Township of Elizabeth, PA
Allegheny County
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1600.1 
Off-street parking spaces shall be provided in accordance with the specifications in this article in any district whenever any new use is established or any existing use is enlarged.
1600.2 
All parking areas established prior to the effective date of this chapter that are not in conformance with all provisions of this article shall be allowed to continue as previously laid out. Any change or alteration to these existing nonconforming parking areas shall require that the area proposed to be altered shall be constructed in accordance with all provisions of this article.
1600.3 
Accessory off-street parking spaces in existence on the effective date of this chapter shall not be reduced in number unless the remaining off-street parking equals or exceeds all provisions of this article for equivalent new construction for the current use of the building.
Parking areas in all zoning districts shall comply with the following standards:
1601.1 
Size. Each off-street parking space shall have an area of not less than 200 square feet, exclusive of access driveways or aisles, shall have minimum dimensions of 10 feet in width and 20 feet in length and shall be maintained free from obstruction. Parking areas shall be designed to provide sufficient turnaround area so that vehicles are not required to back onto the cartway of any public street.
1601.2 
Design. The minimum dimensions of aisles and driveways shall be as follows:
A. 
Minimum width of aisles providing two-way travel shall be 22 feet.
B. 
One-way aisles shall not be dead-ended. A functional exit or turnaround shall be provided. Minimum width of aisles providing one-way travel shall vary with the angle of parking, as follows:
Angle
Minimum Width
Parallel
12 feet
30-degree
14 feet
45-degree
16 feet
60-degree
20 feet
90-degree
22 feet
C. 
The minimum width of entrance and exit drives shall be:
(1) 
For one-way travel, a minimum of 12 feet.
(2) 
For two-way travel, a minimum of 22 feet.
(3) 
A maximum of 35 feet at the street line and 54 feet at the curb line.
(4) 
Adequate sight distance shall be provided, subject to review and approval by the Township Engineer. Driveways shall not exceed a slope of 10% within 12 feet of the street right-of-way line.
D. 
Fire lanes shall be provided in accordance with the requirements of the Township Fire Code and the Township Fire Department.
E. 
Dead-end aisles in off-street parking areas shall be designed according to the following minimum standards:
(1) 
Depth of turnaround area: 13 feet.
(2) 
Width of turnaround area: 25 feet.
1601.3 
Handicapped Parking Spaces. Handicapped accessible parking spaces marked in accordance with Commonwealth of Pennsylvania regulations and measuring 12 feet by 18 feet must be provided for all buildings designed for public occupancy in accordance with the following table:
Total Parking Spaces Required by § 1602.3
Number of Required Spaces That Must Be Accessible Spaces
Up to 25
1
26 to 50
2
51 to 75
3
76 to 100
4
101 to 150
5
151 to 200
6
201 to 300
7
301 to 400
8
401 to 500
9
501 to 1,000
2% of total spaces
Over 1,000
20 plus 1 for each 100 spaces over 1,000
1601.4 
Access. Access to parking areas shall be provided in accordance with the following requirements:
A. 
When an existing lot does not adjoin a public or private street, an easement of access and an access drive shall be provided leading to the parking areas.
B. 
Access to off-street parking areas shall be limited to well defined locations, and in no case shall there be unrestricted access along the length of a street. In any district other than a Residential District, the street frontage shall be curbed to restrict access to the lot, except where the access drives are proposed.
C. 
The number of access drives from a single lot or development to any public street shall not exceed two for every 400 feet of street frontage.
D. 
Except on corner lots, access drives shall be located at least 200 feet from the intersection of any two street right-of-way lines. Where a site has frontage on more than one street, access shall be provided from the street with the lower traffic volume, if physically practical.
E. 
Access drives entering state highways are subject to a highway occupancy permit issued by the Pennsylvania Department of Transportation (Penn DOT). Access drives entering county roads are subject to a permit issued by the Allegheny County Department of Public Works. Access drives entering Township streets shall comply with the requirements of the Pennsylvania Code, Title 67, Chapter 441, "Access to and Occupancy of Highways, By Ways and Local Roads."
