Village of Spring Lake, MI
Ottawa County
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Table of Contents
Table of Contents
A. 
In order to reduce or prevent traffic congestion and shortage of parking facilities in the Village, off-street parking and loading facilities shall be provided in accordance with this article, in proportion to the need for such facilities created by various uses of land, buildings, and structures.
B. 
Off-street parking and loading areas are to be designed, maintained and operated in a manner that will ensure their usefulness, protect the public safety, and where appropriate, protect surrounding uses from their impact.
In all zoning districts, after the effective date of this chapter, off-street parking facilities shall be provided for any new building, structure, or use, for any addition or enlargement to an existing building, structure, or use, or for any change of use to an existing structure, according to the standards in this article. For additions or enlargements to an existing building, structure, or use, or change in use of an existing building or structure, additional parking shall be required only for such addition or enlargement, or incremental increase in required parking due to such change in use, and not for the existing building or structure or previous use.
Off-street parking facilities in existence on the effective date of this chapter, and provided in connection with a building, structure, or use of land for which off-street parking is required by this article, shall not be reduced in number or dimensions to less than the minimum standards prescribed by this article, nor shall such facilities be used to satisfy the standards of this article for any other building, structure, or use of land.
All off-street parking and loading facilities required by this article shall be maintained free of accumulated snow, debris or other materials preventing full use and occupancy of such facilities in accordance with the intent of this article, except for temporary periods of short duration in the event of heavy snowfall.
A. 
No person shall construct a parking facility or cause any land to be used for a parking facility, with the exception of parking facilities serving a single-family dwelling, unless a certificate of zoning compliance for such facility has been issued by the Zoning Administrator.
B. 
Application for a certificate of zoning compliance shall be made by submitting to the Zoning Administrator plans for the parking facility at a scale not greater than one inch equals 50 feet. Such plans shall identify existing lot lines, existing and proposed ground elevation contours and two-foot intervals, parking stall dimensions, driveway and aisle dimensions, type of curbing, location and size of all drainage facilities, location, height, style and intensity of lighting, sidewalks, proposed landscaping and proposed surface and base materials to be used.
C. 
If the plans for such parking facility are in conformance with the requirements of this article and other applicable provisions of this chapter, the Zoning Administrator shall issue a certificate of zoning compliance for the parking facility.
D. 
Construction of a parking facility for which a certificate of zoning compliance has been issued shall be carried out in conformance with the plans submitted in application for such certificate.
[Amended 7-1-2010 by Ord. No. 319]
A. 
All parking facilities, with the exception of those serving single-family dwellings and nonpublic areas used primarily for storage of vehicles, shall be hard-surfaced with asphalt or concrete pavement and shall be graded and drained so as to dispose of surface water which might accumulate within or upon such area. No surface water from a parking area shall be permitted to drain onto adjoining property, not including a public street, unless a watershed easement has been obtained. Discharge of drainage into a public right-of-way or municipal storm sewer shall require prior approval of the Village.
B. 
All illumination for or on any parking area shall be deflected away from adjacent property and shall be installed in such a manner as to allow the reduction of the amount of light during other than normal parking hours each day. The source of illumination in all parking areas abutting a residential zoning district or use shall not be more than 20 feet above the parking surface.
C. 
Adequate ingress and egress to the parking area, by means of limited and clearly defined drives, shall be provided for all vehicles. One-way ingress driveways shall have a width between 12 feet and 15 feet, and two-way ingress and egress driveways shall have a width between 24 feet and 30 feet.
D. 
Wheel stops or raised curbing shall be provided and located so as to prevent any vehicle from projecting over lot lines.
E. 
Individual parking spaces shall be clearly identified and marked with durable striping.
F. 
Parking areas, with the exception of access driveways from public streets, shall be located entirely within lot lines and shall not encroach into any public right-of-way. With the exception of parking facilities serving single-family or two-family dwellings, or parking facilities accommodating less than four vehicles, off-street parking areas shall be designed in a manner which avoids the necessity of vehicles backing into any street.
G. 
Parking areas shall comply with the applicable provisions regarding setbacks from lot lines and screening contained in Article XXI, Landscape Regulations.
H. 
Dimensions of parking spaces and maneuvering aisles shall be in accordance with the following requirements:
Minimum Aisle Width
Parking Pattern
(See Figure 8)
Two-Way
(feet)
One-Way
(feet)
Minimum Space Width
(feet)
Minimum Space Length
(feet)
Parallel parking
18
12
9
25
Angle parking 30° to 75°
24
12
9
21
Angle parking 76° to 90°
26
15
9
18
Minor adjustments of the dimensions prescribed in this section may be authorized by the Zoning Administrator if consistent with generally recognized design standards for off-street parking facilities.
Figure 8 Off-Street Parking Design Standards
390 Fig 8 Offstreet Parking.tif
A. 
All parking associated with any use shall be located in the same zoning district as that use. With the exception of the CBD Zoning District, off-street parking areas shall be located either on the same lot as the use served by the parking or on an adjoining lot under the same ownership or control.
B. 
CBD Zoning District.
(1) 
Within the CBD Zoning District, parking required by this article shall be located within 300 feet of the building, structure, or use for which it is intended, as measured from the nearest part of the building or structure to the nearest part of the parking area.
