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Township of Lower Oxford, PA
Chester County
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Table of Contents
Table of Contents
[Ord. 3/1/1978, 3/1/1978, § 500]
1. 
The following principles, standards and requirements shall be applied by the Board in evaluating plans for proposed subdivisions and land development. In addition, the standards set forth in Chapter 27 of this Code for the particular district in which the subdivision or land development is taking place shall govern the layout of lots and/or design of buildings, parking lots and other facilities.
2. 
The standards and requirements outlined herein shall be considered minimum standards and requirements for the promotion of public health, safety, morals and general welfare.
[Ord. 3/1/1978, 3/1/1978, § 501]
1. 
Land shall be suited to the purposes for which it is to be subdivided or developed.
2. 
Low lying lands which are swampy or are subject to periodic flooding shall not be platted for residential development or designated for such other uses as may involve danger to health, safety, morals or the general welfare of the citizens unless adequate permanent drainage is provided and unless provision is made and indicated on the plan for adequate and healthful disposal of sanitary sewage and drainage of surface and subsurface water.
[Ord. 3/1/1978, 3/1/1978, § 502]
1. 
Proposed streets shall be properly related to such street plans or parts thereof as have been officially prepared and adopted by the Township, including recorded subdivision plans and the Official Map of the Township.
2. 
Proposed streets shall further conform to such Township, county and state road and highway plans as have been prepared, adopted and/or filed as prescribed by law.
3. 
Thoughtful and imaginative design of streets and their relationship to the arrangement and shape of lots is required. An important element is the blending with topography to produce curvilinear design and reasonable grades. The rectilinear design of streets and lots involving long straight sections of street should be avoided.
4. 
Local streets shall be laid out as to discourage through traffic, but provision for street connections into and from adjacent areas will generally be required.
5. 
If lots resulting from original subdivisions are large enough to permit re-subdivision of if a portion of the tract is not subdivided, adequate street rights-of-way to permit further subdivision shall be provided as necessary.
6. 
Where a subdivision abuts or contains an existing or proposed major thoroughfare, the Board may require dedication of additional right-of-way to provide the minimum right-of-way specified hereinafter and marginal access streets, rear service alleys, reverse frontage lots, or such other treatment as will provide protection for abutting properties, reduction in the number of intersections with the major thoroughfare and separation of local and through traffic.
7. 
New half or partial streets shall not be permitted, except where essential to reasonable subdivision of a tract in conformance with the other requirements and standards of this Chapter 22 and where, in addition, dedication of the remaining part of the street has been secured. Wherever a tract to be subdivided borders an existing half or partial street, the other part of the street shall be plotted within such tract. Where half or partial streets are proposed, the acceptance of final plans shall be conditioned upon the provision of guarantees providing for the construction or completion of such streets to Township standards.
8. 
Dead-end streets shall be prohibited, except as stubs to permit future street extension into adjoining tracts, or when designed as cul-de-sac.
9. 
Continuations of existing streets shall be known by the same name, but names for other streets shall not duplicate or closely resemble names for existing streets in the Township and/or Post Office district. The Board may reject street names and suggest alternate names.
Where streets and other public improvements continue into adjoining municipalities, evidence of compatibility of design, particularly with regard to street widths, shall be submitted. The applicant shall coordinate such design with both municipalities to avoid abrupt changes in cartway width or in improvements provided.
[Ord. 3/1/1978, 3/1/1978, § 503]
Culs-de-sac permanently designed as such shall not exceed 1,600 feet in length and shall be provided at the closed end with a paved turnaround having a minimum diameter to the outer pavement edge of 80 feet. Right-of-way shall have a minimum diameter of 100 feet within the turnaround areas.
[Ord. 3/1/1978, 3/1/1978, § 506; as amended by Ord. 2-99, 5/12/1999, § II]
1. 
The minimum street rights-of-way and cartway widths for new streets shall be as follows:
Street Classification
Function
Right-of-Way
Cartway
Major Street
Provides for inter-community travel, connecting population centers and carrying large volumes of traffic at speeds higher than desirable on local or specific streets
100 feet or as required by the Pennsylvania Department of Transportation
36 feet
Local High Intensity Street Collector Street
Provides access to residential land use with a density in excess of 3 dwelling units per acre; industrial land uses; and/or commercial land uses
60 feet
36 feet
Local Street
Provides access to residential land use with a density of 3 or fewer dwelling units per acre and/or institutional land uses
50 feet
24 feet
Marginal Access Street
Streets which are parallel to and adjacent to major streets and which provide access to abutting properties
50 feet
20 feet
2. 
The extension of existing streets which are presently constructed with a cartway width different from the standards of this Part shall be provided with a transition area, the design of which is subject to Board approval.
3. 
Additional right-of-way and cartway widths may be required by the Board for the following purposes.
A. 
To promote public safety and convenience.
B. 
To provide parking space in commercial, industrial, and/or high density residential developments.
[Ord. 3/1/1978, 3/1/1978, § 505]
1. 
Whenever street lines are deflected in excess of 5°, connection shall be made by horizontal curves.
2. 
To insure adequate sight distance, minimum center line radii for horizontal curves shall be as follows:
A. 
Local streets: 150 feet.
B. 
Collector streets: 300 feet.
C. 
Major thoroughfares: 500 feet.
3. 
A tangent of at least 100 feet measured at the center line shall be required between reverse curves.
[Ord. 3/1/1978, 3/1/1978, § 506]
1. 
Center line grades shall be not less than 1%.
2. 
Center line grades shall not exceed 10% except on major thoroughfares which shall not exceed 7%.
3. 
Vertical curves shall be used at change of grade exceeding 1%, and the length of such curves shall not be less than 25 feet for each 1% change in grade. In all cases, the following minimum sight distances shall be maintained:
A. 
Local streets: 200 feet.
B. 
Collector streets: 300 feet.
C. 
Major thoroughfares: 400 feet.
4. 
Where the grade of any street at the approach to an intersection exceeds 6%, a leveling area shall be provided having not greater than 4% grades for a distance of 25 feet measured from the nearest right-of-way in the intersecting street.
[Ord. 3/1/1978, 3/1/1978; § 507; as amended by Ord. 2-99, 5/12/1999, § II]
1. 
Right angle intersections shall be used whenever practicable, especially when local streets empty into major thoroughfares. There shall be no intersection angle measured at the center line of less than 60°.
2. 
No more than two streets shall cross at the same point.
3. 
Streets entering the opposite sides of another street shall either be directly across from each other or offset by at least 200 feet from center line to center line.
4. 
A minimum paving radius of 25 feet shall be provided at all street intersections. The Board may increase the required radii to 30 feet when it considers such design advisable at intersections involving major thoroughfares.
5. 
All necessary street name signs and traffic control signs shall be provided and erected by the developer. The street signs shall be of the type existing in the neighborhood and shall be subject to approval by the Board. Street signs shall be erected before acceptance of the street.
6. 
Sight Distance at Street Intersections.
A. 
There shall be provided and maintained at all intersections a clear sight triangle with a line of sight between points 100 feet from the intersection of the street center lines. Clear sight triangles shall be indicated on all plans, and a note shall be provided on the plans which states that no structures, landscaping or grading may be constructed, installed or performed within the area of the clear sight triangle which would obscure the vision of motorists. Deeds to lots which contain clear sight triangles shall provide that no structure, landscaping or grading shall be erected, installed or performed within the area of the clear sight triangle which will obscure the vision of motorists.
B. 
Proper sight distance shall be provided with respect to both horizontal and vertical alignment at all road intersections. The sight distance measured on Township roads shall be 350 feet. The sight distance is for a driver exiting the proposed intersection onto the through street. The driver must be considered to be 10 feet from the near edge of the closest street through travel lane (from the curb line if curbing is present) at an eye height of four feet above the pavement surface. The point sighted by the exiting driver shall be four feet above the pavement surface located in the center of the closest street travel lane designated for use by approaching traffic.
C. 
All streets intersecting a state route shall be subject to the approval of the Pennsylvania Department of Transportation.
