City of Española, NM
Rio Arriba County
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Table of Contents
Table of Contents
It is the purpose of this article to provide for adequate, convenient and safe off-street parking and loading areas for land uses addressed in this chapter.
Off-street parking and loading spaces shall be provided as an accessory use in all districts in accordance with the requirements of this article at the time any building or structure is constructed, enlarged, relocated, or at the time there is a change in its principal use.
A. 
The provision and maintenance of off-street parking and loading facilities shall be a continuing obligation of the owners of a use and/or parcel of property so long as the use of the property is in existence and so long as parking and loading facilities are required in connection with such given use.
B. 
It shall be unlawful to discontinue, reduce, modify or otherwise dispense with parking and loading facilities that comply with the requirements of this article.
C. 
The parking space requirements for any use not specifically listed in this article shall be determined by the Planning Director based on requirements for similar uses.
D. 
Where the application of the off-street parking requirements results in a fractional number of spaces required, a fraction of 1/2 or greater shall be resolved to the next higher whole number.
All required off-street parking spaces shall be located on the same lot or within 200 feet of the use to be served. If parking requirements are not all met on the same lot, the proposed off-site parking spaces shall only be allowed if they are not subject to termination during the existence of the use served.
A. 
Business park. Parking requirements will be applicable regardless of the mix, location or number of different uses within the business park.
B. 
Commercial center. Parking requirements will be applied regardless of the mix, location or number of different uses within the commercial center.
Developed sites in existence prior to the passage of this chapter may not meet the parking requirements of this article and will be considered nonconforming as to parking requirements. All such sites shall be required to conform to the requirements of this article at the time any of the following events take place:
A. 
Professional, public, commercial and industrial sites.
(1) 
Any building on a lot served is enlarged.
(2) 
A new building is constructed on a lot.
(3) 
An original building is removed or demolished and a new building is constructed.
(4) 
The use of a structure is changed to a use requiring more parking spaces.
B. 
Residential sites.
(1) 
A new building (main structure) is constructed on a lot.
(2) 
An original building (main structure) is removed or demolished and a new building (main structure) is constructed.
(3) 
The use of a structure or the number of units is changed, requiring more parking spaces.
A. 
Minimum parking stall dimensions shall be nine feet by 18 feet. Parking facilities shall meet the parking area dimensions design standards as set forth in the Design Guidelines.
B. 
Driveways and maneuverability.
(1) 
The slope of entrance and exit driveways providing access to public streets shall not exceed 8% unless an exemption is approved by the Planning Director as necessary to make the lot buildable.
(2) 
All required parking spaces shall be maintained in conformance with the requirements of this article and adequate ingress to and egress from each space shall be provided without moving another vehicle, except in single-family, two-family, and low-density multifamily districts.
(3) 
Turning and maneuvering space shall be located entirely on private property unless an exemption is specifically approved by the Planning Director as necessary to make the lot buildable.
(4) 
All parking spaces shall be internally accessible to one another without reentering an adjoining public right-of-way unless an exemption is otherwise approved by the Planning Director as necessary to make the lot buildable.
(5) 
Ingress to and egress from any off-street parking area shall not be located closer than 20 feet to the point of tangent to an intersection or pedestrian crosswalk unless an exemption is otherwise approved by the Planning Director as necessary to make the lot buildable.
(6) 
The Planning Director may require ingress separate from egress for safer flow of traffic.
C. 
Surfacing requirements.
(1) 
All required parking facilities shall be paved and have grading and drainage as approved by the Planning Director and shall be constructed in conformance with the Design Guidelines. The maximum grade slope of the parking lot or parking facility shall not be more than 5% unless an exemption is determined by the Planning Director to be necessary to make the lot buildable.
(2) 
All traffic control devices such as parking stripes, designated car stalls, directional arrows for signs, wheelstops, curbs and other developments shall be installed and completed as shown on the approved site plan.
(3) 
Parking areas shall use paint or similar devices to delineate car stalls, direction of traffic flow and pedestrian walkways.
