and specifications in the PA BMP Manual and shall meet the following the following minimum requirements.
(b) 
Grading of detention basins shall be designed to utilize the natural contours of land whenever possible. When such design is impractical, the construction of the basin shall utilize slopes as shallow as possible to blend the structure into the terrain.
1) 
Maximum depth of stored water in detention basins shall be five feet, unless a greater depth is approved by the Board of Supervisors.
2) 
Maximum side slopes shall be a four-to-one ratio, horizontal to vertical. A ten-foot wide access shall be provided for maintenance of the facility with a maximum slope of 10:1 ratio.
3) 
A minimum grade of 2% shall be maintained for all areas in the basin where sheet flow occurs. A one-percent minimum grade shall be maintained for channel flow in the basin.
(c) 
The top width of the embankment shall be a minimum of 10 feet for storage volumes greater than 15,000 cubic feet. The top width of the embankment may be reduced to five feet for maximum storage volumes under 15,000 cubic feet.
(d) 
A cutoff trench shall be provided along the center line of any dam or earth fill embankments. The trench shall have a bottom width of not less than four feet, but adequate to allow use of equipment necessary to obtain proper compaction. Side slopes of cutoff trench shall be no steeper than 1:1 ratio. The trench shall be filled with successive thin layers of relatively impervious material, each layer being thoroughly compacted.
(e) 
All basin embankments shall be placed in lifts not to exceed eight inches in thickness and each lift shall be compacted to a minimum of 95% of modified proctor density as established by ASTM D-1557. Prior to proceeding to the next lift, the compaction shall be checked by a soils engineer employed by the applicant/developer. Compaction tests shall be run on the leading and trailing edge of the berm along with the top of the berm. Verification of required compaction shall be submitted to the Township prior to utilization of any basin for stormwater management.
(f) 
Spillways shall be provided to convey storm runoff around or under the embankment in a controlled manner to prevent overtopping. The spillway also must convey the water from the basin to a stable outlet below without damage to the downstream slopes.
1) 
Primary spillway. The riser shall be solidly attached to the barrel and all connections for riser and pipe barrel shall be watertight. The barrel and riser shall be placed on a firm foundation. The fill material around the primary spillway shall be placed in four-inch lifts and compacted to at least the same density as the adjacent embankment. If the basin is being used as a temporary sediment control facility during construction, the riser shall be constructed in accordance with specifications set forth by PADEP and NRCS in the "Erosion and Sediment Pollution Control Manual," latest edition.
2) 
Emergency spillway. Whenever possible, the emergency spillway for detention basins shall be constructed on undisturbed ground. Emergency spillways constructed on undisturbed ground may be constructed of reinforced vegetated earth. All other spillways shall be constructed of riprap, concrete checkerblocks, or similar materials approved by the Township Engineer.
a) 
The minimum capacity of all emergency spillways shall be equal to the peak flow rate from the one-hundred-year design storm.
b) 
Emergency spillways shall extend along the upstream and downstream berm embankment slopes. The upstream edge of the spillway material shall be a minimum of three feet below the spillway crest elevation. The downstream slope of the spillway shall extend to the toe of the berm embankment. The emergency spillway shall not discharge over earthen fill or easily erodible material.
3) 
The minimum freeboard through the emergency spillway shall be one foot. Freeboard is defined as the difference between the design flow elevation through the spillway and the elevation of the top of the settled basin berm. Six inches, minimum, is required between the one-hundred-year water surface elevation and the emergency spillway crest.
4) 
Antiseep collars shall be installed around the principal spillway pipe barrel within the normal saturation zone. The collars and their connections to the pipe shall be watertight. The maximum spacing shall be approximately 14 times the minimum projection of the collar measured perpendicular to the pipe. The minimum projection shall be two feet.
5) 
All basin outlets which discharge to surface waters shall have energy dissipating devices designed in accordance with the PADEP "Erosion and Sediment Pollution Control Manual," latest edition.
6) 
Basins shall be protected against erosion by vegetative means as soon as practical after construction and before runoff is directed to the facility via storm conveyances. Areas that have eroded during construction shall be regraded and stabilized prior to final seeding procedures. Basins shall receive a minimum of eight inches of topsoil, conditioned as needed, prior to seeding.
7) 
Vegetative cover. Basins shall be landscaped in accordance with § 22-523.
(9) 
All stormwater control facility designs shall conform to the applicable standards and specifications of the following governmental and institutional agencies:
(a) 
American Society of Testing and Materials (ASTM).
(b) 
Asphalt Institute (AI).
(c) 
Bucks County Conservation District.
(d) 
Federal Highway Administration (FHWA).
(e) 
National Crushed Stone Association (NCSA).
(f) 
National Sand and Gravel Association (NSGA).
(g) 
Pennsylvania Department of Environmental Protection (DEP).
(h) 
Pennsylvania Department of Transportation (PennDOT).
(i) 
U.S. Department of Agriculture, Natural Resources Conservation Service, Pennsylvania (NRCS).
(10) 
If special geological hazards or soil conditions, such as carbonate derived soils, are identified on the site, the developer's engineer shall consider the effect of proposed stormwater management measures on these conditions. In such cases, the Township may require an in-depth report by a competent soils engineer.
[Ord. 690, 9/10/2009]
1. 
General.
A. 
Storm drains and appurtenances shall be required to be constructed by the owner in any area from which the surface or subsurface drainage could impair public safety or cause physical damage to adjacent lands or public property. The system shall be designed to collect water at the bottom of all vertical grades, immediately upgrade of all street intersections, and other areas where excessive flow may occur.
B. 
In the design of the storm sewerage system, the future use of undeveloped areas upstream shall be taken into account in calculating pipe sizes. The body of water or system shall be evaluated to verify its ability to handle the anticipated flows. Anticipated flows should be based on maximum impervious cover permitted under Chapter 27, Zoning, in effect at the time of plan submission.
2. 
Storm drain pipes, inlets, and manholes.
A. 
The design discharge for use in determining gutter flow, spacing of inlets, and for pipe sizing of storm sewer shall be computed by the rational formula Q = CIA, in which Q = discharge, cubic feet per second; C = runoff coefficient; I = rainfall intensity, inches per hour; A = area, acres. The storm drainage system shall be designed to carry runoff from the twenty-five-year storm based on Region 5 rainfall intensity-duration-frequency curves, as supplied by PennDOT in their Design Manual, Part 2, Highway Design (Publication 13), or as amended. Storm sewer system shall have a minimum of one foot of freeboard during a one-hundred-year storm event.
B. 
All inlets must be designed to accommodate the twenty-five-year peak flow rate. The capacity of all C-, M-, or S-type inlets shall be determined from the Pennsylvania Department of Transportation Design Manual, Part 2, and any amendments. Spread of runoff in gutters shall not exceed eight feet in width or 1/2 of the travel lane, whichever is lesser, during a ten-year storm event.
C. 
The spacing of inlets shall not exceed a maximum distance of 450 feet along any one continuous line.
D. 
The minimum diameter of all storm sewer pipes shall be 15 inches and the minimum grade shall be 1/2 of 1%.
E. 
Storm sewer pipe shall be plain or reinforced concrete pipe or smooth-core, corrugated polyethylene pipe.
F. 
Arched or elliptical pipe may be permitted in lieu of circular pipe when pipe cover is restricted.
G. 
The crown of all pipes tying into an inlet or manhole shall be set at equal elevations.
H. 
An inlet or manhole shall be provided at all horizontal deflections in the storm pipe system unless otherwise approved by the Township Engineer.
I. 
An inlets or manhole shall be provided all changes of grade, at all locations where a transition in storm sewer pipe size is required, and at all points of convergence of two or more influent storm sewer pipes. It is desirable that an inlet be used for this purpose in lieu of a manhole wherever possible.
3. 
Channel flow.
A. 
All drainage channels shall be designed to carry the peak flow from a twenty-five-year storm with a minimum of six inches of freeboard. Provisions shall be made to insure that larger runoff events do not impair public safety or cause damage to adjacent lands or public property.
B. 
Channels shall be designed to prevent erosion of channel bed or bank areas. Suitable stabilization shall be provided where required to prevent erosion from velocities that exceed the maximum permissible for grass channels as determined by the Township Engineer.