[Ord. 3/1/1978, 3/1/1978, § 508; as amended by Ord. 1-93, 1/6/1993; by Ord. 2-95, 5/10/1995, § 1; by Ord. 2-99, 5/12/1999, § II, and by Ord. 1-2002, 6/12/2002]
1. 
Street Construction and Testing Requirements. Any street proposed for construction within the Township shall satisfy the following criteria:
A. 
The design of the proposed street shall include a complete subsurface exploration (test borings) of the soils within the proposed cartway area. The subsurface exploration report and test results shall be completed prior to submission of final plans to the Township. The subsurface exploration report should include earthwork recommendations and specifications, recommendations for stabilization of soft or potentially unstable soils, and pavement sections, and should discuss other relevant issues regarding the subsurface soil conditions. A set of notes should be added to the plans indicating the earthwork procedures and specifications for soil compaction. The plans should also note the name and company of the project geotechnical engineer. The subsurface exploration report shall be prepared by a professional engineer licensed in the Commonwealth of Pennsylvania and follow general geotechnical engineering practice. Drilling of test borings, field testing and laboratory testing of soil samples shall be performed in general accordance with current ASTM standards and general engineering practice. Pavement sections shall meet the minimum standards of current PennDOT specifications.
B. 
If the street is proposed to be constructed on existing fill soils, action should be taken to ensure the completed pavement performs as designed. Remedial actions may include, but are not limited to: undercutting and removal of unsuitable soils, use of geotextile fabric, thicker pavement sections, and lime or fly ash stabilization of subgrade soils. The remedial actions should be outlined in the subsurface exploration report and should be incorporated into the final plan.
C. 
If the street is proposed to be constructed in areas of new fill soil placement a geotechnical engineer or representative shall be on site during earthwork activities to monitor cut and fill operations and perform in-place density (compaction) tests and soil evaluations on the lifts of fill. In-place density (compaction) tests should be performed for every 2,000 square feet of fill placement and on all lifts of fill. The uncompacted lift thickness should not exceed 12 inches. All soil proposed for use as fill should be approved prior to placement. New fill shall not be placed over soft or unstable soils, frozen soils, ice or ponded water.
D. 
The completed pavement subgrade shall be proofrolled under the supervision of the Township Engineer prior to placement of subbase (aggregate base course) material. Proofrolling shall be performed using a loaded tandem axle dump truck with a minimum gross weight of 45,000 pounds. Any unstable areas observed during proofrolling shall be stabilized by undercutting and removing the unstable material, use of geotextile fabric, fly ash or lime stabilization or other means as approved by the project geotechnical engineer and/or Township Engineer. The proofrolling and remedial actions should also be observed by the project geotechnical engineer or representative.
E. 
The aggregate base course for the proposed road shall be compacted in accordance with the recommendations provided in the project subsurface exploration report. The base course shall extend laterally eight inches beyond the proposed edge of pavement. In-place density (compaction) tests shall be performed on the completed aggregate base course surface to verify specified compaction has been achieved. Acceptable methods of testing include nuclear method (direct transmission mode) or sand cone. Should test results indicate insufficient compaction, recommendations of the project geotechnical engineer should be followed in order to ensure the aggregate base course will perform as designed. The completed aggregate subbase should also be proofrolled with a loaded tandem axle dump truck prior to asphalt placement. The proofrolling should be observed by the Township Engineer and project geotechnical engineer or representative. Any unstable areas observed should be repaired in accordance with the recommendations of the Township Engineer and/or the project geotechnical engineer or representative. All tests should be performed in accordance with the current revision of Section 350 of Commonwealth of Pennsylvania Department of Transportation Specifications, Pub. 408.
F. 
In-place density (compaction) tests should be performed on the lifts of asphalt placed for the proposed road. The nuclear (backscatter) density test method shall be employed. Tests shall be performed in accordance with the latest revision of Commonwealth of Pennsylvania Department of Transportation Specifications, Pub. 408. Asphalt cores may be needed to correlate nuclear density test data and to verify field test results.
G. 
A construction testing and observation report prepared by the project geotechnical engineer shall be submitted to the Township. The report should include a summary of in-place density tests on soils and asphalt as well as a discussion of any unsuitable soils, deficient test results encountered during the project and other pertinent information from the field observations and testing. The report shall be signed and sealed by a professional engineer licensed in the Commonwealth of Pennsylvania. The report shall be reviewed by the Township Engineer prior to release of escrow (improvement guarantee) money or dedication of the road to the Township, if applicable.
H. 
The area within the limits of the proposed road surface shall be shaped to conform to the line, grade and cross-section of the proposed road.
2. 
Street Construction Criteria.
A. 
Upon completion of construction and occupancy of 75% of the residential lots, the ID-2 wearing course may be placed. Any damaged sections of the roadway shall be repaired, the roadway cleaned of all foreign material and a tack coat placed. An ID-2 wearing course with a minimum compacted depth of 1 1/2 inches shall be placed. All construction joints, along curbing and at all structures, shall be sealed with asphalt material.
B. 
All finished streets must maintain a minimum 1/4 inch per foot crown, except on superelevations, and conform with the horizontal and vertical alignment of the plans as approved.
C. 
Roadways shall be graded for not less than eight feet beyond the edge of the proposed edge of paving on each side. This grading width shall be increased as necessary where sidewalks and/or planting strips are to be provided. Beyond the limits of this grading, banks shall have slopes of not less than three horizontal to one vertical with tops of slopes in cuts rounded.
D. 
Where concrete curb is not installed an earth shoulder with a minimum width of eight feet shall be constructed adjacent to the cartway. This shoulder area shall be graded with a minimum slope of 3/4 of an inch per foot cross slope. No obstructions to drainage or snow plowing operations shall be placed within the shoulder area. Mail boxes shall be erected so that no part of the mail box or its supporting structure is closer than 24 inches to the edge of the cartway. The slope of driveways across the shoulder shall maintain the shoulder cross slope.
E. 
Roadway paving shall be placed at all inlets constructed in an unpaved shoulder. See Appendix 1 for details.
F. 
Improvement of Existing Streets and Intersections. Where a subdivision or land development abuts an existing Township and/or state street the developer shall make the following improvements:
(1) 
The existing street shall be improved to the cartway width established for new streets. Improvements shall include, but not limited to, the installation of curb as required, widening and paving of the cartway, grading of shoulders and installing stormwater management facilities in accordance with the applicable sections of this Part. Notwithstanding the foregoing, state highways shall be improved in accordance with the requirements of the Pennsylvania Department of Transportation and any conditions imposed upon granting of a highway occupancy permit by the Department of Transportation.
(2) 
In cases where the subdivision or land development is situated only on one side of an existing street, the Township may require that only one side of the street be improved.
3. 
Grading and Shoulders. Roadways shall be graded for not less than eight feet beyond the edge of the proposed paving on each side. This grading width shall be increased as necessary where sidewalks and/or planting strips are to be provided. Shoulders shall be graded with a slope of one inch per foot. Beyond the limits of this grading, banks shall be sloped to prevent erosion, but this slope shall not be less than two horizontal to one vertical with tops of slope in cuts rounded.
[Ord. 3/1/1978, 3/1/1978, § 509; as amended by Ord. 1-2002, 6/12/2002]
1. 
Sidewalks shall not generally be required for low density residential areas, but the Board may require that sidewalks be provided for commercial or high density residential development.
2. 
When required, sidewalks shall be set parallel to the cartway length and within the right-of-way. The sidewalk shall be sloped at 1/2 inch per foot across its width and said slope shall be constant for the length of the sidewalk.
3. 
Sidewalks shall be constructed of concrete with a minimum twenty-eight-day compressive strength of 3,000 psi. At time of placement, the concrete slump shall not exceed five inches and the entrained air content of the fresh concrete shall be between 4% and 6%. Sidewalks shall be a minimum of four feet wide and the thickness shall be a minimum of four inches except at driveway crossings when the thickness shall be increased to six inches. Either six inch by six inch No. 8 wire mesh reinforcement shall be set at 1/3 the cross-sectional thickness from the bottom, or the sidewalk is to have a four inch compacted granular base. Sidewalks shall be installed in twenty foot sections, scored or grooved every four feet with bituminous expansion joints between each twenty foot section and abutting structures.