(4) 
Bumper guards and/or wheelstops shall be required on the periphery of all required parking facilities so that cars will not protrude into the public right-of-way or strike a building, fence, landscaping or protrude over public or private sidewalks.
(5) 
Pedestrian walkways shall be provided as appropriate within the parking facility and shall be striped and signed.
D. 
Lighting provided for parking facilities shall meet the standards of § 606, Outdoor lighting. Such parking facility lighting may be subject to review and approval by the Planning Department for energy efficiency and by the Police Department for personal and property security.
E. 
Curb cuts.
(1) 
The number of curb cuts shall be kept to a minimum so as to reduce potential traffic flow conflicts and conflicts with pedestrians. If the proposed curb cuts are within 100 feet of each other on the same street frontage or are within 100 feet of an existing curb cut on the same street frontage, the number of curb cuts shall be reviewed and approved by the Planning Director.
(2) 
Curb cuts providing access to and egress from the parking facility shall be a minimum of 15 feet wide for one-way traffic and 30 feet wide for two-way traffic.
(3) 
Joint use or shared curb cuts are encouraged and design of parking facilities should take into account future use of shared curb cuts.
Where a parking facility design has been approved by the Planning Commission or Planning Director as part of a site plan, such parking facility design shall be installed and completed subject to the approval of the Planning Director and City Engineer prior to the issuance of the certificate of occupancy for the use of the property or structure. The Planning Director may, due to extenuating weather circumstances, authorize the issuance of a temporary certificate of occupancy.
[Amended 11-19-2013 by Ord. No. 2013-02]
A. 
Disabled parking spaces shall be required for all nonresidential uses and for multiple-family uses with common parking areas according to the schedule adopted as part of the New Mexico Building Code.
B. 
Disabled parking spaces shall be:
(1) 
At least 12 feet in width and 20 feet in length or 8 1/2 feet in width if an additional 3 1/2 feet at one side are protected and available for disabled ingress or egress.
(2) 
Designated for use by the physically disabled by the international symbol of accessibility. Signs shall be constructed according to the Manual of Uniform Traffic Control Devices (MUTCD) and shall be located on a vertical surface above the level of naturally fallen and plowed snow.
(3) 
Centrally located to main building entrances.
(4) 
So located that occupants of vehicles in these spaces can go to the related building on a path at least 36 inches wide, unobstructed by bumpers, curbs or other obstacles to wheelchairs and without going behind parked vehicles.
A. 
Minimum number of spaces. The following minimum off-street parking space requirements are designated for the following uses:
Use
Requirement
Residential Uses
Single-family1
2 spaces per dwelling unit
Two-family1
2 spaces per dwelling unit
Multiple-family, up to and including 8 units
2 spaces per dwelling unit, plus 1 space for each 5 dwelling units; parking spaces in front of garages shall not satisfy the 1 space for each 5 dwelling units
Multiple-family, 9 units or more
For dwellings less than 700 square feet of heated area
1 space per dwelling unit, plus 0.5 unassigned space per dwelling unit
For dwellings 700 square feet to 1,000 square feet of heated area
1 space per dwelling unit, plus 0.75 unassigned space per dwelling unit
For dwellings 1,000 square feet to 1,400 square feet of heated area
1 space per dwelling unit, plus 1 unassigned space per dwelling unit
For dwellings more than 1,400 square feet of heated area
1 space per dwelling unit, plus 1.2 unassigned spaces per dwelling unit
Boardinghouses, dormitories, rooming houses
1 space per bed, plus 2 spaces per owner or manager
Bed-and-breakfast
1 space per sleeping room, plus 2 spaces for owner/manager, if applicable
Senior citizens, multiple-family dwellings
1 space per dwelling, plus 1 space for each 10 dwellings for guest or recreation vehicle parking, plus 1 space for each permanent employee at maximum shift level
Day-care homes and facilities and child-care centers
1 space for each employee
Group homes: addition to spaces otherwise required by this section
1 space for each employee on the largest shift or in the largest group of employees with overlapping work hours
Professional/Office Use
Business park
1 space per 500 square feet of net usable floor area
