Township of Upper Hanover, PA
Montgomery County
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Table of Contents
Table of Contents

§ 425-400 General standards.

The following shall apply to all subdivision and land development proposals:
A. 
All portions of a tract shall be designated as to their use (lots, roads, open space, parking areas, etc.).
B. 
Whenever possible, applicants shall preserve scenic areas, historic sites, other community assets and landmarks, and natural amenities such as trees and waterways.
C. 
Plans shall be designed to avoid excessive cut or fill.
D. 
Floodplain land areas shall be governed by additional standards contained in this chapter, the Township's Zoning Ordinance, and the Township's Building Code.[1]
[1]
Editor's Note: See Ch. 500, Zoning, Art. XX, Floodplain Conservation Overlay District, and Ch. 180, Construction Codes, Uniform, respectively.
E. 
The applicant shall construct, install and guarantee, at no expense to the Township, all improvements required as part of plan approval, including, but not limited to, streets, curbs, sidewalks, water and sewage facilities, stormwater management facilities, streetlights, fire hydrants, road signs, monuments, lot pins, utilities, and landscaping.
F. 
Improvements shall be constructed in accordance with the Township's Engineering Standards, as defined in Appendix A.[2]
[2]
Editor's Note: The Appendixes are included at the end of this chapter.
G. 
All traffic signals and flashing warning devices, and their associated pavement markings and materials, shall be designed, constructed, installed, operated and maintained in accordance with the procedural requirements and technical specifications which are set forth in detail in Exhibit A[3] hereof.
[Added 1-8-2013 by Ord. No. 2013-01[4]]
[3]
Editor's Note: Appendix A, Section 17, Technical specifications, is included at the end of this chapter.
[4]
Editor's Note: This ordinance also redesignated former Subsection G as Subsection H.
H. 
The Board of Supervisors may require that development features exceed these standards if conditions so warrant.

§ 425-401 Waiver of requirements.

Waivers of requirements of this chapter shall comply with § 425-106 herein.

§ 425-402 Requirements for new and existing streets.

All new streets and extensions and widening of existing streets:
A. 
Shall be offered for dedication to the authority having jurisdiction over the street at the time of plan approval. The Township may accept dedication of lands that are not accepted by other jurisdictions.
B. 
Shall conform with the transportation plan element of the Upper Perkiomen Valley Regional Comprehensive Plan, the Upper Hanover Township Functional Classification Map,[1] and county or state highway plans, and be coordinated with existing streets in and adjoining the region.
[1]
Editor's Note: The Streets Functional Classification Map is included at the end of this chapter.
C. 
Shall provide appropriate access between abutting tracts of land for immediate or future use.
D. 
Shall create a road hierarchy among interior subdivision and land development streets and exterior streets to ensure proper through-traffic flow, local access, and internal traffic distribution and flow.
E. 
Shall be related closely to existing topography to assure reasonable grades, alignment and drainage, provide appropriate access to lots, and minimize regrading and removal of vegetation.
F. 
Shall extend existing or recorded streets at the same width as the existing or recorded streets, but in no case at less than the required minimum width identified under § 425-403A through C of this chapter.
G. 
Shall be constructed to the width required for their functional classification, as contained in § 425-403E(1) through (7), and the Engineering Standards of Appendix A.[2] Where a subdivision abuts or contains an existing street of improper width, grade or alignment, the Township may require:
(1) 
The dedication of land sufficient to widen the existing street or correct the improper grade or alignment.
(2) 
And/or the construction of that improvement necessary to correct the improper width, grade, or alignment.
[2]
Editor's Note: Appendix A is included at the end of this chapter.

§ 425-403 Functional classification of streets.