4. 
Maintenance of sidewalks, which shall include but not be limited to snow removal and repair, shall be the sole responsibility of the landowner. The Township maintains the right to perform periodic inspections of the sidewalks. If the municipality determines that the landowner is not maintaining the sidewalks, the municipality may employ the means to maintain clear passage for pedestrians or repair/replace damaged sidewalks at the landowner's expense.
[Ord. 3/1/1989, 3/1/1978, § 510; as amended by Ord. 1-2002, 6/12/2002]
1. 
Curbing shall be amended and changed as follows: Curbing shall be required for all proposed new streets for commercial, industrial and residential developments. The Board of Supervisors or the Township Engineer may also require curbing of the existing roads where the inclusion would aid in stormwater runoff control measures and extend existing curbing or match proposed new streets.
2. 
The required sidewalk shall be set parallel to the cartway length and within the right-of-way. The sidewalk shall be sloped at 1/2 inch per foot across its width and said slope shall be constant for the length of the sidewalk.
[Ord. 3/1/1978, 3/1/1978, § 511; as amended by Ord. 2-99, 5/12/1999, § II]
1. 
All subdivision and/or land development applications shall include stormwater management data. The stormwater management data shall identify all proposed stormwater management facilities and supportive information stated in §§ 22-401 and 22-402 of this Part. Stormwater management data shall be prepared by individuals registered in the Commonwealth of Pennsylvania to perform such duties.
A. 
General Design Data.
(1) 
In the interest of reducing the total impervious surface, preserving existing features which are critical to stormwater management and reducing the concentration of stormwater flow, the designer should consider utilizing the development concepts which provide for that.
(2) 
Maximum use shall be made of existing on-site natural and man-made stormwater management facilities.
(3) 
Innovative stormwater management and recharge facilities may be proposed (e.g., rooftop storage, drywells, cisterns, parking lot ponding, recreation area ponding, diversion structures, aeration of lawns, porous pavements, holding tanks, infiltration systems, stream channel storage, in line storage in storm sewers and grading patterns), provided they are accompanied by detailed engineering plans and performance capabilities. The "Pennsylvania Handbook of Best Management Practices for Developing Areas," Spring 1998, latest revision shall be used as a guide.
B. 
Design Standards.
(1) 
Stormwater management facilities shall be provided so that the peak discharge of the calculated post development runoff to an adjacent property does not exceed the peak discharge of the calculated predevelopment runoff. Runoff calculations for pre and post development comparison shall consider five different storm frequencies (the two-, ten-, twenty-five-, fifty-, and one-hundred-year storm events). For predevelopment computations, all runoff coefficients within the project shall be based on meadow use assuming summer or good land cover conditions. Off-site land use conditions used to determine storm flows for design storm facilities shall be based on existing land uses assuming winter or poor land cover conditions.
(2) 
The design of stormwater management collection facilities that service the drainage areas within the site shall be based upon a twenty-five-year storm frequency event. Stormwater management facilities that convey off-site stormwater through the site must be designed to convey a one-hundred-year event.
(3) 
All developments must include design provisions that allow for the overload conveyance of the post Q100 year storm flows through the site without damage to any private or public property.
(4) 
Runoff calculations for on-site stormwater management facilities shall be based upon the following methods:
(a) 
Rational Method. This method is recommended and preferred for design of all collection, conveyance and retention facilities when the drainage areas are less than 1 1/2 square miles or where the times of concentration are less than 60 minutes.
(b) 
SCS TR-55 Graphical Method (1986 or latest revision). This method may be used in lieu of the tabular hydrography method for sizing conveyance systems. It does not provide an adequate inflow hydrography for basin routing.
(5) 
Criteria and assumptions to be used in the determination of stormwater runoff and design of management facilities are as follows:
(a) 
Runoff coefficients shall be based on land use coefficients listed in the Pennsylvania Department of Environmental Protection, Erosion and Sediment Pollution Control Manual or the Pennsylvania Department of Transportation "Design Manual No. 2."
(b) 
Times of concentration shall be based on the following design parameters:
1) 
Overland Flow. The maximum length for each reach of overland flow before concentrated swale and/or sheet flow develops its 300 feet.
2) 
Concentrated Flows. At points where overland flows concentrate in field depressions, swales, gutters, curbs or pipe collection systems, the design points shall be based upon Manning's Equation and/or acceptable engineering design standards as determined by the Township.
(c) 
If the rational method is used, the rainfall intensity-duration frequency chart for Region 5 shall be used to compute the rainfall intensities.
(d) 
If the soil-cover-complex method is used, stormwater runoff shall be based on the following twenty-four-hour storm events:
Storm Event
Inches of Rainfall
2 years
3.2
10 years
5.0
25 years
5.6
50 years
6.4
100 years
7.2
(e) 
Use of other criteria, assumptions, references, calculation methods and/or computer modeling may be utilized, provided detailed design information and programming with references are submitted and approved by the Supervisors.
(6) 
The design plan and construction schedule shall incorporate measures to minimize soil erosion and sedimentation.
(7) 
Consideration shall be given to the relationship of the subject property to the drainage pattern of the watershed.
(8) 
Stormwater shall not be transferred from one watershed to another, unless:
(a) 
The watersheds are subwatersheds of a common watershed which join together within the perimeter of the property.
(b) 
The effect of the transfer does not alter peak discharge onto adjacent lands.
(c) 
Easements from the affected downstream landowners are provided.
(9) 
A concentrated discharge of stormwater to an adjacent property shall be within an existing watercourse or enclosed in an easement.
(10) 
When final plan applications are submitted in sections, a generalized stormwater management plan for the entire project shall be submitted. This generalized plan shall demonstrate how the stormwater of the proposed section will relate to the entire development. If temporary facilities are required for construction of a section, such facilities shall be included in the submitted plans. In the event temporary measures can not adequately handle the stormwater runoff, the main outfall line shall be included as part of the construction of the section.
(11) 
The final plan shall reflect or be accompanied by documents identifying the ownership of and method of administering and maintaining all permanent stormwater management facilities.
C. 
Stormwater Facilities.
(1) 
All storm sewer pipes, culverts, manholes, inlets, endwalls and end sections shall be constructed in accordance with the Pennsylvania Department of Transportation, Publication 408, as amended.
(2) 
Storm sewer pipes, culverts, manholes, inlets, endwalls and end sections shall conform to the requirements of the Pennsylvania Department of Transportation, Bureau of Design, Standards for Roadway Construction, Publication No. 72, in effect at the time the design is submitted, as modified by the adopted Township construction standards.
(3) 
Storm sewer pipes and culverts, other than those used for detention basin outlets, shall be made of reinforced concrete, polymer coated corrugated metal, aluminized corrugated metal, or corrugated polyethylene, and shall have a minimum diameter of 15 inches. They shall be installed with sufficient slope to provide a minimum velocity of three feet per second when flowing full.
(4) 
The capacities of the pipes, gutters, inlets, culverts, outlet structures and swales shall consider all possible hydraulic conditions. The design standards shall be in accordance with the Pennsylvania Department of Transportation Publication No. 13, Design Manual No. 2, as amended.
(5) 
All storm sewer pipes shall be laid to a minimum depth of one foot from subgrade to the crown of the pipe.
(6) 
Endwalls and end sections shall be used where stormwater runoff enters or leaves the storm sewer horizontally from a natural or man-made channel.
(7) 
Road gutters and swales shall be designed to have a maximum flow depth of six inches if no water is conveyed in the cartway of the street. The maximum flow depth permitted across a street intersection of two streets is one inch. All curbed streets shall be designed with a maximum flow depth of two inches.
(8) 
Inlets shall be placed on both sides of the street at low spots, as needed to collect runoff from road gutters, at abrupt changes in horizontal or vertical alignment of storm sewers, and at a maximum distance of 400 feet along a storm sewer pipe. Inlets shall be depressed two inches below the grade of the gutter or road surface. Manholes may be substituted for inlets at locations where inlets are not required to handle surface water runoff.