F. 
Each parking space shall have access directly to a driveway. Interior circulation of traffic shall be designed so that no driveway providing access to parking spaces shall be used as a through street. Interior traffic circulation shall be designed to ensure safety and access by emergency vehicles.
1601.5 
Safety Requirements. The Board of Commissioners shall consider whether safety requirements are warranted to reduce traffic hazards which endanger public safety. The developer shall be responsible for construction of any required islands, acceleration, deceleration or turning lanes and shall bear the cost of installing any required traffic control devices, signs or pavement markings within and adjoining the boundaries of the development site.
1601.6 
Marking. In parking areas which contain five or more spaces, all parking spaces shall be clearly delineated by painted lines marked with durable white or yellow paint in stripes a minimum of four inches wide extending the length of the parking space. All vehicular entrances and exits to parking areas shall be clearly marked for all conditions. Short-term visitor parking spaces shall be differentiated from long-term employee spaces by suitable markings. Handicapped parking shall be appropriately marked.
1601.7 
Curbs and Wheelstops.
A. 
All outdoor hard surfaced off-street parking areas shall be curbed unless sheet drainage of surface water can be achieved subject to approval by the Township Engineer.
B. 
Wheelstops shall be provided along boundaries of adjoining properties, public rights-of-way, sidewalks or landscaped areas unless curbs are provided in that portion of the parking lot.
1601.8 
Surfacing.
A. 
All driveways and outdoor off-street parking areas, except those accessory to single-family dwellings and within the rear yards in the M-1 Light Industrial District, shall be paved with asphalt, concrete or similar material of adequate thickness to support the weight of fully loaded vehicles which customarily park or travel on it. Parking areas in the rear yards in the M-1, Light Industrial District, shall at a minimum, have a dust-free slag or stone surface parking area.
B. 
In the case of driveways accessory to single-family dwellings that exceed 150 feet in length, only the first 50 feet of the driveway measured from the right-of-way for the public street shall be paved.
C. 
Paving shall be completed as a condition of obtaining a certificate of occupancy, unless a bond or other surety is posted with the Township to guarantee the installation of the paving within a specific period of time.
1601.9 
Location of Parking Areas.
A. 
Required parking spaces shall be located on the same lot with the principal use. In the case where adequate lot area does not exist on the same lot to meet the parking requirements, the Board of Commissioners may approve off-site parking, provided it is located no more than 400 feet from the principal entrance to the building it is intended to serve and evidence of a lease agreement or cross-easement is submitted for any property under different ownership proposed to be used for off-site parking.
B. 
No parking area containing more than five parking spaces shall be located closer than 10 feet to any adjoining property line and parking authorized in front yards shall be located at least 10 feet from the street right-of-way line.
1601.10 
Landscaping. Parking areas containing more than 20 spaces shall provide the landscaping required by § 1502.10C. In addition, a landscaped area shall be provided between the edge of the right-of-way and any parking area authorized in any yard which fronts on a street in accordance with § 1502.10C.
1601.11 
Shopping Cart Return Areas. One shopping cart return area shall be provided for each 10,000 square feet of gross floor area in retail stores that provide shopping carts. Shopping cart return areas shall measure nine feet by 18 feet and shall provide containment on three sides and shall be identified by an above-grade sign secured to the containment structure. The surface area of the sign shall not exceed four square feet.
1601.12 
Lighting. Any lighting used to illuminate off-street parking areas shall be designed to reflect the light away from any adjoining Residential Zoning District or residential use and away from any streets or highways. Spillover lighting on adjoining residential properties shall not exceed 0.2 footcandle. The lighting system shall furnish an average minimum of 1.0 footcandle during hours of operation and shall be designed with cut-off luminaires that have a cut-off angle of 60° or less. (See Illustration in Appendix B[1].)
[1]
Editor's Note: Said appendix is included as an attachment to this chapter.
1601.13 
Stormwater Management. All paved areas shall be designed so that stormwater runoff shall not adversely affect adjacent properties. The method of stormwater management and the design of the proposed facilities shall be subject to the requirements of the Township Stormwater Management Ordinance and to review and recommendation by the Township Engineer.
