[Adopted 12-9-1991 by Ord. No. 649 (Ch. 26, Part 2, of the 1995 Code)]
This article shall apply to all industrial or commercial users of water supplied by the public water system of the Borough of Zelienople, County of Butler, Commonwealth of Pennsylvania. Said users to include, but not be limited to, businesses, hospitals and/or nursing homes, industries, municipalities and municipal authorities.
As used in this article, the following terms shall have the meanings indicated:
- AIR GAP SEPARATION
- The unobstructed vertical distance through the free atmosphere between the lowest opening from any pipe or faucet supplying potable water to a tank, plumbing fixture or other device and the flood level rim of the receptacle. The differential distance shall be at least double the diameter (2 x D) of the supply pipe measured vertically above the top of the rim of the vessel. In no case shall the air gap be less than one inch.
- A backflow-prevention device or method has been accepted by the public water supplier as suitable for the proposed use.
- ATMOSPHERIC VACUUM BREAKER
- (Also known as the non-pressure-type vacuum breaker.) A device containing a shutoff valve followed by a valve body containing a float-check, a check seat and an air inlet port. When the shutoff valve is open, the flow of water causes the float to close the air inlet port.
- AUXILIARY WATER SYSTEM
- Any water source or system on the premises of or available to the customer except connections to other approved community water supply systems.
- A flow condition, induced by a differential in pressure, that causes the flow of water or mixtures of water and other liquids, gases or other substances into the distribution pipes of a potable water supply from a source other than its intended source.
- BACKFLOW PREVENTER
- A device or other means which will prevent the backflow of water or liquids of questionable quality into the public water supply system.
- The backflow of water or mixture of water and other liquids, gases or other substances from a plumbing fixture or other customer course, into a public water supply system main due to a temporary negative or subatmospheric pressure within the public water supply system.
- The owner or person in control of any premises supplied by or in any manner connected to a public water supply system.
- CONSUMER'S WATER SYSTEM
- Any water system located on the consumer's premises supplied by or in any manner connected to a public water supply system. A household plumbing system is considered to be a consumer's water system.
- Cross-connection control which isolates the customer's entire facility from the public water supply system so as to provide the protection necessary to prevent contamination of the public water supply in the event of backflow from the customer's facility.
- The degradation of the quality of the drinking water by wastewaters, processed fluids or any water of a quality less than accepted drinking water quality to a degree which would create an actual hazard to the public health through poisoning or through the spread of disease.
- An arrangement allowing either a direct or indirect connection through which backflow, including backsiphonage, can occur between the drinking water in a public water system and a system containing a source or potential source of contamination.
- DEGREE OF HAZARD
- An evaluation of the potential risk to health and the adverse effect upon the public water supply system.
- DOUBLE-CHECK-VALVE ASSEMBLY
- An assembly composed of two single, independently acting, check valves including tightly closing shutoff valves located at each end of the assembly and suitable connections for testing the watertightness of each check valve.
- HEALTH HAZARD
- Any condition, device or practice in a water system or its operation that creates or may create a danger to the health and well-being of its users. The word "severe" as used to qualify "health hazard" means a hazard to the health of the user that could reasonably be expected to result in the significant morbidity or death.
- INTERCHANGEABLE CONNECTION
- Arrangement or device that will allow alternate, but not simultaneous, use of two sources of water.
- NONPOTABLE WATER
- Water not safe for drinking, personal or culinary use.
- Any individual, partnership, association, company, corporation, municipality, municipal authority, political subdivision or any agency of federal or state government. The term includes the officers, employees and agents of any partnership, association, company, corporation, municipality, municipal authority, political subdivision or any agency of federal or state government.
- The presence in water of any foreign substance that tends to degrade its quality so as to constitute a hazard or impair the usefulness or quality of the water to a degree which does not create an actual hazard to the public health but which does adversely and unreasonably affect such waters for domestic use.
- POTABLE WATER
- Water which is satisfactory for drinking, culinary and domestic purposes and meets the requirements of the Department of Environmental Protection.
- PROCESS FLUIDS
- Any fluid or solution which may be chemically, biologically or otherwise contaminated or polluted in a form or concentration such as would constitute a health, pollutional or system hazard if introduced into the public or a consumer's water system. This includes, but is not limited to:
- A. Polluted or contaminated waters.
- B. Process waters.
- C. Used waters originating from the public water system which may have deteriorated in sanitary quality.
- D. Cooling waters.
- E. Contaminated natural waters taken from wells, lakes, streams or irrigation systems.
- F. Chemicals in solution or suspension.
- G. Oils, gases, acids, alkalis and other liquid and gaseous fluids used in industrial or other processes, or for fire-fighting purposes.
- H. Heating system waters from boilers or heat pumps.
- PUBLIC WATER SUPPLIER
- A person who owns or operates a public water system.