C. 
Storm sewers discharging into existing or proposed channels shall enter at an angle less than 30°. If the angle is greater, bank stabilization shall be required on the far bank.
D. 
Vegetated channels shall have a maximum side slope of three horizontal to one vertical.
E. 
The design standards for channels shall follow PADEP Erosion and Sediment Pollution Control Manual, latest edition, as a minimum guide.
[Ord. 690, 9/10/2009]
1. 
Bridges and culverts shall be designed to carry the peak flow from a one-hundred-year storm. The structures shall be designed in accordance with the Pennsylvania Department of Transportation standards. The structure shall be constructed to the full width of the right-of-way or five feet beyond edge of finished cartway, whichever is greater.
2. 
The approval of the Department of Environmental Protection shall be required for all wetlands and waters of the U.S. or when the drainage area exceeds 100 acres.
[Ord. 690, 9/10/2009]
1. 
Purpose and intent. The purpose and intent of this section is to preserve and promote the health, safety, and general welfare of the public; to facilitate the creation of a convenient, attractive and harmonious community; to conserve naturDesign standardsal resources, including air and water; to conserve properties and their values; to preserve the character of an area by preventing harmful effects of potentially dissimilar uses; and to encourage the appropriate use of land. More specifically this section is intended to minimize the impact of dissimilar uses on adjoining or nearby uses by requiring a buffer between the uses in order to lessen the impact of noise, dust and other debris, motor vehicle headlight glare, artificial light intrusion, and to other objectionable activities or impacts conducted on or created by an adjoining or nearby use. Additionally, this section is intended to require the landscaping of parking lots in order to reduce the harmful effects of wind, heat and noise, and the glare of motor vehicle headlights; to preserve underground water resources and to permit the return of precipitation to the below grade aquifers; to reduce the level of carbon dioxide; to prevent soil erosion; to provide shade; and to enhance the overall appearance of the lot.
2. 
Landscape plan requirements.
A. 
Plans shall be drawn at an appropriate scale to accurately depict compliance with the requirements set forth in this section.
B. 
The landscape plan shall contain sufficient information regarding existing features, rights-of-way, utilities, grading, stormwater management facilities, easements and setback lines, driveways, parking areas, buildings, vegetation, and all other information necessary to ensure compliance with this section.
C. 
All areas to be disturbed for utility installations, electric lines, water and sewer lines, and the like, shall be shown on the landscape plan and grading plan. The plans shall include a line marking the limit of disturbance relative to existing vegetation.
D. 
Plans shall include an inventory of all trees indicating size, species, and location for all trees greater than three inches in caliper.
E. 
The landscape plan shall be signed and sealed by a landscape architect, registered in the Commonwealth of Pennsylvania, responsible for the preparation of the plan.
3. 
Maintenance of landscape improvements.
A. 
The owner, or his agent, shall be responsible for the maintenance, repair, and replacement of all landscape materials shown on the approved landscape plan.
B. 
All plant materials shall be maintained in a healthy growing condition, and replaced when necessary, due to poor health or unsafe conditions.
C. 
All landscaping shall be installed and maintained in accordance with the approved landscape plan. Any removal, relocation, or substitution in plant materials, shall be authorized by the Township or the Townships representative.
D. 
The omission, removal, replacement, relocation, or substitution of approved plant materials, depicted on the approved landscape plan, without prior approval shall be replaced at the owner's expense and subject to review by the Township.
E. 
Plantings and other materials shall not be installed until finished grading has been completed.
F. 
Plantings shall be installed, inspected, and approved prior to the issuance of an occupancy permit.
4. 
Street trees.
A. 
Within any land development or subdivision, street trees shall be planted along all streets except where the Township agrees that suitable street trees are already in place.
B. 
Street trees shall be located as to not conflict with signage, sidewalks, easements, utilities, or site lines at intersections.
C. 
One street tree shall be planted for every 40 lineal feet of street frontage. The measurement shall not include widths associated with driveway crossings or easements.
D. 
Street trees shall be arranged either in a formal or informal manner. Arrangements are subject to acceptance from the Township.
[Amended by Ord. 737, 1/19/2017]
E. 
Street trees shall be planted five feet to 10 feet outside the legal right-of-way line.
F. 
Street trees shall not cause conflict with aerial utilities.
(1) 
If trees are to be planted within zero to 15 feet of a utility pole or line, measured along the ground from the base of the pole, only trees which shall not exceed a height of 15 feet at maturity shall be planted.
(2) 
If trees are to be planted within 15 feet to 25 feet of a utility pole or line, measured along the ground from the base of the pole, only trees which shall not exceed a height of 30 feet at maturity shall be planted.
G. 
Street trees shall be a minimum of 2.5 inches in diameter, measured at six inches above grade, and have a uniform canopy and spread at the time of planting. Trees shall have a minimum height of seven feet above grade before branching begins. Any trees installed which do not meet these requirements shall be replaced upon notice from the Township.
H. 
All trees to be installed shall be balled and burlap in accordance with the American Association of Nurserymen standards.
I. 
Street trees shall be mulched to a depth of no less than three inches in a six-foot diameter tree ring. Mulch shall not be placed against the tree trunk or the root crown.
J. 
Street trees shall be staked for no longer than one year after initial installation. Trees shall be staked utilizing two two-inch-by-two-inch-by-eight-foot rough sawn stakes. Trees shall be braced utilizing woven polypropylene ties. Under no circumstances shall metal guy wiring be utilized for bracing purposes.
K. 
Plant species which are native to Pennsylvania and hardy to USDA Planting Zone 6b shall be required, in lieu of alternate species.
5. 
Buffers.
A. 
Buffers shall be required in any subdivision or land development.
B. 
General buffer requirements:
(1) 
At the Township's discretion, existing vegetation within the buffer yard that meets the objectives of buffer requirements may be utilized to fulfill or partially fulfill buffer requirements.
(2) 
Quantities, sizes, species, and locations of all existing plant material that is being utilized to meet buffer requirements shall be shown on the plans. All vegetation shall be permanently preserved by a note on the record plan to ensure that it remains part of the approved subdivision or land development.
(3) 
The Township, or its authorized representative, must inspect and approve all existing vegetation utilized to meet buffer requirements.
(4) 
All buffer yards shall be kept clean of debris and rubbish.
(5) 
Buffer yards may overlap front, side, and rear yards, however the larger yard requirement shall govern.
(6) 
No structure, stormwater management facility, utility, storage of material, parking facility, or other site amenity shall exist within the buffer which will inhibit the installation of required plant materials. Access driveways may cross the buffer yard provided that they are fairly perpendicular to the buffer yard.
(7) 
Berming shall only be provided where the Township agrees that it would be advantageous. Berms shall not exceed four feet in height, and shall meander to follow the natural topography of the site. Berming shall not adversely affect site drainage or drainage occurring from off-site drainage areas on adjacent properties.
(8) 
Maximum grading for berming purposes shall not exceed four feet horizontal to one foot vertical.
C. 
Buffer requirements:
(1) 
Buffers shall be designed in accordance with the following requirements unless otherwise specified in Chapter 27, Zoning.
Situation
Buffer Class
Any new subdivision or land development
1
Nonresidential use abutting residential use
2
Multifamily residential use or mobile home park abutting other residential use
3
(2) 
Class 1 buffer requirements:
(a) 
Buffer yard width: 15 feet to 20 feet.
(b) 
Required quantities:
Canopy trees: 1 tree per 40 linear feet
Evergreen trees: 1 tree per 60 linear feet
Flowering trees: 1 tree per 60 linear feet
Shrubs: 1 shrub per 20 linear feet
Herbaceous perennials: 10 plants per 20 linear feet
(c) 
Existing vegetation located within the buffer yard shall be preserved and supplemented with the above materials.
(3) 
Class 2 buffer requirements:
(a) 
Buffer yard width: 30 feet.
(b) 
Required quantities:
Canopy trees: 1 tree per 40 linear feet
Evergreen trees: 1 tree per 30 linear feet
Flowering trees: 1 tree per 30 linear feet
Shrubs: 3 shrubs per 20 linear feet
Herbaceous perennials: 10 plants per 20 linear feet
(c) 
Existing vegetation located within the buffer yard shall be preserved and supplemented with the above materials.
