Off-street parking spaces shall be provided in accordance with the specifications in this article in any district whenever any new use is established or any existing use is changed or enlarged.
All parking areas established prior to the effective date of this chapter that are not in conformance with all provisions of this article shall be allowed to continue as previously laid out. If any change or alteration is proposed to these existing nonconforming parking areas, the portions to be changed or altered shall be upgraded in accordance with all provisions of this article.
Any change in use or in floor area of an existing building that would require a greater number of off-street parking spaces than the previous use or floor area did, shall provide additional off-street parking for the new use in accordance with this article. If the number of additional required parking spaces results in more than a 25% increase in the total number of parking spaces currently provided on the lot or requires the addition of at least five more spaces, whichever is greater, then all existing parking shall also be required to meet or exceed all provisions of this article, including surfacing.
Parking areas and driveways in parking areas in all zoning districts shall comply with the following standards:
Size. Each off-street parking space shall have an area of not less than 162 square feet, exclusive of access drives or aisles, shall have minimum dimensions of nine feet in width and 18 feet in length and shall be maintained free from obstruction. Except in the case of single-family dwellings, two-family dwellings and townhouses, parking areas shall be designed to provide sufficient turnaround area so that vehicles are not required to back onto the cartway of any public street.
Design. The minimum dimensions of aisles and driveways for all uses other than single-family dwellings and two-family dwellings shall be as follows:
Minimum width of aisles providing two-way travel shall be 24 feet.
One-way aisles shall not be dead-ended. Minimum width of aisles providing one-way travel shall vary with the angle of parking, as follows:
The minimum width of entrance and exit drives shall be:
For one-way travel, a minimum of 12 feet.
For two-way travel, a minimum of 24 feet.
A maximum of 35 feet at the street right-of-way line and 54 feet at the curbline.
Driveways shall not exceed a slope of 10% within 12 feet of the street right-of-way line.
Fire lanes shall be provided in accordance with the requirements of the Township Fire Code and the volunteer fire department.
Handicapped parking spaces. Handicapped-accessible parking spaces shall be provided in accordance with the requirements of the PA UCC, International Building Code and ICC/ANSI A1171.1.
Access. Access to parking areas shall be provided in accordance with the following requirements:
When an existing lot does not adjoin a public or private street, an easement of access and an access driveway shall be provided leading to the parking area.
Access to off-street parking areas shall be limited to well-defined locations, and in no case shall there be unrestricted access along the length of a street. In any district, other than an R-A, R-1, R-2 or R-3 District, the street frontage shall be curbed to restrict access to the lot, except where the access drives are proposed.
The number of access drives from a single lot or development to any public street shall not exceed two for every 400 feet of street frontage.
Except on corner lots, access drives shall be located at least 200 feet from the intersection of any two street right-of-way lines.
Where a site has frontage on more than one street, access shall be provided from the street with the lower traffic volume.
Access drives entering state highways shall be subject to a highway occupancy permit issued by the Pennsylvania Department of Transportation (PennDOT).
Access driveways entering Township streets shall be subject to a driveway permit, as required by Township Ordinance No. 3-2007.
Each parking space shall have access directly to a driveway. Interior circulation of traffic shall be designed so that no driveway providing access to parking spaces shall be used as a through street. Interior traffic circulation shall be designed to ensure safety and access by emergency vehicles.
Safety requirements. The Board of Supervisors shall consider whether safety requirements are warranted to reduce traffic hazards that endanger public safety. The developer shall be responsible for construction of any required islands, acceleration, deceleration or turning lanes and shall bear the cost of installing any required traffic control devices, signs or pavement markings within and adjoining the boundaries of the development site.
Marking. In parking areas that contain five or more spaces, all parking spaces shall be clearly delineated by painted lines marked with durable white or yellow paint in stripes a minimum of four inches wide extending the length of the parking space. All vehicular entrances and exits to parking areas shall be clearly marked for all conditions. Short-term visitor parking spaces shall be differentiated from long-term employee spaces by suitable markings. Handicapped parking shall be appropriately marked.
Curbs and wheelstops.
All outdoor hard-surfaced off-street parking areas shall be curbed unless sheet drainage of surface water can be achieved subject to approval by the Township Engineer.
Wheelstops shall be provided along boundaries of adjoining properties, public rights-of-way, sidewalks or landscaped areas unless curbs are provided in that portion of the parking lot.
All outdoor off-street parking areas and access driveways shall be paved with asphalt, concrete or similar material of adequate thickness to support the weight of fully loaded vehicles that customarily park or travel on it. The exceptions to this requirement are:
It shall be the responsibility of the property owner to ensure that driveway surface materials and stormwater runoff do not discharge onto a public street.
Location of parking areas.
Required parking spaces shall be located on the same lot with the principal use. In the case where adequate lot area does not exist on the same lot to meet the parking requirements, the Zoning Hearing Board may approve off-site parking as a use by special exception, provided it is located no more than 400 feet from the principal entrance to the building it is intended to serve and evidence of a lease agreement or cross-easement is submitted for any property under different ownership proposed to be used for off-site parking. If the off-site parking is not located on property contiguous to the use it serves, the off-site parking shall be used for employee parking and a means of safe pedestrian access shall be provided.
Parking authorized in front yards shall be located at least 10 feet from the street right-of-way line. All other parking areas containing five or more spaces shall be set back at least 10 feet from a side or rear property line, except where a buffer area is required by this chapter that results in a more stringent setback requirement.