Any new use or change of use in any zoning district shall comply with the following minimum requirements for the provision of off-street parking spaces:
1602.1 
When the calculation of required parking spaces results in a requirement of a fractional parking space, any fraction shall be counted as one parking space.
1602.2 
Where more than one use exists on a lot, parking requirements for each use shall be provided.
1602.3 
The following table of parking requirements specifies the number of spaces required for various categories of uses in any zoning district:
Use
Parking Spaces Required
Single-family and two-family dwelling
2 spaces per dwelling unit
Garden apartments, mid-rise apartments, high-rise apartments, triplex, fourplex, townhouse or mobile home park
2 spaces per dwelling unit plus 0.5 spaces per dwelling unit for visitors located within 300 feet of the units they are intended to serve
Community centers in a planned residential development or subdivision
1 space for each 10 dwelling units in the development
Agriculture
1 space per employee
Agriculture, nursery or greenhouse sales
1 space per employee plus 1 space for each 400 square feet of growing and display area accessible to the public
Mineral removal
1 space for each employee on the 2 largest shifts, combined
Churches
1 space per 4 seats or 80 lineal inches of pew, or if there are no pews or seats, 1 per 15 square feet of floor area used for assembly
Cemetery
1 space for each 50 square feet of gross floor area in a chapel or assembly area in a mausoleum plus 1 space for each 300 square feet of net floor area devoted to office and/or product display accessible to the public
Day-care center; nursery school
1 space for each teacher and/or employee on largest shift plus 1 space per each 6 students
Public utility building or structure
1 space per employee on peak shift plus 1 space for each service vehicle stored on the lot
Schools, secondary and post secondary
1 space for each employee or faculty member plus 1 space for each 10 students or 1 space for each 3 seats in the principal place of assembly, whichever is greater
Dormitories, fraternity houses, sorority houses
1 space for each bed at maximum capacity
Theater, auditorium or gymnasium
1 space per 4 seats
Hospitals and nursing homes
1 space per 3 beds and 1 space for each employee on the peak working shift
Public buildings/firehouses
1 space for each 300 square feet of net floor area devoted to office plus 1 space for each 75 square feet of net floor area devoted to assembly
Hotel/motel
1 space per employee on peak shift plus 1 space per sleeping unit
Professional office (other than medical), business office, business services
1 space for every 300 square feet of net floor area
Medical offices, clinics
1 space for each 175 square feet of gross floor area
Financial institutions
1 space per 300 square feet of gross floor area plus 1 space per employee on peak shift plus 5 off-street waiting spaces per drive-in window
Group care, personal care, transitional dwelling
1 space for each employee on peak shift plus 1 space for each resident authorized to drive plus 1 space for each 6 beds
Retail business, personal service establishment
1 space for each 250 square feet of gross floor area
Recreation-related commercial uses
1 space for each 500 square feet of gross floor area
Eating and drinking establishments
1 space for each 75 square feet of net floor area plus 1 space for each employee on peak working shift
Bowling alleys
5 spaces for each alley
Tennis, racquetball and handball courts
1 space per employee plus 4 spaces for each court
Golf courses
8 spaces for each hole plus 1 space for each employee
Marina, boat launch, boat sales
1 space for each 1,200 square feet of gross floor area of building or 1 space for each boat slip, whichever is greater
Fitness center, health club, educational studio
1 space for each employee plus 1 space for each 75 square feet of gross floor area in a studio or exercise room plus 1 space for each 3 lockers in each locker room
Playing fields, play courts
2 parking spaces for each team member on the field or court during regulation play plus 1 space for each 3 seats in bleachers or viewing stands
Swimming pools, public/commercial
1 space for each 50 square feet of surface water area
Amusement or video arcade
1 space for each 100 square feet of net floor area
Billiard parlors
3 spaces for each table
Dance halls, skating rinks
1 space for each 100 square feet of net floor area
Amusement park
1 space for each 1,500 square feet of gross lot area
Private clubs
1 space for each 100 square feet of net floor area
Funeral homes