(2) 
Within the CBD Zoning District, the parking requirements of this article may be met by participation in a municipal or joint community parking lot designed to serve a larger area, provided plans for the community parking area have been approved by the Village Council.
C. 
The parking requirements of this article may be met by a municipal or joint community parking lot only if such parking facilities are located on the same side of State Highway M-104 (Savidge Street) as the proposed use to be served.
A. 
Each use shall provide at least the number of parking spaces required in the following schedule. Where fractional requirements result from the application of this schedule, the fraction shall be raised to the next whole number. For any use not listed in this schedule, parking spaces shall be provided in a quantity sufficient to make reasonable and adequate provision for the highest expected volume of users.
[Amended 6-16-2008 by Ord. No. 305; 11-23-2009 by Ord. No. 317]
Use
Required Number of Parking Spaces
Single- and two-family dwellings
2 spaces per dwelling unit
Multiple-family dwellings
2 spaces per dwelling unit
Group day-care homes and foster-care group homes
1 space per 4 clients, plus 1 space per each employee
Churches, theaters, auditoriums, assembly areas and gymnasiums
2 spaces per 5 seats or 8 feet of pew length
Schools, elementary and middle
1.5 spaces per classroom, plus amount required for auditorium or gymnasium seating
Schools, secondary
1 space per 8 students, plus 1.5 spaces per classroom, plus amount required for auditorium or gymnasium seating
Retail businesses
1 space per 200 square feet of gross floor area
Offices
1 space per 300 square feet of gross floor area
Banks, credit unions and savings and loans
1 space per 200 square feet of gross floor area
Indoor commercial recreational establishments
1 space per 3 persons allowed within maximum occupancy permitted by building code
Restaurants
1 space per 200 square feet of gross floor area
Hotels, motels
1 space per guest room, plus amount required for other uses on the premises, plus 1 per employee
Business services
1 space per 300 square feet of gross floor area
Wholesale establishments
1 space per 500 square feet of gross floor area
Industrial uses
1 space per 2,000 square feet of gross manufacturing area, plus amount required for office space on the premises
Private marinas
0.75 space per boat slip or rack storage bin, plus amount required for other ancillary uses
Public transient marinas
5 spaces per boat slip
B. 
Where the property owner/applicant can demonstrate that the required amount of parking is excessive, the Planning Commission may defer construction of the required number of parking spaces if the following conditions are met:
[Amended 5-19-2008 by Ord. No. 304]
(1) 
An area of sufficient size to meet the parking space requirements of this article is retained as open landscaped space.
(2) 
The owner agrees in writing to construct the additional parking at the direction of the Planning Commission based on observed usage within six months of being informed of such request in writing by the Zoning Administrator.
(3) 
A written legal agreement to construct the deferred parking, as drafted by the Village Attorney at the applicant's expense, shall be signed by the applicant.
(4) 
The site plan shall note the area where parking is being deferred, including dimensions and dotted parking lot layout.
(5) 
A stormwater management plan for the completed parking area, including any deferred spaces, must be submitted and approved by the Village Engineer.
(6) 
The Village may require a performance bond to cover the estimated construction cost of the deferred parking with refund in two years if the additional parking is not found to be necessary.
(7) 
A permit shall be required prior to construction of the deferred parking area.
C. 
The Board of Appeals, as a matter upon which the Board of Appeals is required to pass under this chapter, may reduce the number of parking spaces required by this section to such level as the Board of Appeals shall determine to be appropriate if the Board of Appeals is satisfied, based on the evidence presented to it, that the number of spaces required by this section are excessive for the proposed use. In acting on an application pursuant to this subsection, the Board of Appeals shall follow the procedures and conduct a hearing as specified in § 390-204. As is provided in § 390-205, the Board of Appeals may impose conditions in connection with an affirmative decision to reduce the number of required parking spaces including requiring the applicant to retain sufficient open land area so as to permit the construction of additional parking spaces in a quantity sufficient to comply with the requirements of this section. If the Board of Appeals makes an affirmative decision to reduce the number of parking spaces required by this section, the Board of Appeals shall have the right, at any time and on its own motion, to consider requiring the construction of additional parking spaces required by this section. Before acting to require the construction of additional parking spaces as provided in the immediately preceding sentence, the Board of Appeals shall first follow the procedures and conduct a hearing as is required in § 390-204.
A. 
Provision of off-street loading/unloading spaces shall be required for construction of any building 20,000 square feet or greater in gross floor area, or for any expansion of 2,000 square feet or more in gross floor area of any existing building of 18,000 square feet or greater in existing gross floor area, in the C, CBD, and I Zoning Districts, as follows:
Building Gross Floor Area
(square feet)
Required Number of Spaces
20,000 to 50,000
2
Above 50,000
3
B. 
Off-street loading/unloading spaces shall have minimum dimensions of 10 feet in width, 25 feet in length and unobstructed height of 14 feet.
C. 
Any loading space located closer than 50 feet to any residential zoning district or use shall be completely screened from such district or use by a solid fence or wall at least six feet in height or a landscape screen consisting of a dense, evergreen vegetative buffer not less than six feet in height at the time of planting.
D. 
Adequate space shall be provided so that vehicles using required loading/unloading spaces are not required to use a street for maneuvering.