(4) 
Class 3 buffer requirements:
(a) 
Buffer yard width: 100 feet.
(b) 
Required quantities:
Canopy trees: 1 tree per 20 linear feet
Evergreen trees: 1 tree per 20 linear feet
Flowering trees: 1 tree per 30 linear feet
Shrubs: 10 shrubs per 20 linear feet
Herbaceous perennials: 10 plants per 20 linear feet
(c) 
Existing vegetation located within the buffer yard shall be preserved and supplemented with the above materials.
6. 
Parking area landscaping:
A. 
All parking lots of six or more parking spaces shall be enclosed, except for entrances and exits, by a hedge, no less than three feet in height at the time of planting. The hedge shall consist of a mix of evergreen and deciduous shrubs.
B. 
One shrub shall be provided for each three feet of curb surrounding the parking spaces along the exterior of the parking lot.
C. 
One deciduous tree of 2.5 caliper inches shall be provided for every five parking spaces. Trees shall be planted in locations that will provide adequate shade on impervious surfaces. Parking area trees shall not conflict with site lighting fixtures, aerial, and underground utilities.
D. 
Fifteen percent of all parking areas shall be dedicated to landscaping and shall be sufficiently planted to reduce glare, heat, and noise. Calculations for determining percentage of landscaped area shall be determined as the total square footage of all parking stalls, multiplied by 15%. The square footage of drive aisles are excluded from this requirement. Plantings shall be located within or immediately surrounding the proposed parking facility.
E. 
Parking islands, as required per § 22-512, Subsections 5 and 6, shall contain a mix of trees, shrubs, and ground cover creating year-round interest. If islands are to be utilized as part of a stormwater management system, plantings shall be inclusive of trees, shrubs, and herbaceous perennials as defined in the landscape regulations for stormwater facilities contained herein.
F. 
Plantings shall be able to survive soot, salt, and fumes. Trees which have low-growing branches, seed pods, gum, thorns, or fruit that could potentially clog drainage facilities shall not be permitted.
7. 
Landscape regulations for stormwater management facilities.
[Amended by Ord. 737, 1/19/2017]
A. 
Stormwater management facilities shall be designed to harmoniously blend with features on site. Landscaping shall be provided to perform functionally as well as aesthetically. Materials shall be laid out in a manner to coincide with other landscape requirements, grading, and existing vegetation.
B. 
Required quantities, mixture, and arrangement of landscaping shall be to the satisfaction of the Township Engineer and shall be utilized to naturalize stormwater management facilities.
C. 
Landscape requirements for stormwater management facilities.
(1) 
Landscaping shall be a mixture of canopy trees, evergreen trees, ornamental flowering trees, shrubs, and herbaceous perennials.
(2) 
Use of native plant material is encouraged over exotic foreign species.
(3) 
Planting arrangements shall be grouped together to replicate naturalized planting arrangements. Uniform planting patterns should be avoided where possible.
(4) 
Species specified within the facilities shall be tolerant of anticipated environmental conditions. These conditions include frequent inundation, permanent inundation, heat, wind, arid conditions, etc.
(5) 
Landscaping shall be provided on basin floors, except for basins with permanent ponds, and basin side slopes.
(6) 
Large-scale landscaping shall not be placed on top of basin berms, and shall be located a minimum of 10 feet away from underground structures, pipes, under drains, etc.
(7) 
Herbaceous perennials shall be provided within and around the basin in lieu of sod.
(8) 
A landscape schedule shall be provided to identify the proposed species and quantities of landscape material provided within the stormwater management facilities.
(9) 
Thermal warming shall be reduced by placement of large scale plant materials to the south and west portions of the facility. Inflow and outflow areas shall be screened with shrub material.
(10) 
Plantings shall not inhibit views, sightlines, or obstruct pedestrian and vehicular circulation.
(11) 
Plantings tolerant of road salts, and chemicals shall be utilized where applicable.
(12) 
Existing natural vegetation shall be preserved where possible.
8. 
Replacement trees.
[Amended by Ord. 737, 1/19/2017]
A. 
All replacement trees shall be regulated in accordance with Chapter 25, Trees, of the Code of the Township of Warminster and the following:
(1) 
Any tree three inches in caliper or greater, removed in conjunction with a subdivision or land development shall be replaced on site. Should sufficient area not exist on site, the applicant may install trees elsewhere in the Township, as directed by the Director of Parks and Recreation, or provide a fee in lieu of replacement trees. The fee for each tree shall be determined at market rate for installation, guarantee, etc.
(2) 
Replacement trees shall be a minimum of 2.5 inches in caliper at the time of installation.
(3) 
Replacement trees shall be provided at an inch-per-inch replacement ratio.
(4) 
Trees which are diseased and which should be removed for safety or for the protection of other healthy trees, as certified by a trained arborist, may be removed and will not be subject to the requirements of this section.
(5) 
Tree removal necessary to accommodate public utilities or public facilities to be constructed or installed by the Township or the Township Authority shall be exempt from the requirements of this section.
(6) 
Trees required to be planted in accordance with this section shall be installed in addition to other landscaping requirements set forth in this section.
9. 
Compliance chart.
A. 
The following compliance chart shall be shown on the landscape plan, to demonstrate compliance with this section of this chapter.
Landscape Compliance Chart
Required Quantity
Existing Quantity
Proposed Quantity
Street Trees (_____ L/F Total)
1 tree per 40 L/F
Buffer Plantings (_____ L/F Total)
Buffer class _____
Canopy trees
Evergreen trees
Ornamental flowering trees
Shrubs
Perennials
Parking Area Plantings
1 tree per 5 stalls
1 shrub per 3 L/F perimeter
15% parking area landscaping (_____ square feet)
Stormwater Management Plantings (_____ square feet)
1 tree per 200 square feet
1 ornamental flowering tree per 100 square feet
1 shrub per 20 square feet
Replacement Trees
Replacement trees (___ cal. inches removed)
10. 
Disapproved plant list. Plantings listed below have been selected based on their invasive characteristics. All plantings proposed for installation shall not be classified as an invasive species according to the most recent lists provided by USDA, DCNR Bureau of Forestry, or the PA Department of Agriculture. Additionally, plantings chosen shall be disease-free varieties.
Scientific Name
Common Name
Herbaceous Perennials
Aegopodium podagaria
Goutweed
Allaria petiolata
Garlic mustard
Carduus nutans
Musk thistle
Cirsium arvense
Canada thistle
Cirsium vulgare
Bull thistle
Coronilla varia
Crown vetch
Datura stramonium
Jimsonweed
Galega officinalis
Goatsrue
Heracleum mantegazzianum
Giant hogweed
Hesperis matronalis
Dames rocket
Lythrum salicaria, L. virgatum
Purple loosestrife
Myriophyllum spicatum
Eurasian water milfoil
Ornithogallum nutans, O. umbellatum
Star of Bethlehem
Pastinaca sativa
Wild parsnip
Perilla frutescens
Beefsteak plant
Polygonum cuspidatum
Japanese knotweed
Ranunculus ficaria
Lesser celandine
Trapa nutans
Water chestnut
Grasses
Arundinaria viridistriata
Running bamboo
Bromus tectorum
Cheatgrass
Equisetum hyemale
Scour rush
Imperata cylindrica
Japanese blood grass
Microstegium vimineum
Japanese stilt grass
Miscanthus sinensis
Maiden grass
Phalaris arundinacea
Reed canary grass
Phragmites australis
Common reed
Phyllostachys aureosulcata
Yellow grove bamboo
Semiarundinaria murelae
Running bamboo
Sorghum bicolor
Shattercane
Sorghum halepense
Johnson grass
Typha latifolia
Common cattail
Shrubs
Alnus glutinosa
European black alder
Berberis thunbergii
Japanese barberry
Berberis vulgaris
European barberry
Eleagnus angustifolia
Russian olive
Eleagnus umbellata
Autumn olive
Euonymus alatus
Winged euonymus
Ligustrum obtusifolium
Border privet
Ligustrum vulgare
Common privet
Lonicera maackii
Amur honeysuckle
Lonicera morrowii
Morrow's honeysuckle
Lonicera morrowii x tatarica
Bell's honeysuckle
Lonicera standishii
Standish honeysuckle
Lonicera tartarica
Tartarian honeysuckle
Rhamnus catharticus
Common buckthorn
Rhamnus frangula
Glossy buckthorn
Rubus phoenicolasius
Wineberry
Rosa multiflora
Multiflora rose
Spraea japonica
Japanese spiraea
Viburnum opulus
European cranberrybush viburnum
Trees
Acer platanoides
Norway maple
Acer pseudoplatinus
Sycamore maple
Albezia julibrissin
Mimosa
Ailanthus altissima
Tree of heaven
Maclura pomifera
Osage orange
Morus alba
Mulberry
Paulownia tomentosa
Princess tree
Pyrus calleryana
Callery pear
Ulmus pumila
Siberian elm
Vines
Akebia quinata
Five leaf akebia
Ampelopsis brevipendunculosa
Porcelian berry
Celastrus orbiculatus
Oriental bittersweet
Hedra helix
English ivy
Lonicera japonica
Japanese honeysuckle
Polygonum perfoliatum
Mile-a-minute vine
Pueraria lobata
Kudzu vine
[Ord. 690, 9/10/2009]
1. 