- PUBLIC WATER SUPPLY SYSTEM
- A system which provides water to the public for human consumption which has at least 15 service connections or regularly serves an average of at least 25 individuals daily at least 60 days out of the year. The term is either a community or noncommunity water system and includes any collection, treatment, storage and distribution facilities under control of the operator of the system and used in connection with the system. The term includes collection or pretreatment storage facilities not under such control which are used in connection with the system. The term also includes a system which provides water for bottling or bulk hauling for human consumption.
- REDUCED-PRESSURE-ZONE (RPZ) DEVICE
- A minimum of two independently acting check valves, together with an automatically operated pressure-differential-relief valve located between the two check valves. During normal flow and at the cessation of normal flow, the pressure between these two checks shall be less than the supply pressure. In case of leakage of either check valve, the differential-relief valve, by discharging to the atmosphere, shall operate to maintain the pressure between the checks at less than the supply pressure. The unit must include tightly closing shutoff valves located at each end of the device, and each device shall be fitted with properly located test cocks.
- SERVICE CONNECTION
- The terminal end of a service line from the public water supply system. If a meter is installed at the end of the service, then the service connection means the downstream end of the meter.
- SYSTEM HAZARD
- A condition posing an actual or potential threat of damage to the physical properties of the public water system or the consumer's potable water system.
The water system shall be considered as made up of two parts, the public water supply system and the consumer's water system.
The public water supply system shall consist of the source facilities and the distribution system and shall include all those facilities of the public water supply system under the control of the public water supplier up to the point where the consumer's water system begins.
The source shall include all components of the facilities utilized in the production, treatment, storage and delivery of water to the public distribution system.
The public distribution system shall include the network of conduits used for delivery of water from the source to the consumer's water system.
The consumer's water system shall include all facilities beyond the service connection which are utilized in conveying water from the public distribution system to points of use.
No water service connection shall be installed or maintained to any premises where actual or potential cross-connections to the public water supply system or consumer's water system may exist unless such actual or potential cross-connections are abated or controlled to the satisfaction of the public water supplier.
No connection shall be installed or maintained whereby water from an auxiliary water supply may enter a public or consumer's water system unless such auxiliary water supply and the method of connection and use of such supply shall have been approved.
The consumer's premises shall be open at all reasonable times to the public water supplier or his authorized representative for the purposes of conducting surveys and investigations of water use practices within the consumer's premises to determine whether there are actual or potential cross-connections to the consumer's water system through which contaminants or pollutants could backflow into the public potable water system.
On request by the public water supplier, the consumer shall furnish information on water use practices within his premises.
It shall be the responsibility of the water consumer to conduct periodic surveys of water use practices on his premises to determine whether there are actual or potential cross-connections to his water system through which contaminants or pollutants could backflow into the public water supply system.
An approved backflow-prevention device shall be installed prior to the first branch line leading off each service line to a consumer's water system where, in the judgment of the public water supplier, an actual or potential hazard to the public water supply system exists.
An approved backflow-prevention device shall be installed on each service line to a consumer's water system where the following conditions exist:
Systems having an auxiliary water supply, unless such auxiliary supply is accepted as an additional source by the public water supplier and approved by the Department of Environmental Protection.
Systems where any substance is handled in such a fashion as to create an actual or potential hazard to the public water supply system. This shall include systems having sources or auxiliary systems containing process fluids or waters originating from the public water supply system which are no longer under the sanitary control of the water purveyor.
Systems having internal cross-connections that, in the judgment of the public water supplier, are not correctable or intricate plumbing arrangements which make it impractical to determine whether or not cross-connections exist.
Systems where, because of security requirements or other prohibitions or restrictions, it is impossible or impractical to make a complete cross-connection survey.
Systems having a repeated history of cross-connections being established or reestablished.
Others specified by the public water supplier.
An approved backflow-prevention device shall be installed on each service line to a consumer's water system serving, but not necessarily limited to, the following types of facilities, unless the public water supplier determines that no actual or potential hazard to the public water supply system exists:
Hospitals, mortuaries, clinics, nursing homes.
Sewage treatment plants, sewage pumping stations or stormwater pumping stations.
Food or beverage processing plants.
Restaurants and facilities possessing a license to dispense alcoholic beverages.
Petroleum processing or storage plants.
Radioactive material processing plants.
Car wash or truck wash.
Any industrial facility which employs water as part of the manufacturing or fabricating process.
Others specified by the water purveyor.
The type of protection required under § 266-20A, B and C of this article shall depend on the degree of hazard which exists, as follows:
An approved air gap separation shall be installed where the public water supply system may be contaminated with substances that are dangerous to the public health and could cause a severe health hazard.
An approved air gap separation or an approved reduced-pressure-zone backflow-prevention device shall be installed where the public water supply system may be contaminated with a substance that could cause a system or health hazard.