(9) 
Curved pipes, tee joints, elbows and wyes are prohibited except for pipes with at least a thirty-six-inch diameter.
(10) 
All existing and natural watercourses, channels, drainage systems and areas of surface concentration shall be maintained in their existing condition unless an alteration is approved by the Township.
(11) 
Flow velocities from any sewer may not result in a deflection of the receiving channel. Energy dissipaters shall be placed at the outlets of all storm sewer pipes where flow velocities exceed maximum permitted channel velocities.
(12) 
The capacities of open channels shall be calculated using the Manning equation. Permissible open channel velocities and design standards shall be in accordance with good engineering practice as documented in the Engineering Field Manual for Conservation Practices, U.S.D.A., S.C.S. or in Design Charts for Open-Channel Flow, Hydraulic Design Series No. 3, United States Department of Transportation.
D. 
Design Standards for Detention and Retention Basins.
(1) 
Permanent detention and retention basins shall be designed to store the stormwater runoff of the one-hundred-year post-development storm event.
(2) 
All basins shall be structurally sound and shall be constructed of sound and durable materials. The completed structure and the foundation of all basins shall be stable under all probable conditions of operation and shall be capable of discharging the peak discharge of a post-development one-hundred-year storm event through the emergency spillway facilities in a manner which will not damage the integrity of the facility or the downstream drainage areas.
(3) 
The effect on downstream areas if the basin fails shall be considered in the design of all basins. Where possible, the basin shall be designed to minimize potential damage caused by such failure of the embankment.
(4) 
All basins shall include an outlet structure to permit draining the basin to a completely dry position within 24 hours.
(5) 
All outlet structures and emergency spillways shall include a satisfactory means of dissipating the energy of flow at its outlet to assure conveyance of flow without endangering the safety and integrity of the basin and the downstream drainage area.
(6) 
Detention basins and/or retention basins which are designed as earth fill dams shall incorporate the following minimum standards:
(a) 
The maximum water depth shall not exceed six feet unless a waiver shall be granted by the Board of Supervisors.
(b) 
The minimum top width of all dams shall be five feet.
(c) 
The side slopes shall not be less than three horizontal to one vertical.
(d) 
A cutoff trench of impervious materials shall be provided under all dams.
(e) 
All pipes and culverts through dams shall have properly spaced concrete cutoff collars or factory welded anti-seep collars.
(f) 
A minimum of one foot freeboard above the maximum design water surface elevation at the emergency shall be provided.
(g) 
Minimum finished floor elevations for all structures that would be affected by a basin, other than temporary impoundments or open conveyance systems where ponding may occur, shall be two feet above the Q100 year water surface. If basement or underground facilities are proposed, detailed calculations addressing the effect of stormwater ponding on the structure and water proofing and/or floodproofing design information shall be submitted for approval by the Board of Supervisors.
(h) 
No portion of any basin, including a level spreader, shall be within 15 feet of any property line or within 20 feet of any street right-of-way line.
(7) 
All basins shall be stabilized promptly.
(8) 
Basins shall be designed and maintained to insure the design capacity after sedimentation has taken place.
(9) 
Basins which are not designed to release all stormwater shall be specifically identified as retention basins or permanent ponds (wet ponds). All other basins shall have provisions for dewatering the bottom. Low flow channels, seepage pits or tile fields may be used to dewater the bottom of the basin.
(10) 
Where retention basins, seepage pits, seepage tanks, seepage trenches and/or french drains are proposed, the applicant shall include an analysis of the potential for accelerated sinkhole development in the specific geology of the site due to the concentration of water introduction to the subsurface. The applicant shall submit a seepage report containing a test pit soil analysis, prepared by a soil scientist, or other recognized professional (i.e., a sewage enforcement officer, etc.), and percolation test results in accordance with the Pennsylvania Department of Environmental Protection Regulations (Chapter 73). The bottom of test pits shall be no less than 30 inches below the elevation at which the soil seepage interface is designed (i.e., the bottom of the trench, pit, etc.). Percolation tests shall be performed at this interface. Retention basins shall provide enough capacity to store the entire runoff volume created by a one-hundred-year frequency storm event. When supporting documentation, as stated above, is provided to the Township Engineer, the applicant may:
(a) 
Reduce the volume required by 20%.
(b) 
Determine the volume required using 20% of the percolation rate to perform routing calculations.
(11) 
Retention basins shall incorporate the following minimum design standards.
(a) 
Infiltration systems greater than three feet in depth shall be located no less than 30 feet from any basement wall.
(b) 
Infiltration systems designed to handle runoff from commercial or industrial impervious parking areas shall not be closer than 100 feet to any water supply well.
(c) 
Infiltration systems shall not receive runoff until the entire contributory drainage area to the infiltration system has received final stabilization.
(d) 
The stormwater management facility design shall provide an emergency overflow system with measures to provide a nonerosive velocity of flow along its length and at the outfall.
(e) 
All infiltration systems for paved areas shall utilize some means of prefiltering (i.e., a twenty-foot or greater grass strip, oil grit separator or other standard practice) to prevent grit from clogging the system.
(12) 
A liner of impervious material shall be provided in all wet ponds. In lieu of an impervious liner, the applicant may supply sufficient information, prepared by a soil scientist, to the Township which includes an analysis of the potential for sinkhole development and demonstrates to the Township that sinkholes shall not develop.
E. 
Erosion and Sedimentation. All subdivisions and land development applications which involve grading or excavation shall conform to the requirements of Chapter 102 of the Rules and Regulations of the Pennsylvania Department of Environmental Protection, as amended.
(1) 
No changes shall be made in the contour of the land; no grading, excavating, removal or destruction of the topsoil, trees or vegetative cover of the land shall be commenced within the proposed subdivision or land development tract until such time that a plan for minimizing erosion and sediment control has been reviewed by the Chester County Conservation District, approved by the Board of Supervisors and an NPDES permit obtained. Sites of less than five acres do not require the review of the Chester County Conservation District unless the following exists:
(a) 
Sites where piping of stormwater or the alteration of natural or man-made water courses occur.
(b) 
Sites that contain or border a stream or body of water.
(2) 
The following measures are effective in minimizing erosion and sedimentation and shall be included where applicable in the control plan.
(a) 
Stripping of vegetation and grading shall be kept to a minimum.
(b) 
Development plans shall preserve significant natural features, cut and fill operations shall be kept to a minimum and plans shall conform with the topography so as to create the least erosion potential and adequately handle the volume and velocity of surface water runoff.
(c) 
Wherever feasible, natural vegetation shall be retained, protected and supplemented.
(d) 
The disturbed area and the duration of exposure shall be kept to a practical minimum.
(e) 
Disturbed soils shall be stabilized by permanent vegetation and/or by engineered erosion control and drainage measures as soon as practicable in the development process.
(f) 
Temporary vegetation and/or mulching shall be used to protect exposed critical areas during development.
(g) 
Provisions shall be made to effectively accommodate the increased runoff caused by changed soil and surface conditions during and after development. Where necessary, the rate of surface water runoff will be mechanically retarded.
(h) 
Sediment in the runoff water shall be trapped, until the disturbed area is stabilized, by the use of debris basins, sediment traps, silt traps or similar measures.
(i) 
Basin and perimeter controls shall be established at the commencement of work on the site.
(j) 
Storage piles shall be protected and stabilized within seven days.
(k) 
Earth or paved interceptors and diversions shall be installed at the top of cut or fill slopes where there is potential for erosive surface runoff.
F. 
Floodplain. Areas shall be any areas of Lower Oxford Township subject to the one-hundred-year flood, which is identified as Zone A (area of special food hazard) on the Flood Insurance Rate Map (FIRM) date November 20, 1996, or the most recent revision thereof as issued by the Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA).
(1) 
New construction and development within areas of the Township which are subject to flooding shall be governed by Chapter 27, Part 13, "Flood Hazard District."
(2) 
The inclusion of a floodplain within the lots in order to meet minimum lot area and/or rear yard requirements is allowed; provided, such lot contains sufficient area, exclusive of the floodplain, for buildings and, where applicable, on-lot sanitary wastewater disposal systems and replacement drainfield area. The floodplain shall not exceed 25% of the lot area.