Purpose and intent. The purpose of this section if to ensure adequate and effective lighting is provided for streets, buildings, parking lots, and other facilities to ensure the safety and comfort of the users. Excessive lighting wastes energy; intrudes upon neighboring properties; is a nuisance to pedestrians, cyclists, and motorists; disturbs wildlife; and can jeopardize the health safety and welfare of the general public. Management of outdoor artificial lighting shall be designed to promote public safety; to minimize adverse effects; to minimize glare; to minimize light trespass; to be utilized where needed to the most efficient extent.
2. 
Definitions. As used in this section, the following terms shall have the meanings indicated:
DIRECT GLARE
Glare resulting from high illuminance or insufficiently shielded light sources in the field of view.
DIRECT LIGHT
Light emitted directly from the lamp, off the reflector or reflector diffuser, or through the refractor diffuser lens, of a luminaire.
FIXTURE
The assembly that houses the lamp(s) source.
FLOOD OR SPOT LIGHT
Any light fixture that incorporates a reflector or a refractor to concentrate light output into a directed beam in a particular direction.
FOOTCANDLE
A unit of illuminance. One footcandle is one lumen per square foot.
FULL CUTOFF
A luminaire light distribution where zero candela intensity occurs at an angle of 90° above nadir, and at all angles above nadir.
FULLY SHIELDED LIGHTS
Outdoor light fixtures shielded or constructed in a manner that all light emitted by the fixture, either directly from the lamp or a diffusing element or indirectly by reflection or refraction, is projected below the horizontal plane through the fixtures lowest light emitting part as certified by a photometric test report.
GLARE
The sensation produced by lighting fixtures within the visual field that is sufficiently greater than the luminance to which the eyes are adapted to cause annoyance, discomfort, or loss in visual performance.
HEIGHT OF LUMINAIRE
The height of a luminaire shall be the vertical distance from finished grade directly below the center line of the luminaire to the lowest direct-light emitting part of the luminaire.
IESNA
Illuminating Engineering Society of North America.
ILLUMINANCE
The quantity of light measured in footcandles or lux.
INDIRECT LIGHT
Direct light that has been reflected or has scattered off of another surface.
LAMP
The component of a luminaire that produces light.
LIGHT LOSS FACTOR
The ratio of illuminance for a given area to the value that would occur if lamps operated at their initial rated lumen output and if no system variation or depreciation had occurred.
LIGHT TRESPASS
The shining of light produced by a luminaire beyond the boundaries of the property on which it is located.
LUMEN
A standard unit of luminous flux. One footcandle is one lumen per square foot.
LUMINAIRE
A complete lighting unit, consisting of one or more lamps together with the fixture.
LUX
A standard unit of illuminance. One lux is equal to one lumen per square meter (lm/m2).
OUTDOOR LIGHTING
The illumination of an outdoor area or object by any man-made device that produces light by any means.
OUTDOOR LIGHTING, TEMPORARY
Outdoor lighting that is used for a period of less than seven days, with at least 180 days passing before being used again or used annually for a period of 30 days or less.
SPORTS FIELD LIGHTING
Artificial outdoor lighting used for the sole intention of illuminating areas to be used for sporting purposes.
3. 
Applicability. The requirements of this section shall apply to all outdoor lighting installations as follows:
A. 
Outdoor lighting installations that are designed, constructed, erected, or otherwise placed into operation after the effective date of this section.
B. 
Alterations, rehabilitations or renovations to existing outdoor lighting installations which are commenced after the effective date of this section, and which involve the complete replacement of an existing lighting system with a new lighting system.
C. 
Nonapplicability. The requirements of this section shall not apply to outdoor lighting installations operating before the effective date of this section, except for any lighting installation that creates a safety hazard as deemed by the Township. Routine maintenance of these preexisting outdoor lighting installations shall not have to comply with the requirements of this section. Routine maintenance includes the following:
(1) 
Replacement of expired lamps.
(2) 
Replacement/repair of damaged or inoperative luminaire components such as ballasts, igniters, lenses, reflectors, refractors, sockets, or photocell controls.
D. 
Exemptions. The requirements of this section shall not apply in the following circumstances:
(1) 
Where superseded by federal or state law.
(2) 
Temporary emergency lighting used by police, fire, emergency medical services, public works, or other public safety services.
(3) 
Hazard/warning lights required by state or federal regulations, except that all luminaires used must be red and must be shown to be as close as possible to the minimum lumen output for that specific task.
4. 
General regulations:
A. 
All outdoor lighting shall be aimed, located, directed, designed, fitted, and maintained so as not to present a hazard to drivers or pedestrians by impairing their ability to safely traverse, and so as not to create a nuisance by projecting or reflecting objectionable light onto a neighboring property or use.
B. 
Floodlights and spotlights, where permitted, shall be installed and/or aimed so that they do not project their output at neighboring properties, or skyward, or directly onto a roadway.
C. 
Except as otherwise permitted in this section, all fixtures shall meet IESNA full cutoff criteria. No lighting shall be permitted that results in glare beyond an angle of 30° from vertical plane, measured from the light source, or results in glare beyond the property boundaries upon which the luminaire is located.
D. 
Except as otherwise permitted in this section, all fixtures shall not exceed a height of 20 feet from finished grade. Fixtures located in the historic district shall not exceed a height of 14 feet from finished grade. If using LED fixtures, mounting height may be increased to 24 feet, provided all glare requirements are met. This measurement shall include the mounting base, pole, and total depth of the fixture to be installed.
E. 
Lighting fixtures shall be of a type and design appropriate to the lighting application and aesthetically acceptable to the Township. The use of searchlights, flashing strobe lights, and laser lights is prohibited.
F. 
All night lighting not utilized for safety or security shall be extinguished between the hours of 11:00 p.m. and 7:00 a.m. Not more than 25% of all lighting fixtures on site shall be considered security lighting.
G. 
Vegetation screens shall not be employed to serve as the primary means for controlling glare. Glare shall be controlled primarily by use of cutoff fixtures, baffles, shields, mounting height, wattage, aiming, and angle.
H. 
Electrical feeds for lighting fixtures shall be run below grade, and shall conform to the National Electric Code requirements and all corresponding building codes.
I. 
All lighting fixtures shall be placed within landscaped islands. Should fixtures be required to be installed otherwise, they shall be placed on a base 30 inches in height and no less than 18 inches in diameter.
J. 
All lighting, except as outlined herein, shall conform to the recommendations for illumination and uniformity ratios specified by the IESNA Lighting Handbook, latest edition.
K. 
All fixtures specified on site shall be as electrically efficient as possible. LED type lighting fixtures are preferred over high-intensity discharge fixtures.
5. 
Requirements for outdoor area lighting.
A. 
This subsection applies to all outdoor lighting to be employed for area illumination of parking lots, yards, roadways, streets, driveways, entryways, and similar areas or lots.
B. 