An approved air gap separation or an approved reduced-pressure-zone backflow-prevention device or an approved double-check-valve assembly shall be installed where the public water system may be polluted with substances that would be objectionable but not dangerous to health.
Any backflow-prevention device required by this article shall be of a model or construction approved by the public water supplier and shall comply with the following:
Air gap separation to be approved shall be at least twice the diameter of the supply pipe, measured vertically above the top rim of the vessel, but in no case less than one inch.
A double-check-valve assembly or a reduced-pressure-zone backflow-prevention device shall be approved by the public water supplier and shall mean a device that has been manufactured in full conformance with standards established by the American Waterworks Association, entitled: "AWWA C506 Standards for Reduced Pressure Principle and Double Check Valve Backflow Prevention Devices." Said AWWA standards are herein adopted by the public water supplier. Final approval, however, of the reduced-pressure-principle backflow preventer and the double-check-valve assembly shall be evidenced by a certificate of full approval issued by an approved testing laboratory certifying full compliance with the said AWWA standards.
An interchangeable connection to be approved shall be either a swing-type connector or a four-way valve of the lubricated plug type that operates through a mechanism which unseats the plug, turns it 90° and reseats the plug. Four-way valves shall not be used as stop valves but must have separate stop valves on each pipe connected to the valve. The telltale port on the four-way valve shall have no piping connected, and the threads or flange on this port shall be destroyed so that a connection cannot be made.
Existing backflow-prevention devices approved by the public water supplier at the time of installation and properly maintained shall, except for inspection and maintenance requirements, be excluded from the requirement of Subsection A of this section, providing the public water supplier is assured that they will satisfactorily protect the public potable supply system. Whenever the existing device is moved from the present location or requires more than minimum maintenance or when the public water supplier finds that the maintenance of the device constitutes a hazard to health, the device shall be replaced by a backflow-prevention device meeting the requirements of this article.
Backflow-prevention devices required by this article shall be installed at a location and in a manner approved by the public water supplier and shall be installed by a person properly qualified and at the expense of the water consumer.
Backflow-prevention devices installed on the service line to a consumer's water system shall be located on the consumer's side of the water meter, as close to the meter as is reasonably practical and prior to any other connection.
Pits or vaults shall be of watertight construction, be so located and constructed as to prevent flooding and shall be maintained free from standing water by means of either a sump pump or a suitable drain. Such sump pump or drain shall not connect to a sanitary sewer nor permit flooding of the pit or vault by reverse flow from its point of discharge. An access ladder and adequate natural or artificial lighting shall be provided to permit maintenance inspection and testing of the backflow-prevention device.
It shall be the duty of the consumer at any premises on which backflow-prevention devices required by this article are installed to have inspections, tests and overhaul made in accordance with the following schedule or more often where inspections indicate a need.
Double-check-valve assemblies shall be inspected and tested for tightness at the time of installation and at least every 12 months thereafter. They shall be dismantled, inspected internally, cleaned and repaired whenever needed and at least every 30 months.
Reduced-pressure-zone backflow-prevention devices shall be inspected and tested for tightness at the time of installation and at least every 12 months thereafter. They shall be dismantled, inspected internally, cleaned and repaired whenever needed and at least every five years.
Interchangeable connections shall be inspected at the time of installation and at least every 12 months thereafter.
Inspections, tests and overhaul of backflow-prevention devices shall be made at the expense of the water consumer and shall be performed by the public water supplier or a person certified to inspect, test and overhaul backflow-prevention devices.
Whenever backflow-prevention devices required by this article are found to be defective, they shall be repaired or replaced at the expense of the consumer without delay.
The water consumer must maintain a complete record of each backflow-prevention device from purchase to retirement. This shall include a comprehensive listing that includes a record of all tests, inspections and repairs. Records of inspections, tests, repairs and overhaul shall be submitted to the public water supplier upon request.
Backflow prevention devices shall not be bypassed, made inoperative, removed or otherwise made ineffective without specific authorization by the water supplier.
When a booster pump has been installed on the service line to or within any premises, such pump shall be equipped with a low-pressure cutoff device designed to shut off the booster pump when the pressure in the service line on the suction side of the pump drops to 10 pounds per square inch gauge or less for a period of 30 seconds or longer.
It shall be the duty of the water consumer to maintain the low-pressure cutoff device in proper working order and to certify to the public water supplier, at least once a year, that the device is operating properly.
The public water supplier may deny or discontinue, after reasonable notice to the occupants thereof, the water service to any premises wherein any backflow-prevention device required by this article is not installed, tested and maintained in a manner acceptable to the public water supplier, or if it is found that the backflow-prevention device has been removed or bypassed, or if an unprotected cross-connection exists on the premises, or if a low-pressure cutoff device required by this article is not installed and maintained in working order.
Water service to such premises shall not be restored until the consumer has corrected or eliminated such conditions or defects in conformance with this article and to the satisfaction of the public water supplier.