Landscaping. Parking areas containing more than 50 spaces shall provide landscaping as required below:
At least 5% of the interior paved area shall be landscaped.
The area of the front yard between the street right-of-way and parking located in a front yard shall be seeded with grass or planted with ground cover and shall be landscaped with trees and/or shrubs that comply with the requirements for visibility of § 350-97D.
Shopping cart return areas. One shopping cart return area shall be provided for each 10,000 square feet of gross floor area in retail stores that provide shopping carts. Shopping cart return areas shall measure nine feet by 20 feet and shall provide containment on three sides and shall be identified by an above-grade sign secured to the containment structure. The surface area of the sign shall not exceed four square feet.
Lighting. If parking areas are proposed to be used during evening hours, lighting shall be provided. Any lighting used to illuminate off-street parking areas shall be designed to reflect the light away from adjoining properties in an R-A, R-1, R-2 or R-3 District and away from any streets or highways. The lighting system shall furnish a level of not less than 0.5 footcandle during hours of operation and shall be designed with cutoff luminaires that have a cutoff angle of 60° or less. (See illustration in Appendix B.) There shall be no spillover of illumination at any property line in excess of 0.2 footcandle.
Editor's Note: Appendix B is included at the end of this chapter.
Stormwater management. All paved areas shall be designed so that stormwater runoff shall not adversely affect adjacent properties. Surface drainage shall be connected to the existing or proposed drainage system. The method of stormwater management and the design of the proposed facilities shall be subject to the requirements of Chapter 280, Stormwater Management, as now or hereafter amended, and to review and recommendation by the Township Engineer.
Slope. The maximum permissible slope of any parking area accessory to any use other than a single-family or two-family dwelling shall be 5%. If parking spaces are provided in areas that exceed 3% slope, all such spaces shall be parallel to the contour lines of the area.
Any new use or change of use in any zoning district shall comply with the following minimum requirements for the provision of off-street parking spaces:
When the calculation of required parking spaces results in a requirement of a fractional parking space, any fraction shall be counted as one parking space.
Where more than one use exists on a lot, parking requirements for each use shall be provided.
The following table of parking requirements specifies the number of spaces required for various categories of uses in any zoning district:
Shared parking. The sharing of parking spaces located on the same site with the uses they serve may be authorized for two or more compatible uses in accordance with the following requirements:
The applicant shall prepare a parking demand study based on the requirements of this Subsection D. The parking demand study shall be prepared by a licensed traffic engineer.
The required parking for uses that propose shared parking shall be computed as follows:
Determine the minimum amount of parking required for each land use as though it were a separate use.
Using the synergy factors as described in the latest Urban Land Institute (ULI) Shared Parking publication, the total for each land use shall be reduced to account for synergy between uses as per the ULI described methodology.
Calculate the total number of spaces needed for all uses for each time period.
The time period with the highest number of parking spaces required for the sum of all uses shall be the total number of shared parking spaces required.
To apply for approval of shared parking, a table shall be submitted showing the breakdown of the gross floor area devoted to each land use category proposed to utilize the sharing of parking spaces.
Uses that do not fit into any of the land use categories described in the ULI methodology shall not be eligible for sharing of parking spaces.
The total amount of required parking shall be tabulated by use and time period.
The time period requiring the highest number of parking spaces shall be selected as the basis for the shared parking requirement.
Subsequent changes in use that affect the parking required for one or more of the uses approved for shared parking shall require an application for a new certificate of occupancy, including proof that sufficient parking will still be available. If the new use creates a demand for more parking than is provided under the shared parking scheme, the certificate of occupancy shall not be issued until additional parking is provided or an application for shared parking utilizing the parking demand for the new use is approved. This provision shall be made a condition of the certificate of occupancy that is issued following approval of the shared parking for the original use.
In all zoning districts, whenever a new use is established or an existing use is structurally altered, converted or enlarged, off-street loading spaces shall be provided in accordance with the requirements of this section.
Off-street loading design.
Size. Each loading berth shall be at least 60 feet in length and 14 feet in width with an overhead clearance of 15 feet. The area used for loading berths shall not be used to satisfy parking area requirements and shall not block any driveway used for circulation through the site.
Access. Loading berths shall be designed to provide sufficient turnaround area so that vehicles are not required to back onto public streets and the design shall be subject to review and approval by the Township Engineer. Loading berths shall have direct access to a driveway and shall be maintained free from obstruction.
Location. All loading berths shall be located on the same lot with the principal use they are intended to serve. No loading berth shall be located in the minimum required front yard setback. Loading berths shall be located at least 25 feet from the nearest point of intersection of any two streets.
Screening. Loading berths shall be screened by a minimum eight-foot-high wall or opaque fence on all sides adjoining property in an R-A, R-1, R-2 or R-3 District in addition to the buffer area required by § 350-96B.
Surfacing. All loading berths shall have a paved, concrete or bituminous surface, with adequate thickness to support the weight of a fully loaded vehicle and graded with positive drainage to dispose of surface water.
Lighting. Any lighting used to illuminate loading berths shall be designed to reflect away from any adjoining properties in an R-A, R-1, R-2 or R-3 District and away from any street or highway. Spillover lighting shall not exceed 0.2 footcandle at any property line.
Off-street loading requirements. In all zoning districts, every use that requires the receipt or distribution, by tractor-trailer, of material or merchandise, shall provide off-street loading berths in accordance with the following requirements:
In addition to required off-street parking and loading facilities, adequate storage areas for vehicles awaiting loading and unloading shall be provided. Under no circumstances shall vehicles be stored on or block access to a public right-of-way.