G. 
Wetlands. No subdivision or land development shall involve uses, activities or improvement which would entail encroachment into, regrading of or placement of fill in wetlands in violation of state or federal regulations. The following information shall be submitted:
(1) 
A wetland delineation report prepared by a person competent in performing wetland delineation. If wetlands are not present on the tract, a note shall be placed on the plan stating the fact that no wetlands exist.
(2) 
Wetland locations shall be shown on the plans.
(3) 
The applicant shall obtain a jurisdictional determination from the United States Army Corps of Engineers of the wetland delineation and submit a copy to the Township.
(4) 
Copies of all permits for encroachment on wetlands shall be submitted to the Township.
H. 
Ownership, Administration and Maintenance of Stormwater Management Facilities. The final plan shall reflect and/or be accompanied by supporting documentation identifying the ownership of and the method of administrating and maintaining all permanent stormwater management facilities. With regards to the maintenance of these facilities, they must either be:
(1) 
Dedicated to and accepted by the Board of Supervisors, or
(2) 
Maintained by a private entity (e.g., homeowners association or individuals that own the land) in accordance with the terms of an agreement, declaration of easements or other legally binding documentation of easements or other legally binding documentation approved by the Board of Supervisors. The agreement, declaration of easements or other legally binding documentation shall provide that the Township shall have the right to:
(a) 
Inspect facilities at any time.
(b) 
Require the private entity to take corrective measures and assign the private entity reasonable time periods for any necessary action.
(c) 
Authorize maintenance work to be done and lien all costs of work against the properties of the private entity responsible for maintenance.
(3) 
The agreement, declaration of easements or other legally binding documentation shall be submitted to the Board of Supervisors with the final plan. Where deemed necessary and appropriate, the Board may require the agreement to contain provisions requiring the posting and/or periodic payment of escrow funds by the private entity to guarantee proper maintenance of the facilities. This documentation shall be submitted for approval by the Township Solicitor.
[Ord. 3/1/1978, 3/1/1978, § 512]
1. 
The length, width and shape of blocks shall be determined with due regard to:
A. 
Provision of adequate sites for building of the type proposed.
B. 
Topography.
C. 
Requirements for safe and convenient vehicular and pedestrian circulation.
D. 
Thoughtful and innovative design to create an attractive community.
2. 
Blocks shall have a maximum length of 1,600 feet and, as far as practicable, a minimum length of 500 feet. In design of blocks longer than 1,100 feet, special consideration should be given to access for fire protection.
3. 
Residential blocks shall be of sufficient depth to accommodate two tiers of lots, except where reverse frontage lots bordering a major thoroughfare are used.
[Ord. 3/1/1978, 3/1/1978, § 513]
1. 
Lot dimensions and areas shall not be less than specified by provisions of Chapter 27 of this Code.
2. 
Minimum building setback line shall be established to provide front yards required by Chapter 27 of this Code.
3. 
Side lot lines shall be substantially at right angles or radial to street lines.
4. 
Residential lots shall, in general, front on a Township street, existing or proposed. Where it is necessary to the proper utilization of land to create lots without direct frontage on a street, such interior lots shall have an access with a minimum width of 50 feet. No more than two contiguous interior lots shall be so formed.
5. 
Reverse frontage lots are prohibited, except where employed to prevent vehicular access to major thoroughfares.
6. 
House numbers shall be assigned to each lot by the Township.
[Ord. 3/1/1978, 3/1/1978, § 514]
1. 
In all cases wherein trunk line sanitary sewer facilities are available, the applicant shall be required to install sanitary sewers and connect the same to such trunk line sewer, irrespective of the size of the lots included on said plot plan.
2. 
Requirements relating to design, construction and dedication of sanitary sewers shall be determined by the Township Engineer, Pennsylvania Department of Environmental Resources, and shall also be subject to the review and approval of such county and state regulatory authorities as have jurisdiction in such matters. Permits, where required, shall be obtained before construction of a sanitary sewer system is started.
[Ord. 3/1/1978, 3/1/1978, § 515; as amended by Ord. 2-99, 5/12/1999, § II]
1. 
Individual On-Site Water Service. Where subdivisions of 10 lots or more, including all present and future phases and/or land developments of three acres or more propose individual on-site water service, the following regulations shall apply:
A. 
Water Survey. The applicant shall file as part of the applicant's final plan submission a water survey report executed by a person having an accredited degree in geology with the demonstrated knowledge and experience in the field of hydrogeology, which report shall state:
(1) 
That he has reviewed the soil, underlying rock formation, known sources of contamination, adjacent wells and uses, streams and surface water, wetlands and other features and conditions within the zone of contribution for the wells proposed to serve the contemplated project.
(2) 
That, based upon this analysis and review, he is of the opinion that a safe and adequate water supply can be provided on each individual lot proposed within the lot lines thereof giving adequate, potable water supply of not less than three gallons per minute and meeting all the chemical and biological standards or the Chester County Health Department and/or the Pennsylvania Department of Environmental Protection with the reference to water supplies for human consumption.
(3) 
That the cone of depression projected for each such well will be such as not to interfere with any other well proposed for the development or existing within the zone of contribution of the proposed or existing well.
(4) 
That the proposed wells within the project shall not result individually or cumulatively in the withdrawal of water beyond the safe yield of the aquifer.
B. 
All wells shall be constructed to the AWWA Standard A-100-84, latest revision.
C. 
Copies of drill logs and quantitative and qualitative tests for each well drilled within the proposed project shall be filed with the Township and reviewed by the Township Engineer prior to the issuance of any use and occupancy permits for any building or structure to be served by a proposed individual on-site well.
2. 
Individual Off-Site Water Service. Where a single EDU is served by an individual off-site water supply, the requirements of Subsection 1 above shall apply and, in addition thereto, the shall be appended to the water study copies of all easements and agreements necessary to assure the right to construct, maintain and operate the water facility at the site designated and adequate access for the purpose of maintenance and repair to assure a permanent and continuous supply of water and access to the facility for the maintenance thereof. All such documents shall be in the form and substance satisfactory to the Township Solicitor.
3. 
Community Water Service. Where a subdivision or land development proposes community water service, whether on or off site, the following regulations shall apply:
A. 
Water Survey.
(1) 
Where water is to be supplied by a certified public utility rendering service, at the time of submission of the final plan, to users and customers other than those proposed to be served within the proposed development or where such water is to be provided by a municipality or municipality authority, a copy of the certificate of public convenience from the Public Utility Commission or a certificate of incorporation of the municipal authority and a statement on the letterhead of the utility, municipality or authority providing such service, signed by an officer of such entity authorized to do so, stating that the provider has a sufficient capacity and pressure to provide a safe, continuous and adequate water supply of water to all EDU's within the proposed development for consumptive and fire protection use shall be appended to the application for final approval. Also appended thereto shall be a statement of the terms and conditions under which such service will be provided and a statement of the costs for construction of any mains or transmission facilities or treatment facilities rendering such service and a statement of any charges for tap-in or connection fees and inspection fees to be imposed. This information shall be acceptable evidence, but not conclusive evidence, of a safe and adequate water supply.
(2) 
Where the applicant proposes to furnish water by means of a community water facility owned and operated by the owner or owners of the lands and/or buildings within the development, a water survey shall be provided as part of the applicant's final plan submission, containing all of the following:
(a) 
A water survey report executed by a person having an accredited degree in geology with demonstrated knowledge and experience in the field of hydrogeology, which repeat shall state that he has reviewed the soil, underlying rock formation, known sources of contamination, adjacent wells and uses, streams and surface water, wetlands and other features and conditions within the zone of contribution for the wells proposed to serve the contemplated project; that based upon his analysis and review, he is of the opinion that a safe and adequate water supply can be provided to each user within the development giving an adequate potable water supply of not less than 350 gallons per EDU per day meeting all the chemical and biological standards of the Chester County Health Department and/or the Pennsylvania Department of Environmental Protection with reference to water supplies for human consumption; that the cone of depression projected for such wells shall be such as not to interfere with any other well proposed for the development or existing within the zone of the proposed or existing well; that the proposed wells will not cause the movement of known sources of contamination within the zone of contribution; that the proposed wells to serve the project shall not result individually or cumulatively in the withdrawal of water beyond the safe yield of the aquifer; and that there are proposed for the project and considered within the report one or more primary wells and one or more reserve wells and that, in the event of failure of the primary wells, the reserve wells are adequate to meet the needs for water within the project.