All fixtures shall conform to the IESNA definition of full cutoff fixtures. Cut sheets, details, and the like shall be submitted to the Township to demonstrate compliance.
C. 
All luminaires shall be mounted plumb and level in accordance with the intended application of their design.
D. 
Fixtures that do not meet the IESNA definition of full cutoff shall be prohibited.
E. 
Illumination levels and ratios shall be in accordance with IESNA recommendations.
F. 
Maximum maintained illuminance levels. The maximum maintained illuminance levels permitted within the property boundary during the night hours shall be five footcandles.
G. 
Maximum illuminance levels permitted at property lines or right-of-ways.
(1) 
The maximum maintained illuminance levels permitted at the property lines during the night hours shall be measured in horizontal footcandles or horizontal lux according to the table listed below.
Location
Maximum Illuminance
(footcandles)
Maximum Illuminance
(lux)
Along any public right-of-way or roadway
0.5
5.4
Along boundary of a nonresidential property
0.2
2.2
Along boundary of a residential property
0.1
1.1
(2) 
Exceptions:
(a) 
Outdoor roadway lighting installations intended for illumination of public roadways, streets, highways, cartways, and the like.
(b) 
Designated vehicular or pedestrian entries/exits between properties and public roadways. The area of illumination shall not extend beyond 50 feet from the center line of the designated entry/exit point or in any direction along the property line/right-of-way.
(c) 
Automotive dealership display areas for the sole use of display for vehicular sales. All other areas shall conform to the requirements herein.
H. 
Illumination of outdoor canopies.
(1) 
All lighting associated with outdoor canopies shall be shown on the lighting plan.
(2) 
All fixtures shall be mounted within the canopy structure and pointed straight down. Fixtures shall not direct light above the canopy.
(3) 
The canopy itself shall not be illuminated. If signage is placed on the canopy, it shall be in accordance with the sign lighting regulations contained herein.
(4) 
Outdoor canopies include:
(a) 
Fuel island canopies.
(b) 
Exterior canopies associated with store frontage or overhangs.
(c) 
Pavilions, trellises, and gazebos.
(d) 
Canopies associated with bank drive-through lanes and ATM machines.
(5) 
Fixtures shall meet IESNA standards for full cutoff fixtures.
(6) 
Illumination levels and ratios shall be in accordance with IESNA recommendations.
I. 
Illumination of sports and recreational lighting.
(1) 
These regulations apply to all sports and recreational facilities, including ball fields, ballparks, stadiums, tennis courts, basketball courts, soccer fields, recreation fields, football fields, driving ranges, firearm shooting ranges, and the like.
(2) 
Sports and recreational lighting shall be shielded whenever possible. Such lighting shall have directional and glare control devices to minimize light trespass and sky glow.
(3) 
All lighting, excluding security lighting, shall be equipped with automatic shutoff control devices to extinguish light no more than one hour past the expiration of an event.
(4) 
Lighting levels and ratios shall comply with IESNA standards, and all applicable regulations specified by the governing agency (i.e., PIAA, NCAA, etc.).
(5) 
No direct light shall project off the property.
J. 
Sign, facade, building, and landscape lighting.
(1) 
The requirements of this subsection apply to all outdoor lighting installations employed to illuminate signs, building facades, billboards, structures, fountains, trees, shrubs, and the like.
(2) 
All luminaires used for illumination of the above-mentioned amenities shall be full cutoff.
(3) 
Externally illuminated signs and billboards shall be lighted from the top of the structure and aimed downwards.
(4) 
Fixtures used for architectural lighting shall be designed and aimed so as to not project their output beyond the objects intended to be illuminated.
K. 
Automobile sales display areas.
(1) 
The requirements of this subsection apply to all outdoor lighting installations employed to illuminate outdoor vehicular display areas utilized in conjunction with automobile sales.
(2) 
All luminaires used for illumination of the above-mentioned amenities shall be full cutoff. All luminaires shall meet the definition of full cutoff.
(3) 
No fixtures shall be mounted in excess of 20 feet in height.
(4) 
Illumination levels and ratios shall be in accordance with IESNA recommendations.
6. 
Lighting plan requirements.
A. 
Plans shall be drawn at an appropriate scale to accurately depict compliance with the requirements set forth in this section.
B. 
The lighting plan shall contain sufficient information regarding existing features, rights-of-way, utilities, grading, stormwater management facilities, easements and setback lines, driveways, parking areas, buildings, vegetation, and all other information necessary to ensure compliance with this section.
C. 
The lighting plan shall include all charts, diagrams, schedules, calculations, etc., to ensure compliance with this section.
D. 
The lighting plans shall depict all proposed landscaping to verify that proposed landscaping and lighting locations do not conflict.
E. 
The lighting plan shall include fixture details depicting mounting heights, poles, etc., for each fixture.
F. 
The lighting plan shall include product sheets of all proposed fixtures, including manufacturer, product name and/or number, and IES file used to depict lighting levels on the plan.
[Ord. 690, 9/10/2009]
1. 
Where a proposed park, playground, school or other public use shown in the Comprehensive Plan is located in whole or in part in a subdivision or land development, the Board of Supervisors may require the dedication or reservation of such area within the subdivision or land development in those cases in which the Board of Supervisors deems such requirements to be reasonable.
2. 
Where deemed essential by the Board of Supervisors, upon consideration of the particular type of development proposed, and especially in large-scale planned unit developments, the Board of Supervisors may require the dedication or reservation of such other areas or sites of a character, extent, and location suitable to the needs created by such development for schools, parks, and other neighborhood purposes.
3. 
Where a proposed park, playground, or other public use is indicated on a proposed subdivision or land development plan, the Parks and Recreation Board shall review the plan and submit recommendations to the Board of Supervisors.
4. 
The following standards shall apply to the provisions of recreation space:
A. 
Areas set aside for recreational purposes shall be reasonably compact parcels, placed to serve all parts of the subdivision or land development, accessible from a public street.
B. 
Playgrounds for active sports shall be of adequate size to provide sufficient area for proposed uses and associated improvements, including but not necessarily limited to parking and stormwater management.
[Ord. 690, 9/10/2009]
1. 
For any proposed subdivision, land development or revision of existing land use anticipated to generate 100 or more trips per day, based on the Institute of Transportation Engineers (ITE) Trip Generation Manual, most current edition, a transportation impact study shall be required to be submitted to Warminster Township simultaneously with the preliminary plan. The proposed use or development shall be identified by using the appropriate land use code as indicated by the ITE Land Use Code. Where doubt exists, the applicant shall seek guidance by the Township Engineer. The provisions of this section may be waived by the Township Board of Supervisors upon recommendation of the Township Engineer if:
A. 
The proposed subdivision or land development, in the opinion of the Township Engineer, has no impact, or a negligible impact, on the type and amount of highway or pedestrian traffic.
B. 
A recent prior transportation impact study which includes the area of the proposed subdivision or land development has previously been performed, has been submitted to the Township, and in the opinion of the Township Engineer remains current, and indicates that improvements are not necessary or required.
2. 
Conduct of a transportation impact study. The transportation impact study shall be prepared by a professional engineer licensed in the Commonwealth of Pennsylvania, practicing in traffic or transportation engineering. The cost of said study is to be borne by the applicant.
3. 
Definitions. As used in this section, the following terms shall have the meanings indicated:
LEVEL OF SERVICE
As described in the Highway Capacity Manual, indicates how well traffic moves on a particular highway facility or through a specific intersection. There are six levels of servicing (LOS) ranging from A through F. Level of service A indicates generally free movement; level of service E represents maximum capacity of the facility; and level of service F indicates congestion. Level of service C is considered the design level of service, representing a stable traffic flow and a relatively satisfactory travel speed.
MAJOR INTERSECTION
Any intersection where traffic generated by the proposal will have a significant impact on the operation of the intersection. The transportation engineer shall seek guidance from the Township Engineer prior to the submission of the transportation impact study.
PUBLIC TRANSPORTATION
Transportation service for the general public provided by a common carrier of passengers generally on a regular route basis, by the Southeastern Pennsylvania Transportation Authority or a private operator offering service to the public.