General, administrative, professional services, including, but not limited to, doctors, dentists, medical practitioners, attorneys, engineers, consultants, and psychologists
1 space per 250 square feet of net usable floor area
Commercial Uses
Retail uses such as art stores, clothing stores, florists shops, hardware, baker's shop, hobby shops, jewelry stores, photo shops, small markets, variety stores, supermarkets and laundries
1 space per 200 square feet of net usable floor area
Restaurant, cocktail lounge
1 space for each 100 square feet of net usable floor area
Restaurant, drive-in
1 space for each 100 square feet of net usable floor area plus stacking for 10 cars
Restaurant, takeout
1 space for each 100 feet of net usable floor area
Sales of automobiles, boats, campers, manufactured housings, motorcycles and trailers
1 space per 2,000 square feet of indoor and outdoor display area
Auto service stations and repair shops2
4 spaces per service bay
Furniture, home furnishing and appliance stores
1 space per 500 square feet of gross floor area, including storage areas
Builder's supplies, plant nurseries
1 space per 200 square feet of enclosed net usable floor area plus 1 space per 500 square feet of display area
Mortuaries
1 space per 3 seats of maximum capacity in main meeting area
Day-care center
1 space per employee
Commercial center
1 space per 250 square feet of net usable floor area
Service uses such as barbershops and beauty shops, dry cleaners, photographers, real estate offices and small-item repair shops
1 space per 250 square feet of net usable floor area
Self-service storage facilities
1 space for manager's office
For one-story buildings, with two-lane traffic aisles
The area between buildings shall constitute the parking area. When one-lane traffic aisles are proposed, the driveway aisle shall be a minimum of 24 feet in width.
For multiple-story buildings
1 space per 1,000 feet of net usable floor area for area on second story, plus aisle width for one-way or two-way traffic
Drive-in dairies, drive-in liquor stores, drive-in laundries
1 space per 500 square feet of net usable floor area plus stacking for 5 cars
Bowling alleys
4 spaces per lane
Hospitals
1 space per 1.5 beds
Convalescent homes
1 space per 3 beds
Automobile car wash
3 spaces for each washing station
Banks, financial institutions
1 space per 200 square feet of net usable area
Hotels, motels and apartment hotels
1 space per unit
Industrial Uses
Manufacturing
1 space per 350 square feet of net usable floor area; or 1 space per 2 employees on maximum shift, whichever is greater
Research and development
1 space per 1,000 square feet of net usable floor area
Warehousing, wholesaling
1 space per 2,000 square feet of net usable floor area
Institutional Uses
Churches
1 space per 4 seats in the main meeting area, based on maximum capacity (Each 30 inches of pew space equals 1 seat.)
Elementary school
2 spaces per teacher
Junior high school
2 spaces per teacher
High school, including stadium areas
7 spaces per teacher
Colleges and universities, including stadium areas
0.75 space per student, teacher and employee
Library
1 space per 600 square feet of net usable floor area
Museum
1 space per 1,000 square feet of net usable floor area
Recreational Uses
Auditoriums, clubs, lodges and theaters
1 space per 4 seats at maximum seating capacity
Athletic club, country club, clubhouse, swimming club, gymnasium
1 space per 4 persons at maximum capacity
Golf course, in addition to clubhouse requirements
5 spaces per hole
Tennis courts, public, private or club
4 spaces per court
Community center
1 space per 2 persons at maximum capacity
Park, in addition to recreation use
1 space per 3 acres open space plus spaces for recreation use
Art galleries
1 space per 250 square feet of net usable floor area used to display art work
Ball fields, stadiums, amphitheaters
1 space per 3 persons at maximum capacity
1
For single-family and two-family dwellings with garages or carports located on the same parcel of property as the dwelling unit, each stall of the garage or carport shall be counted as complying with the requirements of this section.
2
The bay itself may not be counted as a required space.
B. 
Landscaping requirements. Off-street parking facilities shall provide landscaping as required in § 1304.
A. 
Whenever the normal operation of any development requires that goods, merchandise or equipment be routinely delivered to or shipped from that development, sufficient off-street loading and unloading areas must be provided in accordance with this section to accommodate the delivery or shipment operation in a safe and convenient manner.
