All work and materials shall be in accordance with Pennsylvania Department of Transportation Publication 408, except as herein provided or as approved by the Borough Engineer.
Cement concrete sidewalks shall be five feet wide by four inches thick, except at driveways, where the sidewalk shall be reinforced, by a minimum of six inches thick, and be constructed in accordance with the accompanying details.
Replacement cement sidewalks shall be constructed to the size of the adjoining sidewalk, as directed by the Borough.
Concrete shall conform to Type A concrete for cement concrete sidewalks. Type A concrete shall have a minimum compressive strength of 3,300 psi after 28 days.
The subbase shall be six inches of compacted aggregate. The aggregate shall be stone, gravel or slag meeting the requirements for Type C or better No. 2A material.
The foundation for the bed shall be formed at a depth of 10 inches below and parallel with the finished surface of the sidewalk, unless otherwise approved by the Borough. Unsuitable material shall be removed and replaced with approved material, and the foundation shall be thoroughly compacted and finished to a firm, even surface.
Materials requiring excavation such as old sidewalk, curbing, excess earth, tree roots, paving or other materials that cannot be used shall become the property of the contractor and disposed of by the contractor at no additional cost to the owner.
The aggregate subbase shall be spread on the prepared foundation to form a compacted bed six inches in depth, unless otherwise directed by the Borough Engineer. This material shall be thoroughly compacted. Satisfactory outlets for draining the bed shall be provided.
Forms shall be of wood or metal, straight, free from warp and of sufficient strength when staked to resist the pressure of the concrete without springing. If wood, they shall be nominal two-inch planks surfaced on the inside and top; or if metal, they shall be of approved section. Forms shall have a depth equal to the depth of the concrete and shall be thoroughly cleaned and oiled before concrete is placed against them. Forms that are worn, bent or damaged shall not be used.
Construction joints shall be spaced in uniform lengths or sections of five feet. Contraction joints may be either hand-formed or sawed joints. They shall be three-sixteenths-inch wide and one-inch deep. Sawing of joints shall be done as soon as practicable after the concrete has set sufficiently to preclude raveling during the sawing and before any shrinkage cracking occurs in the concrete. The saw-cut depth may be decreased at the edge adjacent to a curb or structure to obtain a maximum depth that will avoid damage to them.
Construction joints shall have tooled edges.
The one-half-inch premolded expansion joint material shall be cut to conform to the cross-sectional area and be placed at structures and at the end of a day's work.
Where existing light standards, poles, fire hydrants and similar structures are within the limits of the sidewalk area, the concrete around such structures shall be scored in a block eight inches wider than the maximum dimension of the structure at the sidewalk elevation. Prior to placing the concrete around such structures, premolded expansion joint filler, 3/4 inch in thickness shall be placed around the structures for the full depth of the concrete in the sidewalk.
The concrete shall be placed in the forms in horizontal layers. The concrete shall be four inches in depth unless otherwise indicated on the drawings or specified. The concrete shall be struck off and have a wood float or brush finish. Unless otherwise directed, an edger having a one-fourth-inch radius shall be used for edging all joints.
Side forms shall not be removed within 12 hours after the concrete has been placed. After removal of the forms, minor honeycombed areas shall be filled with mortar composed of one part of cement and two parts of fine aggregate. Major honeycombed areas will be considered as defective work and shall be removed and replaced at no expense to the Borough.
The newly poured sidewalks shall be cured and protected. In cool weather temperature below 35° F., sidewalks shall be cured as directed by the Borough Engineer.
In warm weather, the sidewalks shall be kept moist for a period of not less than three days, or longer if directed, and shall be protected from the elements by a burlap covering which is not less than seven ounces per square yard in weight or polyethylene sheeting with a total nominal thickness of the two layers not less than four mils, in a manner satisfactory to the Borough Engineer.
After the concrete has cured for a period of not less than 72 hours, the spaces adjacent to the sidewalk shall be backfilled with approved material in layers of not more than four inches in depth, which shall be thoroughly compacted mechanically to the required elevation and cross section.
Handicapped/pedestrian ramps shall be installed in locations directed by the Borough.
Engineering specifications for cement concrete sidewalks are illustrated on a detail sheet prepared by the Borough Engineer, which is hereby declared to be a part of this article, and the notations, references and other data shown thereon are as much a part of this article as if the same were fully set forth herein.