STUDY AREA
For proposed developments anticipated to generate 250 or less trips in an average weekday, the study area will extend approximately 1/2 mile along the adjacent roadway in both directions from all access points or to a major intersection along these roadways. For proposed developments anticipated to generate more than 250 trips in an average weekday, the study area will extend to approximately one mile along the adjacent roadway in all directions from all access points or to a major intersection along these roadways. The transportation engineer shall seek guidance from the Township Engineer prior to the submission of the transportation impact study.
TRANSPORTATION
Any mode or movement of passengers or goods while utilizing the existing or future transportation infrastructure, including but not limited to pedestrian, bicycle, rail (transit and freight), bus (school and transit), vehicular, and truck traffic.
TRIP GENERATION RATES
The total count of trips to and from a study site per unit of land use as measured by parameters such as dwelling units, acres, square footage, etc. The trip generation rates are determined by the ITE Land Use Code most applicable or by approval by the Township Engineer of an alternate data source.
VOLUME/CAPACITY ANALYSIS
This procedure compares a roadway or intersection approach to its capacity (maximum number of vehicles that can pass a given point during a given time period). The procedures described in the most current Highway Capacity Manual, by the Transportation Research Board, as outlined in the PennDOT Design Manual, Volume 2, or most current, shall be followed.
WARRANTS FOR TRAFFIC SIGNAL INSTALLATION
This is a series of eight warrants which detail the minimum traffic or pedestrian volume or other criteria necessary for the installation of a traffic signal. These warrants are contained in the Manual on Uniform Traffic Control Devices, most current edition; prepared by the U.S. Department of Transportation, Federal Highway Administration.
4. 
General requirements and standards. A transportation impact study shall contain the following information:
A. 
General site description.
(1) 
The site description shall include the size, location, proposed land uses, construction staging, and completion date of the proposed land development. If the development is residential, types of dwelling units and number of bedrooms shall also be included.
(2) 
A brief description of other major existing and proposed land development within the study area shall be provided.
(3) 
The general site description shall also include probable socioeconomic characteristics of potential site users to the extent that they may affect the transportation needs of the site (i.e., number of senior citizens).
B. 
Transportation facilities description. The description shall contain a full documentation of the proposed internal and existing external transportation system. This description shall include proposed internal vehicular, bicycle and pedestrian circulation, all proposed ingress and egress locations, all internal roadway widths and rights-of-way, parking conditions, traffic channelization, and any traffic signals or other intersection control devices at all intersections within the site. The site design shall be shown to maximize potential public transportation usage to and from the development, such as providing adequate turning radius at all access points to allow a bus to enter the development. Bus shelter and sign locations shall be designated where appropriate. The report shall describe the entire external roadway system within the study area. Major intersections in the study area shall be identified and sketched. All existing and proposed public transportation services and facilities within a one mile radius of the site shall also be documented. All future highway improvements, including proposed construction and traffic signalization, shall be noted. This information shall be obtained from the three-year Transportation Improvement Program and the twelve-year State Transportation Improvement Program (TIP) from the Delaware Valley Region Planning Commission and from the Pennsylvania Department of Transportation. Any proposed roadway improvements due to proposed surrounding developments shall be recorded.
C. 
Existing traffic conditions.
(1) 
Existing traffic conditions shall be measured and documented for all roadways and intersections in the study area. Existing traffic data must include twenty-four-hour automatic traffic recorder counts with classification and speed data at the proposed site driveway. Data must be obtained bidirectionally. In addition, existing peak highway hour(s) traffic, and if appropriate, peak development generated hour(s) traffic shall be recorded. Manual turning movement counts at major intersections in the study area shall be conducted, encompassing the peak highway and development-generated hour(s) (if appropriate) and documentation shall be included in the report. The use of any traffic count data greater than two years of age by date of submission of the transportation impact study shall be prohibited without prior approval of the Township Engineer.
(2) 
Turning movement counts shall include heavy vehicles, pedestrian, bicycle, and transit (where available) data. A volume/capacity analysis based upon existing volumes shall be performed during the peak highway hour(s) and the peak development-generated hour for all roadway and major intersections in the study area. Levels of service and delays shall be determined and provided in tabulation and graphic form for each studied intersection and by turning movement. This analysis will determine the adequacy of the existing roadway system to serve the current traffic demand. Roadways and/or intersections experiencing levels of service D, E or F shall be noted as congested locations and an improvement shall be identified to mitigate identified deficiencies. Signal optimization shall not be identified as a mitigation measure as this is considered normal signal maintenance.
(3) 
As part of the existing traffic conditions, a five-year crash history (both reportable and nonreportable records), for each approach of any studied intersection shall be obtained and reviewed. Crash records shall be obtained through Warminster Township Police Department and/or Pennsylvania Department of Transportation and shall be analyzed for causation factors, patterns with the intent to provide possible trend data or mitigation measures.
(4) 
An electronic data file shall be provided to the Township Engineer for any and all recorded traffic data, including manual turning movement counts and automatic traffic recorder counts.
D. 
Future no-build traffic conditions. The total future traffic shall be calculated and consist of the existing traffic expanded to the greater of the following: a three-year traffic data projection or to the year of the anticipated full build-out of the proposed development. The existing traffic shall be expanded with the annual growth rates available from PennDOT Bureau of Planning and shall be compounded annually. Levels of service and delays shall be determined and provided in tabulation and graphic form for each studied intersection and by turning movement. This analysis will determine the adequacy of the future roadway system to serve the future traffic demand. Roadways and/or intersections experiencing levels of service D, E or F shall be noted as congested locations and an improvement shall be identified to mitigate identified deficiencies. Signal optimization shall not be identified as a mitigation measure as this is considered normal signal maintenance.
E. 
Transportation impact of the development. Estimation of vehicular trips to result from the proposed land development shall be completed from the average daily peak highway hour(s) and peak hour(s) of the development generator(s). The peak hour analysis is assumed to be a.m., p.m. and Saturday peak hours unless the Township Engineer has approved the elimination of one or more of the aforementioned peak hours. Vehicular trip generation rates to be used for this calculation shall be obtained from the most current Institute of Transportation (ITE) trip generation rates. These development-generated traffic volumes shall be provided for the in-bound and out-bound traffic movements as estimated, and the reference source(s) and methodology followed shall be documented. No assumptions for the reduction of trip generation data with respect to pass-by trips, diverted-link trips, and internal capture shall be used without supporting documentation and approval by the Township Engineer. All turning movements shall be calculated. These generated volumes shall be distributed to the study area and assigned to the existing roadways and intersections throughout the study area. Documentation of all assumptions used in the distribution and assignment phase shall be provided. Traffic volumes shall be assigned to individual access points. Pedestrian volumes shall also be calculated, if applicable. If school crossings are to be used, pedestrian volumes shall be assigned to each crossing. Any characteristics of the site that will cause particular trip generation problems shall be noted.
F. 
Analysis of the transportation impact.
(1) 
An estimation of vehicular trips to result from the proposed land development shall be completed for the average daily peak highway hour(s) and peak development-generated hour(s) combined with the existing traffic expanded to the greater of the following: a three-year traffic data projection or to the year of the anticipated full build-out of the proposed development. In addition, the study shall include any traffic generated by other proposed developments in the study area. The existing traffic shall be expanded to a future year with the annual growth rates available from PennDOT Bureau of Planning and shall be compounded annually.
(2) 
Vehicular trip generation rates to be used for this calculation shall be obtained from the most current edition of the Institute of Transportation Engineers (ITE), Trip Generation Manual. For all land use proposals not listed in the ITE Manual, the transportation engineer shall seek guidance from the Township Engineer. All turning movements for site traffic shall be calculated. These generated volumes shall be distributed to the study area and assigned to the existing roadways and intersections throughout the study area. Documentation of all assumptions used in the distribution and assignment phase shall be provided, and numerical data shall be provided in both graphical and tabulation form. Traffic volumes shall be assigned to individual access points. Pedestrian volumes shall also be calculated, if applicable. If school crossings are to be used, pedestrian volumes shall be assigned to each crossing. Any characteristics of the site that will cause particular trip generation problems shall be noted.
G. 