(b) 
The applicant shall append to the water report a copy of all deeds of easements, declarations of easements and reservations of easements necessary or appropriate to assure the continued installation, protection, preservation, maintenance, repair and operation of all facilities and equipment necessary to assure a permanent, continuous and adequate supply of water meeting the chemical and biological standards of the Chester County Health Department and all other regulatory agencies.
(c) 
The applicant shall append to the water report copies of all proposed declarations, covenants and agreements to assure fiscal integrity, operation and maintenance of the water facility; which covenants, declarations and agreements shall include, inter alia, a requirement that said facility be maintained by a professional, licensed water plant operator.
(d) 
All documentation in Subsection 3A(2)(c) above shall be satisfactory in form and content to the Board of Supervisors and the Township Solicitor. The Township may adopt by resolution rules and regulations for the establishment and operation of water facilities within the Township, including, without limitations, regulations for budgeting review, continuity of management and financial responsibility.
(e) 
All wells shall be constructed to the AWWA Standard A-100-84, latest revision.
(f) 
Copies of drilling logs and quantitative and qualitative tests from each well drilled within the proposed project or providing service thereto shall be filed with the Township and reviewed by the Township Engineer prior to the issuance of any building permit for any building or structure to be served by a proposed community well.
[Ord. 3/1/1978, 3/1/1978, § 517]
All other utility lines including, but not limited to electric, gas, street light supply and telephone shall be placed underground. Installation of all utilities shall be in strict accordance with the engineering standards and specifications of the Township, or public utility concerned.
[Ord. 3/1/1978, 3/1/1978, § 517; as amended by Ord. 2-99, 5/12/1999, § II; and by Ord. 1-2003, 2/12/2003]
1. 
Driveways.
A. 
Driveways shall be so located as to provide reasonable sight distances at intersections with streets. All lot configurations and land development designs shall provide for driveways which are not less than 80 feet from the edge of cartway of any street intersection. Access shall be provided to a street of lessor classification when there is more than one street classification involved. Driveways shall not interfere with the normal traffic movement or be inconsistent with the design, maintenance and drainage of the street. Driveway locations shall be delineated on all land development plans; however subdivision plans may delineate locations or include a notice of conformity to this specification.
B. 
Driveways shall be a minimum of 10 feet in width. When carried over a bridge, the driveway shall have a minimum width of 12 feet. Adequate turnaround surface shall be provided on the property to egress the street in a forward direction. Where the grade of the driveway exceeds 10%, at least one level parking space shall be provided just within the property line for emergency parking.
C. 
The grade of a driveway within the legal right-of-way of the public street shall not exceed 7%. The drive within the property line shall not exceed 15%.
D. 
All driveways shall be surfaced with erosion-resistant materials from the edge of the street cartway to a point in the lot 25 feet from the street right-of-way line. Where the grade of the driveway is 8% or greater, it shall be surfaced with erosion-resistant materials. The remainder of the driveway may be constructed of any suitable stone or paved surface.
E. 
Driveways shall be constructed of crushed aggregate to a minimum depth of six inches. Erosion-resistant material shall be ID-2 bituminous concrete compacted to a minimum depth of 2 1/2 inches or six inches cement concrete. Driveways within state highways shall comply with the requirements of the Pennsylvania Department of Transportation.
F. 
Driveways shall be minimum of five feet from all side and rear property lines.
G. 
Driveways shall be located and constructed so that a clear sight triangle is provided. Two apexes of the triangle shall be located in both directions along the street center line, 75 feet from a point where the center line of the driveway and the street intersect. The vertex of the triangle shall be located along the center line of the driveway, on the site and five feet from the property/street right-of-way line. No permanent obstructions and/or plant materials over three feet high shall be placed within the clear sight triangle. The three-foot height maximum shall be maintained on all material within the clear sight triangle.
2. 
Access Drives. Access drives shall have the following characteristics:
A. 
A property which utilizes access drives shall maintain frontage along a public street.
B. 
An application that proposes access drives shall be accompanied by an agreement which shall establish the conditions under which the access drives will be maintained.
C. 
The final plan, for recordation with the Chester County Recorder of Deeds, shall include a plan note which identifies:
(1) 
The specific access drives.
(2) 
The recorded maintenance agreement.
(3) 
A notification that the access drives do not quality for dedication to the Township and that the Township will not assume any responsibility for their maintenance.
D. 
The cartway of all access drives shall be constructed with a minimum compacted eight inch crushed aggregate base course, an ID-2 binder course with a minimum compacted depth of two inches and an ID-2 wearing course with a minimum compacted depth of 1 1/2 inches. All work and material shall comply with the Pennsylvania Department of Transportation specifications.
E. 
Access drives do not require a specific right-of-way; however, the following standards for cartway width shall apply:
Function
Cartway Width
Two lanes of traffic with on-street parking
36 feet
Two lanes of traffic without on-street parking*
24 feet
One lane of traffic with one lane of on-street parking**
20 feet
One lane of traffic without on-street parking**
12 feet
*
Off-street parking compounds must be provided in accordance with § 22-521 of this Part and the prohibition of on-street parking must be identified along the cartway.
**
The one-way direction of traffic must be identified along the cartway with signs and pavement markings.
F. 
No part of any structure shall be located within 30 feet from the cartway edge of an access drive.
G. 
The vertical and horizontal alignments of access drives shall conform to the specifications for local streets as stated in §§ 22-505 and 22-506 of this Part.
H. 
Access drive intersections shall conform to the specifications for local streets as stated in § 22-507 of this Part.
I. 
Access drives which form a cul-de-sac shall not exceed 1,200 feet in length, measured from the center-line intersection of a street or access drive which is not a cul-de-sac. Access drive culs-de-sac which do not terminate in a parking compound shall be provided at the terminus with a fully paved turnaround. The turnaround shall be designed in accordance with one of the following:
(1) 
An eighty-foot paved diameter.
(2) 
T-shaped turnaround with a twelve-foot width and the flared portions rounded by minimum radii of 20 feet.
J. 
The edge(s) of all access drives shall be set back at least:
(1) 
One hundred feet from the intersection of any street right-of-way lines.
(2) 
One hundred feet from any other access drive located upon the same lot (measured from cartway edges).
(3) 
Ten feet from any side and/or rear property lines; however, this set back can be waived (by the Board of Supervisors) along any one property line when a joint parking lot is shared by adjoining uses.
K. 
Access drives shall be located and constructed so that a clear sight triangle is provided. Two apexes of the triangle shall be located in both directions along the street center line, 100 feet from a point where the center line of the drive and street intersect. The vertex of the triangle shall be located along the center line of the drive, on the site 10 feet from the property/street right-of-way line. No permanent obstructions and/or plant materials over three feet high shall be placed or left to grow within the clear sight triangle.
[Ord. 3/1/1978, 3/1/1978, § 518; as amended by Ord. 2-99, 5/12/1999, § II]
1. 
Concrete Monuments.
A. 
Sufficient monument locations must be shown on the final plan to define the exact location of all streets and to enable the reestablishment of all street lines. In general, they shall be set on the street line on one side of the street at the beginning and ending of all curves and at the points on the curve at street intersections necessary to establish the actual intersection.
B. 
Monuments shall be set at all corners and angle points of the boundaries of the original tract and such intermediate points as may be required by the Township.
C. 
Monuments shall be of concrete or stone with a flat top, having a minimum diameter of four inches and minimum length of 30 inches. Concrete monuments shall be marked with a 3/4 inch copper or brass dowel; stone or precast monuments shall be marked on the top with a proper inscription and a drill hole.
2. 
Markers.
A. 
Markers shall be set at all points where lot lines intersect curves and/or other property lines.