1 space for each 50 square feet of floor area in the parlors plus 1 space for each 300 square feet of remaining gross floor area
Garden center
1 space for each employee on peak shift plus 1 space for each 250 square feet of indoor sales area plus 1 space for each 1,000 square feet of outdoor growing and display area accessible to the public
Indoor places of assembly (without fixed seats)
1 space for each 75 square feet of net floor area
Indoor places of assembly (with fixed seats)
1 space for each 3 seats
Outdoor places of assembly (without fixed seats)
1 space for each 1,500 square feet of gross lot area
Outdoor places of assembly (with fixed seats)
1 space for each 3 seats
Libraries/museums/nature center/conservatories
1 space for each 500 square feet of gross floor area
Arboretum, bird sanctuary, trails
5 spaces for each acre of land
Automobile service stations/vehicle repair Garages
4 spaces for each bay plus 1 space for each employee on peak shift plus 1 space for each business vehicle stored on the lot
Contracting business
1 space for each employee plus 1 space for each business vehicle stored on the lot plus 1 space for each 250 square feet of floor area devoted to product display that is accessible to the public
Contractor's yard, supply yard
1 space for each employee on peak shift plus 1 space for each 1,500 square feet of indoor or outdoor product storage or display area
Repair shops
1 space for each 350 square feet of gross floor area
Manufacturing, production or research development
1 space for each 1,500 square feet of gross floor area or 1 space for each employee on the peak working shift, whichever is greater
Warehousing, truck terminals, wholesaling
1 space for each 2 employees on peak working shift or 1 space for each 2,000 square feet of gross floor area, whichever is greater
Mini-warehouse self-storage facility
1 space for each employee plus 1 space for each 300 square feet devoted to office
Flex space
Each portion of the floor area used for office, manufacturing and/or warehousing shall meet the minimum requirements of this section for that specific use
All other uses
1 space for each 3 occupants at maximum permitted occupancy or 1 space for each 300 square feet of gross floor area, whichever is greater
In all zoning districts, whenever a new use is established or an existing use is structurally altered, converted or enlarged, off-street loading spaces shall be provided in accordance with the requirements of this section.
1603.1 
Off-Street Loading Design.
A. 
Size. Each loading berth shall be at least 65 feet in length and 12 feet in width with an overhead clearance of 14 feet. The area used for loading berths shall not be used to satisfy parking area requirements and shall not block any driveway used for circulation through the site.
B. 
Access. Loading berths shall be designed to provide sufficient turnaround area so that vehicles are not required to back onto public streets and the design shall be subject to review and approval by the Township Engineer. Loading berths shall have direct access to a driveway and shall be maintained free from obstruction.
C. 
Location. All loading berths shall be located on the same lot with the principal use they are intended to serve. No loading berth shall be located in a required front yard. Loading berths shall be located at least 25 feet from the nearest point of intersection of any two streets.
D. 
Screening. Loading berths shall be screened by a six-foot-high hedge, wall or opaque fence on all sides which face residential use or zoning district classification.
E. 
Surfacing. All loading berths shall have a paved, concrete or bituminous surface, with adequate thickness to support the weight of a fully loaded vehicle and graded with positive drainage to dispose of surface water.
F. 
Lighting. Any lighting used to illuminate loading berths shall be designed to reflect away from any adjoining residential use or zoning classification and away from any street or highway.
1603.2 
Off-Street Loading Requirements. In all zoning districts, every use which requires the receipt or distribution, by tractor-trailer, of material or merchandise, shall provide off-street loading berths in accordance with the following:
Gross Floor Area
(square feet)
Number of Berths Required
Under 40,000
None
40,000 to 59,999
1
60,000 to 99,999
2
100,000 to 160,000
3
For each additional 80,000
1 additional
1603.3 
In addition to required off-street parking and loading facilities, adequate storage areas for vehicles awaiting loading and unloading shall be provided. Under no circumstances shall vehicles be stored on or block access to a public right-of-way.