Sight distance analysis. The study shall include a sight distance analysis for all movements into and out of the proposed access driveway. The analysis shall include the existing/available stopping sight distance and the calculated minimum required stopping sight distance for all anticipated movements into and out of the proposed site access(es). The calculated minimum required stopping sight distance shall be based on the eighty-fifth-percentile speed as indicated in the automatic traffic recorder data by approach.
H. 
Conclusions and recommended improvements.
(1) 
Levels of service and time delays for all roadways and intersections, by turning movement, shall be listed and shown in graphical and tabulation form. All roadways and/or intersections turning movements showing a level of service below C, or dropping one level of service with a greater than ten-second delay over the no-build scenario, or showing a level of service F and a greater than ten-second delay over the no-build scenario, shall be considered deficient, and specific recommendations for the elimination of these problems shall be listed. The listing of recommended improvements shall include, but not be limited to, the following elements: internal circulation design, site access location and design, external roadway and intersection design and improvements, traffic signal installation and operation, including signal timing, and transit design improvements. All physical roadway improvements shall be shown in sketches. Existing and/or future public transportation service shall also be addressed. A listing of all actions to be undertaken to increase present public transportation usage and improve service, if applicable, shall be included.
(2) 
The listing of recommended improvements for both roadways and transit shall include, for each improvement, the party responsible for the improvement, the cost and funding of the improvement, and the completion date for the improvement.
(3) 
An executive summary shall be included in the transportation impact study providing a less detailed discussion of impacts identified in the more comprehensive body of the report. The executive summary shall include a level of service/delay matrix, by peak hour, intersection turning movements for all studied scenarios (existing, future, no-build, build and mitigation). The matrix is to provide a clear understanding of deficiencies and mitigation measures.
5. 
Time of submission.
A. 
The transportation impact study shall be submitted to Warminster Township Planning Commission and the Bucks County Planning Commission with the preliminary plan application. It is strongly recommended to submit the transportation impact study at the sketch plan stage for large-scale land development and subdivision applications.
B. 
If the proposed land development requires a Pennsylvania Department of Transportation (PennDOT) highway occupancy permit (HOP), the applicant shall initiate the HOP process simultaneously to the preliminary plan submission in accordance with latest PennDOT procedures. The developer shall include the Township Engineer in any and all meetings, including the scoping meeting and/or or correspondence or discussions regarding the permitting process. In addition, any documentation submitted as part of the HOP process shall be simultaneously submitted to the Township for review purposes.
(1) 
TIS/HOP scoping meeting shall be scheduled to coincide with sketch plan, if this submission is made. This meeting will provide discussion of the project and potential problems and set the parameters of the TIS for PennDOT review.
(2) 
TIS shall be submitted to PennDOT for review and approval simultaneously with the preliminary plan submission.
(3) 
Construction plans for HOP shall be submitted to PennDOT for review and approval simultaneously with the final plan submission.
6. 
Implementation (subdivision land development building permits). The Warminster Township Planning Commission, the Bucks County Planning Commission, the Township Engineer, and the Township Supervisors shall review the transportation impact study to analyze its adequacy in solving any traffic problems that will occur as a result of construction of the proposed subdivision or land development. The Township Supervisors may decide that certain improvements on or adjacent to the site are mandatory for plan approval and may attach these conditions to the approval. If the Township Supervisors conclude that additional improvements are necessary, the developer shall have the opportunity to resubmit alternative improvements designs for approval.
[Ord. 690, 9/10/2009]
1. 
Preliminary approval of the site plan must be obtained for the entire proposed development. Final approval may be obtained section by section, but such development section shall be specified on the preliminary plan and must be numbered in the proposed order that they are to be developed. Such order of development must be adhered to and, if changes are required, plans must be refiled and reviewed and approved.
2. 
Bonding procedures shall be required before final approval of the land development plan and shall guarantee the improvements by the builder of streets, sidewalks, curbs, streetlighting, street trees, drainage facilities, utilities, and other facilities that the Board of Supervisors may deem necessary.
3. 
Arrangement of buildings and facilities.
A. 
All of the elements of the site plan shall be harmoniously and efficiently organized in relation to topography, the size and shape of the plot, the character of the adjoining property, and the type and size of the buildings in order to produce a livable and economic land use pattern.
B. 
Arrangement of buildings shall be in favorable relation to the natural topography, existing desirable trees, views within and beyond the site, and exposure to the sun and other buildings on the site.
4. 
Access and circulation.
A. 
Access to the dwellings and circulation between buildings and other important project facilities for vehicular and pedestrian traffic shall be comfortable and convenient for the occupants.
B. 
Access and circulation for fire-fighting equipment, furniture moving vans, fuel trucks, garbage collection, deliveries, and snow removal shall be planned for efficient operation and convenience.
C. 
Walking distance from the main entrance of building to a street, driveway or parking area shall typically be less than 100 feet; exceptions to this standard should be reasonably justified by compensating advantages, such as desirable views and site preservation through adaptation to topography. In no case shall the distance exceed 250 feet.
5. 
Yards.
A. 
Yards shall assure adequate privacy, desirable outlook, adequate natural light and ventilation, convenient access to and around the dwellings, and other essential uses.
6. 
Grading.
A. 
Grading shall be designed for buildings, lawns, paved areas, and other facilities to assure adequate surface drainage, safe and convenient access to and around the buildings, and for the conservation of desirable existing vegetation and natural ground forms.
B. 
Grading around buildings shall be designed to be in harmony with natural topography and to minimize earthwork and the need for deep footings.
7. 
Streets.
A. 
Streets shall be provided on the site where necessary to furnish principal traffic ways for convenient access to the living units and other important facilities on the property.
B. 
Streets proposed to be dedicated for public use and maintenance shall conform to the design requirements and specifications of this chapter, Warminster Township Specifications, and Pennsylvania Department of Transportation Publication 408 Specifications, and any amendments thereto.
8. 
Driveways.
A. 
Driveways shall be provided on the site where necessary for convenient access to the living units, garage compounds, parking areas, service entrances of buildings, collection of refuse, and all other necessary services. Driveways shall enter public streets at safe locations.
B. 
Driveways shall be planned for convenient circulation for suitable traffic needs and safety.
C. 
Driveways shall conform to those standards of § 22-510 of this chapter.
D. 
All driveways shall be paved and constructed in accordance with the Warminster Township and/or Pennsylvania Department of Transportation Specifications and Design Standards for Roads and Streets.
9. 
Parking areas.
A. 
Paved parking areas shall be provided to meet the needs of the residents and their guests without interference with normal traffic.
B. 
Parking areas shall conform to the standards and requirements of § 22-512 and those of Chapter 27, Zoning.
C. 
Parking areas shall be constructed in accordance with the Warminster Township Specifications and Design Standards for Roads and Streets.
10. 
Sidewalks.
A. 
Street sidewalks and on-site walks shall be provided for convenience and safe access to all living units from streets, driveways, parking areas or garages, and for convenient circulation and access to all project facilities.
B. 
Width, alignment, and gradient of walks shall provide safety and convenience for pedestrian traffic. Small jogs in the alignment shall be avoided.
C. 
The alignment and gradient of walks shall be coordinated with the grading plan to prevent the passage of concentrated surface water on or across the walk and to prevent the pocketing of surface water by walks.
D. 
Sidewalks shall be constructed in accordance with the Warminster Township and/or Pennsylvania Department of Transportation Specifications and Design Standards for Roads and Streets and § 22-513 of this chapter.
11. 
Refuse collections.
A. 
Outdoor collection stations shall be provided for garbage and trash removal, in accordance with current Township requirements, when individual collection is not made and indoor storage is not provided.
B. 
Collection stations shall be located to avoid being offensive and shall be convenient for both collectors and tenants. Trash containers shall be screened or concealed from direct view of the public.
12. 
Planting. The appeal and character of the site shall be preserved and enhanced by retaining and protecting existing trees and other site features, and by additional new plant material in accordance with § 22-523 of this chapter.
[Ord. 690, 9/10/2009]
1. 
Plotting of individual lots for commercial purposes shall be avoided in favor of a comprehensive design of the land to be used for such purposes.
2. 