B. 
Such loading spaces shall be of adequate size to accommodate the number and size of vehicles simultaneously loaded or unloaded in connection with the business conducted.
C. 
Loading and unloading areas shall be located and designed so that the vehicles intended to use them can maneuver safely and conveniently to and from a public right-of-way; complete loading and unloading operations without obstructing or interfering with any public right-of-way or any parking space, parking lot or parking facility aisle. No area designated for loading and unloading may be used to satisfy the area requirements for off-street parking nor shall any portion of any off-street parking area be used to satisfy the area requirements for loading and unloading facilities. If a loading or unloading area is required by the Planning Commission or City Council as part of the approval or conditional approval of a site plan, and the loading or unloading area is part of or incorporated into the required off-street parking facility, it shall be paved and maintained in accordance with the provisions of this article. If a loading or unloading area is required by the Planning Commission or City Council as part of the approval or conditional approval of a site plan, and the loading or unloading area is separate and distinct from the required off-street parking facility, the Planning Commission or City Council may waive the paving requirements of the loading or unloading area if the Planning Commission or City Council finds that waiving of the paving requirement will not adversely affect the operation or use of the loading or unloading area, and it will not adversely affect adjacent properties or the neighborhood.
D. 
Day-care facilities and child-care centers shall provide loading spaces for the pickup and drop-off of children.
A. 
Applicability. Parking spaces necessary to meet the minimum off-street parking space requirements may be shared in accordance with this section, provided that:
(1) 
Uses sharing parking are on adjoining lots, not separated by a street;
(2) 
Uses sharing parking are on property within a commercial zoning district;
(3) 
Uses sharing parking are professional/office and theaters; and
(4) 
The aggregate minimum number of off-street parking spaces described in Subsection B(8) of this section are provided and maintained while any or all of the uses for which the shared parking is permitted continue to exist.
B. 
Criteria. Parking spaces necessary to meet the minimum off-street parking space requirements of this chapter may be shared only if a shared parking agreement is executed by the owners of the properties for which parking will be shared. The shared parking agreement shall include:
(1) 
The names and addresses of the owners;
(2) 
Legal descriptions, uses, and available parking spaces for each of the properties covered by the agreement;
(3) 
The term of the agreement, which shall continue for at least the period any or all of the uses for which parking is shared exist;
(4) 
A provision stating that the agreement is binding upon the owners of the properties, their successors and assigns, and that the agreement shall run with the land;
(5) 
A provision granting from each owner to the other the rights to shared use of the parking facilities;
(6) 
A provision for the maintenance of the parking facilities by both owners;
(7) 
Such other provisions, not inconsistent with this chapter, as the parties may deem advisable; and
(8) 
A provision specifying that, for the properties together, an aggregate minimum number of off-street parking spaces will be provided and maintained.
(a) 
The required number of off-street parking spaces shall be computed as follows:
[1] 
The minimum number of parking spaces specified in § 810 for each property shall be multiplied by the "occupancy rate" as determined by this table for each use for the weekday night, daytime and evening periods, and weekend night, daytime and evening periods respectively.
[2] 
The minimum number of off-street parking spaces specified in § 810 for each of the uses referred to for each time period shall be added to produce the aggregate number of off-street parking spaces required for each time period.
[3] 
The greatest of the aggregate number of parking spaces for each period shall be determined to be the minimum number of off-street parking spaces required for the collective uses on the respective properties.
(b) 
Nothing herein contained shall reduce the total number of disabled parking spaces that would otherwise be required for each of the properties separately.
[Amended 11-19-2013 by Ord. No. 2013-02]
C. 
Approvals. The shared parking agreement described in Subsection B herein shall be submitted as a part of a site plan application for one or more of the affected properties. If one of the properties is operating pursuant to an existing approved site plan, then upon approval of the site plan with which the shared parking agreement is submitted, the site plan for the existing property shall be deemed to be amended, but only insofar as the parking requirements for it are concerned.
D. 
Enforcement. Parking requirements specified by this section shall be enforceable against any or each of the owners of properties subject to the shared parking agreement pursuant to the provisions of this chapter.