B. 
Markers shall consist of iron pipes or steel bars at least 30 inches long and not less than 3/4 of an inch in diameter.
3. 
Placement.
A. 
All monuments and markers shall be placed by a registered surveyor so that the scored or marked point shall coincide exactly with the point of the intersection of the lines being monumented or marked.
B. 
All existing and proposed monuments and lot line markers shall be delineated on the final plan.
C. 
Lot markers, either temporary or permanent shall be placed prior to the layout of the buildings on the lot. This note shall appear on the plan.
[Ord. 3/1/1978, 3/1/1978, § 519]
1. 
In reviewing the subdivision plans, the Board will consider the adequacy of existing or proposed community facilities to serve the additional dwellings proposed by the subdivision.
2. 
Applicants and Township authorities shall give earnest consideration to the desirability of providing or reserving areas for facilities normally required in residential sections, including churches, libraries, schools and other public buildings, parks, playgrounds, and play fields.
3. 
Areas provided or reserved for such community facilities should be adequate to provide for building sites, landscaping and off-street parking as appropriate to the use proposed. Such areas should be located in a manner to best serve the public likely to use the same and to utilize, to the greatest extent, any topographical features.
[Ord. 3/1/1978, 3/1/1978, § 520; as amended by Ord. 2-99, 5/12/1999, § II]
1. 
Landscaping shall be provided in all subdivisions and land developments, consistent with the standards contained in the Zoning Ordinance [Chapter 27] and this Part.
A. 
Screening.
(1) 
Screening shall be provided along the rear of reverse frontage lots and along the side and rear lot lines of commercial or industrial properties where such lots abut residentially zoned property. Parking and buildings are prohibited within the buffer area. The use of the buffer area for accessways shall be limited. Buffer areas shall consist of one row, staggered, of mixed evergreen and deciduous trees which shall be at least six feet in height when planted and shall be placed not more than 10 feet apart on center and two rows, staggered, of mixed broad leaf and needle evergreen shrubs which shall be at least three feet in height when planted and shall be spaced not more than five feet apart on center. The trees shall be of such species so as to attain a height at maturity of not less than 20 feet. The shrubs shall be of such species as to provide continued screening from the ground to a height of six feet at maturity. Deciduous plant materials shall comprise no more than 1/3 of the number of plants in the buffer. The required height of the buffer planting may be achieved in part by mounding or installation of plants along a berm.
(2) 
Service loading and trash disposal areas such as dumpster or compacter sites shall be effectively screened so as not to be visible from parking areas, roadways or adjacent properties. Such areas shall be screened with a combination of architectural masonry (or fencing) and landscaping with a height of at least six feet.
(3) 
All planting shall be performed in conformance with good nursery and landscape practice. Plant materials shall conform to standards recommended by the American Association of Nurseryman, Inc., in the American Standard of Nursery Stock, ANZIZ60, current edition, as amended. It is recommended that a landscape architect registered by the Commonwealth of Pennsylvania be utilized to insure proper use, arrangement and selection of plant material and to provide an aesthetically pleasing effect.
(4) 
When approved by the Board of Supervisors, screening may be achieved by use of the following materials: walls, fences, earth berms or other approved materials. Any wall or fence shall not be constructed of corrugated metal, corrugated fiberglass or sheet metal. Trees, hedges or shrubs must be used with chain link fencing.
(5) 
Existing commercial or industrial uses shall not be required to comply with the screening requirements of § 22-520, Subsection 1A, hereof unless:
(a) 
The existing uses or structures are enlarged by 20% of floor area or height beyond that existing as of the date of the adoption of this Part.
(b) 
Major structural alterations or modifications are undertaken of existing buildings or structures.
(c) 
Parking areas are extended by 10% or more beyond that existing as of the date of adoption of this Part.
(d) 
Outside storage is continued, undertaken or expanded subsequent to the date of adoption of this section.
B. 
Existing Wooded Areas. Existing wooded areas shall be protected to prevent unnecessary destruction. At least 15% of the number of trees (minimum trunk caliper of five inches at six inches above ground) that exist at the time of the plan submission shall be maintained or be replaced immediately following construction. Replacement trees shall be a minimum trunk caliper of two inches at a height of six inches above finished grade and located in unbuildable sections of the site (i.e., floodplain, steep slopes and setback areas).
C. 
Street Trees. Street trees shall be provided in accordance with the following standards:
(1) 
The trees shall be nursery grown in a climate similar to that of the locality of the project. Varieties of trees shall be subject to approval of the Township.
(2) 
All trees shall have a normal habit of growth and shall be sound, healthy and vigorous; they shall be free from disease, insects, insect eggs and larvae.
(3) 
The trunk diameter, measured at a height of six inches above finished grade, shall be a minimum of two inches.
(4) 
Trees shall be planted between street right-of-way line and the building setback line. The trees growth shall not interfere with the street cartway, sidewalk or utility line.
(5) 
All planting shall be performed in conformance with good nursery and landscape practice and to standards established by the Township.
(6) 
Requirements for the measurements, branching, grading, quality, balling and burlapping of trees shall follow the code of standards recommended by the American Association of Nurseryman, Inc., in the American Standard for Nursery Stock, ANSIZ60, current edition, as amended.
(7) 
A minimum of one canopy tree shall be provided on each lot, with a maximum spacing of 100 feet.
D. 
Ground Cover. Ground cover shall be provided on all areas of the project to prevent soil erosion. All areas which are not covered by paving, stone or other solid materials shall be protected with a vegetative growth.
[Ord. 3/1/1978, 3/1/1978, § 521; as amended by Ord. 2-99, 5/12/1999, § II]
1. 
Parking Areas. Off-street vehicular parking facilities shall be provided in accordance with the following standards:
A. 
Each residential dwelling unit shall be provided with at least three parking spaces. These facilities shall be in conformance with the following provisions:
(1) 
Off-street parking for single family or two family structures shall be provided behind the right-of-way and may be attached or separate garage(s), carport(s) or driveway(s).
(2) 
Off-street parking compounds for multifamily structures may be used provided they are located within 200 feet of the structure. Not less than 20 feet of open space shall be provided between the edge of any parking compound and the outside wall of the multifamily structure.
B. 
Nonresidential projects shall be in conformance with the Zoning Ordinance [Chapter 27].
C. 
Vehicular parking facilities for land uses other than detached single family residences shall be designed in accordance with the following provisions:
(1) 
Parking facilities shall not be permitted within 10 feet of a side or rear property line unless formal arrangements, satisfactory to the Township, have been made for the establishment of a common parking facility.
(2) 
Parking compound dimensions shall be no less than those listed in Appendix 2.
(3) 
Where sidewalks occur in parking areas, parked vehicles shall not overhang or extend over sidewalks unless an additional two feet of sidewalk or provided to accommodate such overhang.
(4) 
Parking areas shall be suitable landscaped to minimize noise, glare and other nuisance characteristics as well as to enhance the environment and ecology of the site. Large parking lots, containing more than 50 spaces, shall be designed in sections, not to exceed 50 spaces, separated from the other sections by landscaped dividing strips, berms and similar elements.
(5) 
Buffer planting shall be provided where the parking compounds are adjacent to residential properties. The buffer planting area shall be at least 15 feet wide. Buffer planting shall be installed in accordance with § 22-507 of this Part.
(6) 
Not less than five-foot radius of curvature shall be permitted for horizontal curves in parking areas.
(7) 
All dead end parking lots shall be designed to provide sufficient backup area for all end stalls.
(8) 
Painted lines, arrows, signs and dividers shall be provided and maintained to control parking, when necessary to direct vehicular circulation.
(9) 
Parking areas, main entrances and exits which are open to the public shall be lighted to a minimum average of two foot candles at an elevation of three feet above the surface.
(10) 
The typical section of any parking compound shall be prepared in accordance with the following minimum standards:
(a) 
Crushed aggregate base course with a minimum compacted depth of eight inches.
(b) 
Pavement shall consist of a minimum compacted depth of two inches of an ID-2 binder course and a 1 1/2 inch ID-2 wearing course.
2. 