Preliminary approval of the site plan must be obtained for the entire proposed development. Final approval may be obtained section by section, but such development sections shall be specified on the preliminary plan and must be numbered in the proposed order that they are to be developed. Such order of development must be adhered to and, if changes are required, plans must be refiled and reviewed and approved.
3. 
Bonding procedures shall be required before final approval of the land development plan, and shall guarantee the improvements by the builder of streets, sidewalks, curbs, streetlighting, landscaping, drainage facilities, utilities, and other facilities that the Board of Supervisors may deem necessary.
4. 
Arrangement of buildings and facilities. All of the elements of the site plan shall be harmoniously and efficiently organized in relation to topography, the size and shape of the plot, the character of the adjoining property, and the type and size of the buildings in order to produce a livable and economical land use pattern.
5. 
Additional width of streets adjacent to areas proposed for nonresidential use may be required as deemed necessary by the Board of Supervisors to assure the free flow of through traffic from vehicles entering or leaving parking areas.
6. 
When adjacent lots proposed for nonresidential uses front on a collector or arterial street, the owner may be required to provide a service road for ingress and egress or, in lieu thereof, the owner may be required to provide an area adjacent to the proposed lots for off-street parking purposes.
7. 
Every effort shall be made to protect adjacent residential areas from potential nuisance of the proposed nonresidential development, including the provisions of extra depths in parcels backing up on existing or potential residential developments and provisions for a permanently landscaped evergreen buffer strip.
8. 
Streets carrying nonresidential traffic shall not normally be extended to the boundaries of the adjacent existing or potential residential areas or connected to streets intended for predominantly residential traffic.
9. 
Parking areas shall be located or designed in such a manner that they are visibly secluded from eye level of the surrounding area. Grading techniques, raised berms, landscaping, or fencing are satisfactory methods to create such seclusion.
10. 
All area, design, and parking requirements shall conform to Chapter 27, Zoning.
[Ord. 690, 9/10/2009; as amended by Ord. 737, 1/19/2017]
The owner, developer, or subdivider shall install erosion and sedimentation control measures for any site improvements. The measures shall be shown on a plan in accordance with present Township ordinances and Bucks County Conservation District standards. All required permits shall be obtained from the Bucks County Conservation District prior to approval by the Township.
A. 
All erosion and sedimentation control measures shall be regulated in accordance with Chapter 19, Erosion and Sediment Control, of the Code of the Township of Warminster, as well as all rules and regulations established by the Pennsylvania Department of Environmental Protection.
B. 
No regulated earth disturbance activities within the Township shall commence until the Township approves an erosion and sedimentation control plan for construction activities.
C. 
Evidence of any necessary permit(s) for regulated earth disturbance activities from the appropriate DEP regional office or County Conservation District shall be provided to the Township.
D. 
A copy of the erosion and sedimentation control plan, narrative report, and any required permits shall be available on the project site at all times.
E. 
Additional erosion and sedimentation control designed standards and criteria shall be applied where infiltration BMPs are proposed.
(1) 
Areas proposed for infiltration BMPs shall be protected from sedimentation and compaction during the construction phase to maintain maximum infiltration capacity. Barriers such as orange construction fencing should be used to protect and keep construction traffic away from the area where infiltration BMPs are proposed. Inlets or pipes that are installed to these systems should be completely sealed or protected and monitored until the drainage areas are completely stabilized.
(2) 
Infiltration BMPs shall not be constructed nor receive runoff until the entire contributory drainage area to the infiltration BMP has achieved final stabilization.
F. 
Sediment traps per design criteria presented in the PADEP "Erosion and Sediment Control Program Manual" are recommended to be used in lieu of sediment basins.
G. 
Detailed construction schedules shall be included in all erosion and sediment control plans and stormwater management plans reviewed by the Bucks County Conservation District.
[Ord. 690, 9/10/2009]
1. 
General regulations.
A. 
Grade changes and excavations shall not encroach upon the tree protection zone (TPZ).
B. 
No toxic materials shall be stored within 100 feet of a TPZ, including petroleum based and/or derived products.
C. 
The area within the TPZ shall not be built upon, regraded or modified nor shall any materials be stored there either temporarily or permanently. Vehicles and equipment shall not be parked in the TPZ.
D. 
When tree stumps are located within 10 feet of the TPZ, the stumps shall be removed by means of a stump grinder to minimize the effect on surrounding root systems.
E. 
Tree roots which must be severed shall be cut by a backhoe or similar equipment aligned radially to the tree. This method reduces the lateral movement of the roots during excavation which if done by other methods could damage the intertwined roots of adjacent trees.
F. 
Within four hours of any severance of roots, all tree roots that have been exposed and/or damaged shall be trimmed cleanly and covered temporarily with moist peat moss, moist burlap, or other moist biodegradable material to keep them from drying out until permanent cover can be installed.
G. 
Point discharges of stormwater shall not discharge into the TPZ except at existing channels or waterways.
H. 
Sediment, retention, and detention basins shall not be located within the TPZ.
2. 
Tree protection areas shall be shown on the landscape plan and the grading plan submitted by the applicant. Tree trunk locations as well as tree canopy locations shall be shown.
3. 
Prior to construction the TPZ shall be delineated by the following methods:
A. 
Tree protection during construction:
(1) 
Tree protection areas shall be delineated to implement the standards contained in this chapter regarding preservation of trees, woodlands, and forests during the development and construction process.
(2) 
Tree protection area. An area that is radial to the trunk of a tree. The tree protection area shall be 15 feet from the trunk of the tree to be retained, or the distance from the trunk to the dripline (the line marking the outer edge of the branches of the tree), whichever is greater. Where there is a group of trees or woodlands, the tree protection area shall be the aggregate of the protection areas for the individual trees.
B. 
Protection from mechanical injury. Prior to any site work, clearing, tree removal, grading or construction, the tree protection area shall be delineated by the following methods:
(1) 
The tree protection area that is delineated on the site prior to construction shall conform to the approved development plans.
(2) 
All trees scheduled to remain shall be marked. Where groups of trees exist, only the trees on the edge need to be marked. The Township shall then inspect the limits of clearing.
(3) 
Once agreement is reached on the limits of clearing, a forty-eight-inch high snow fence or other suitable fence, such as super silt fence, mounted on steel posts located eight feet on center, shall be placed along the boundary of the tree protection area.
(4) 
Trees being removed shall not be felled, pushed or pulled into a tree protection area or into trees that are to be retained.
(5) 
Trees shall not be used for roping, cables, signs or fencing. Nails and spikes shall not be driven into trees.
4. 
Protection from grade change.
A. 
When the original grade cannot be retained at the tree protection area line, a retaining wall shall be constructed outside the tree protection area.
B. 
The retaining wall shall be designed to comply with the Township standards for retaining walls.
C. 
To ensure the survival of trees, the following methods shall be used:
(1) 
The top of the wall shall be four inches above the finished grade level.
(2) 
The wall shall be constructed of large stones, brick, building tile, concrete blocks, or treated wood beams (wood treated with CCA shall not be permitted) not less than six inches by six inches. A means for drainage through the wall shall be provided so water will not accumulate on either side of the wall. Weep holes shall be required within any wall.
(3) 
Any severed roots as a result of excavation shall be trimmed so that their edges are smooth and are cut back to a lateral root if exposed.
5. 
Trees damaged during construction.
A. 
Tree trunks and exposed roots damaged during construction shall be protected from further damage.
B. 
Damaged branches shall be pruned according to National Arborist Association standards. All cuts shall be made sufficiently close to the trunk or parent limb but without cutting into the branch collar or leaving a protruding stub. All necessary pruning cuts must be made to prevent bark from being torn from the tree and to facilitate rapid healing.
6. 
Protection from excavations. When there is no alternative but to locate an electrical or other small utility line within a tree protection area, the Township shall determine the most desirable location for the line and the following guidelines shall be used:
A. 
Where possible, trenches should bypass the root area.
B. 
Where trenches must be dug past the side of a tree, the following precautions shall be observed:
(1) 
Trenches shall be no closer to the trunk than half the distance from the drip line.
(2) 
Cut as few roots as possible.
(3) 
If roots have to be cut, cut them as cleanly as possible.
(4) 
Backfill the trench as soon as possible, avoiding soil compaction.