Reduced Parking Requirements.
A. 
The Township hereby expresses a desire to minimize the amount of impervious surface associated with any development while maintaining adequate parking. To achieve this goal an applicant may submit an application for reduced parking requirement. Any such application must be accompanied by the following:
(1) 
Completed application form supplied by the Township.
(2) 
Plan showing the number of spaces, layout and dimensions of the parking lot in conformance with the maximum zoning requirements.
(3) 
Plans showing the number of spaces, layout and dimensions of the parking lot based on the requested level of relief.
(4) 
Calculations used to determine the number of parking spaces required in conformance with the maximum zoning requirements.
(5) 
Calculations used to determine the number of parking spaces based on the requested level of relief.
B. 
The Board of Supervisors of Lower Oxford Township may reduce the required number of parking spaces by any amount to 1/3 of the required number and reduce the size of the parking stalls appropriate to the type of vehicle using the proposed use, if the Board feels that the best interest of the Township would be served thereby and that at least two of the following criteria are applicable:
Criteria
Maintain Standards
Reduce Standards
(1)
Types of Vehicles customary to the proposed use.
Trucks and vans
Passenger cars only
(2)
Duration of the residence time in the parking area.
Short duration (e.g. visit to a convenience store)
Entire work day or extended period of time
(3)
Frequency of trips generated by nonemployee (i.e., customers) of the proposed use
Greater than 25 trips per day
Less than 25 trips per day
(4)
Percentage of nonemployee trips in and out of parking areas
Greater than 25%
Less than 25%
(5)
Percentage of permitted impervious cover
Greater than 70%
Less than 70%
(6)
Size of parking area required (Number of parking spaces)
Less than 20 spaces
Greater than 20 spaces
C. 
The burden of proof for establishing the applicability of any reduced parking criteria lies with the applicant. It shall be the responsibility of the applicant to produce and verify any studies, facts, diagrams, analysis or other materials necessary, in addition to those materials required in the application section thereof.
D. 
Any reduced parking requirements issued by the Board pursuant to any such request would be in effect only so long as the proposed use remains as described in the application for reduced parking requirement. If the proposed use changes in such a way as to require increased parking area, the reduced parking requirement shall lapse and become void. The applicant would be required to install the otherwise required parking area within 90 days of such determination by the Code Enforcement Officer or the Board of Supervisors.
[Ord. 3/1/1978, 3/1/1978, § 522; as amended by Ord. 2-99, 5/12/1999, § II]
1. 
For sanitary sewer facilities, stormwater drainage facilities, public utilities or pedestrian access shall meet the following standards:
A. 
To the fullest extent possible, easements shall be adjacent to property lines.
B. 
Nothing shall be placed, planted, set or put within the area of an easement that would adversely affect the function of the easement or conflict with the purpose or arrangement of the easement. This requirement shall be noted on the final plan and shall be included in all deeds for any lot which contains an easement.
C. 
Pedestrian easements shall have a minimum width of 10 feet.
D. 
Utility easements shall have a minimum width of 20 feet, and all utility companies are encouraged to use common easements.
E. 
The applicant shall reserve easements where stormwater or surface water drainage facilities are existing or proposed, whether located within or beyond the boundaries of the property. Easements shall have a minimum width of 20 feet and shall be adequately designed to provide area for collection and discharge of water, the maintenance, repair and reconstruction of the drainage facilities and the passage of machinery for such work. The easements shall clearly identify who has the right-of-access and the responsibility of maintenance.
F. 
Where any petroleum or petroleum product transmission line traverses a subdivision or land development, the applicant shall confer with the applicable transmission or distribution company to determine the minimum distance which shall be required between each structure and the center line of such petroleum or petroleum product transmission line. Additionally, the Board will require, with the final plan application, a letter from the owner of the transmission line stating any conditions on the use of the tract and the right-of-way or a copy of the recorded agreement which shall contain the above data.
G. 
All easements and easement agreements shall be submitted for review and approval by the Township Solicitor.
[Ord. 3/1/1978, 3/1/1978, § 523; as amended by Ord. 2-99, 5/12/1999, § II]
1. 
Purpose. Whenever a proposed project will generate 50 new vehicle trips during the site peak traffic hours, the applicant shall have a traffic impact study performed. Based on this study, certain improvements may be identified to provide safe and efficient access to the development. In addition, a traffic impact study shall be prepared whenever any one of the following conditions exist within the impact study area:
A. 
Current traffic problems exist in the local area, such as a high accident location, confusing intersection or a congested intersection, which directly affects access to the development.
B. 
The ability of the existing roadway system to handle increased traffic or the feasibility of improving the roadway system to handle increased traffic is limited.
C. 
A residential development contains 50 or more residential units. If a residential development is submitted in stages or phases, the total number of units in all phases shall control.
2. 
Traffic Impact Study.
A. 
The traffic impact study area shall be based on the characteristics of the surrounding area. The intersections to be included shall be adjacent to the site. The municipalities in which the project is located and the traffic engineer preparing the study shall mutually agree upon the intersection.
B. 
Traffic impact studies shall be prepared under the supervision of a qualified and experienced transportation engineer and at least two years of experience related to preparing traffic studies for existing or proposed developments.
C. 
The traffic forecast shall be prepared for the anticipated opening of the development, assuming full buildout and occupancy. This year shall be referred to as the horizon year in the remainder of this section.
D. 
Estimate of nonsite traffic shall be made and will consist of through traffic and traffic generated by all other developments within the study area for which preliminary or final plans have been approved. Nonsite traffic may be estimated using any one of the following three methods: "build-up" technique, area transportation plan data or modeled volumes and trends or growth rates.
E. 
A traffic impact study report shall be prepared to document the purposes, procedures, findings, conclusions and recommendations of the study. The documentation shall include, at a minimum:
(1) 
Study purposes and objectives.
(2) 
Description of the site and the study area.
(3) 
Existing conditions in the area of development.
(4) 
Recorded or approved nearby development.
(5) 
Trip generation, trip distribution and modal split.
(6) 
Projected future traffic volumes.
(7) 
An assessment of the change in roadway operating conditions resulting from the development traffic.
(8) 
Recommendations for the site access and transportation improvements to maintain traffic flow, to, from, within and past the site at an acceptable safe level of service.
3. 
Improvements.
A. 
The applicant shall be responsible for the improvements required for providing safe and convenient ingress and egress to the development site.
B. 
The applicant shall be responsible for other improvements as may be required by the Township or which may be required by any Township impact fee ordinance to be installed or paid for by the applicant consistent with the provisions of Article V-A of the Pennsylvania Municipalities Planning Code, Act 247 of 1968, as amended.
[Ord. 3/1/1978, 3/1/1978, § 524; as amended by Ord. 2-99, 5/12/1999, § II]
1. 
If off-site water service is to be utilized, mains shall be sized to provide adequate pressure and supply for the anticipated demands of the subdivision or land development and to meet the minimum requirements for fire protection as established by the Middle Department Association of Fire Underwriters. Minimum main size shall be eight inches. If off-site water service is to be provided, Township approved fire hydrants shall be installed at a maximum spacing to that all buildings or structures shall be within 600 feet of a hydrant. If a distribution system is installed in anticipation of providing off-site water service in the future but individual on-site wells are initially contemplated, hydrant connections shall be provided for future installation of the hydrants. System design and the design and development of the water sources shall conform to the requirements of the Pennsylvania Department of Environmental Protection and the Chester County Department of Health.
2. 
Industrial, commercial and institutional uses shall have an adequate system for fire protection, which shall include mains, hydrants and standpipes. In addition, the Board of Supervisors may, upon recommendations of the Township Engineer, require automatic fire suppression systems and/or automatic alarm systems for any industrial or commercial use and for multifamily dwellings containing more than three dwelling units.
3. 
Where a permit is required by the Pennsylvania Department of Environmental Protection, the Department of Labor and Industry, the Office of the State Fire Marshal, Pennsylvania State Police or any other governing agency, it shall, unless deferred by consent of the Board of Supervisors, be presented as evidence of such review and approval in the case of private systems before approval of the subdivision or land development plan is granted.