All existing and proposed streets shall be classified according to the functional classifications described in this section and shown in Figure 1, Streets Functional Classification Map.[1] Street names are also listed by classification in § 425-403D herein. If there is any conflict between Figure 1 and § 425-403D, the higher classification shall apply. Each street shall comply with the requirements for its classification contained in § 425-403E(1) through (7). These classifications are based on standards established by the American Association of State Highway and Transportation Officials (AASHTO) and standards used by the Pennsylvania Department of Transportation (PennDOT). They encourage coordinated street functions and improvements among neighboring municipalities, the region and the state.
A. 
Arterials. Arterials serve primarily as significant transportation routes that carry the highest volumes of through traffic at the highest speeds on an intercommunity, regional or higher level. They serve major activity centers and longest trips and impose the strictest access controls to give preference to through traffic.
(1) 
Principal arterials. Principal arterials are the most significant transportation routes and preference is given to major through-traffic movements. Access to abutting lands shall be controlled to the greatest extent possible within legal and practical limits.
(2) 
Minor arterials. Minor arterials are less significant transportation routes than principal arterials. They interconnect with and augment principal arterials in serving major activity centers but generally serve trips of more moderate lengths. Access to abutting lands shall be subordinate to major through-traffic movements and shall be controlled to the greatest extent possible within legal and practical limits.
B. 
Collectors. Collectors are less significant transportation routes than arterials. They distribute traffic from arterials to lower classified streets, and collect traffic from lower classified streets to be carried to arterials. They carry moderate volumes of traffic at moderate speeds. Access to abutting lands and through traffic movement are both functions of collectors, but preference is given to through-traffic movements by controlling land access to the greatest extent possible within legal and practical limits.
(1) 
Major collectors. Major collectors generally carry higher volumes of traffic than minor collectors, and they serve rural, residential, employment and commercial activity centers.
(2) 
Minor collectors. Minor collectors are the least significant transportation routes and carry lower volumes of traffic and primarily serve rural and residential areas. The Board of Supervisors shall require proposed streets to be classified as minor collectors when they are determined by the Township Engineer to serve a minor collector function.
C. 
Local access streets. Local access streets are the minor streets that carry the lowest volumes of traffic, generally at the lowest speeds, and function primarily to provide vehicular access to and street frontage for adjacent land uses, lots and/or buildings. They are not significant transportation routes. Also known as "local roads," they are further classified as follows:
(1) 
Residential streets. Residential streets shall be new streets in residential subdivisions or land developments or extensions of similar existing streets. Any public or private vehicular way for residential development that is projected to carry more than 200 vehicle trips per day (ADT, average daily trips) using Institute of Transportation Engineers (ITE) standards shall, at a minimum, comply with all standards of this chapter for residential streets.
(2) 
Rural residential roads: Rural residential roads are existing roads that function primarily to provide vehicular access and street frontage for properties and residences in the rural areas of the Township. These roads are intended to maintain a more rural character and minimize the extension of suburban-type services and street improvements. Also known as "rural lanes."
(3) 
Industrial streets. Industrial streets shall function primarily to provide vehicular access and street frontage for industrial lots and land uses within or adjoining industrial subdivisions and land developments. Any street shown as a higher classification in Figure 1 that provides frontage for industrial lots and/or land uses shall be improved in compliance with the classification of the road shown in Figure 1.[2]
[2]
Editor's Note: Figure 1, Streets Functional Classification Map, is included at the end of this chapter.
D. 
List of street names by functional classification.
(1) 
Principal arterials: Route 29 and Route 663.
(2) 
Minor arterials:
Church Road (State Street to Schoolhouse Road)
Geryville Pike
Knight Road
Kutztown Road
Montgomery Avenue
Schoolhouse Road
Water Street
(3) 
Major collectors:
Church Road (Schoolhouse Road to Kutztown Road)
East Buck Road (Pennsburg to Geryville Pike)
James Road
Kraussdale Road
Landis Road
Otts Road
Peevy Road
Quakertown Road
Sixth Street (Red Hill to James Road)
State Street
Third Street (East Greenville to Church Road)
(4) 
Minor collectors:
Adams Road
Bank Street
Bauss Road
Bethesda Church Road
Bowers Mill Road
Campbell Road
Congo Road
Corning Road
County Line Road
Eleventh Street
Fennel Road
Finland Road
Fourth Street (Red Hill Boundary)
Fruitville Road
Frye Road
Gehman Road
George Road
Grabers Road
Gramm Road
Hendricks Road
Hillegass Road
Hosensack Road
Jacobs Sawmill Road
Kings Road
Markley Road
Mill Hill Road
Old School Road
Palm Hill Road
Paper Mill Road
Parestis Road
Red Hill Road
Schwoyer Road
Slotter Road
St. Paul's Church Road
Station Road
Stauffer Road
Tagart Road
Tollgate Road
Treichler Road
Walt Road
Walters Road
Ward Road (Kings Road to Knight Road)
Warner School Road
Wasser Road
Wentlings Schoolhouse Road
Wild Run Road
Wonzeigler Road
Woods Road
(5) 
Residential streets:
Andrews Lane
Blaker Drive
Briar Ridge Way
Brooke Road
Cindy Lane
Devon Lane
Edgeview Street
Fifth Street
Fox Hollow Lane
Gene Road
Grace Lane
Hock Road
Kingsward Road
Klinerd Road
Lakeshore Drive
Lakeside Road
Lantern Road
Lloyd Lane
Mack Road
Maple Lane
Meadow Lane
Moyer Road
Newman Road
Oak Road
Old Barn Road
Perkiomen Street
Ridge Way
Rittenhouse Drive
Second Street
Silo Road
Sixth Street (Montgomery Avenue to Pennsburg Boundary)
Spring Valley Road
Stofflet Drive
Stonehaven Drive
Surrey Lane
Valley Road
View Road
Wellington Way
West Buck Road
West Fourth Street
Winchester Place
(6) 
Rural residential roads and rural lanes:
East Buck Road (Geryville Pike to Bucks County Line)
Goshenhoppen Church Road
Green Hill Road
Heffner Road
Kem Road
Lesher's Mill Road
Miller Road
Soffa Road
Stoudt Road
Swinging Bridge Road
Ward Road (Kings Road to New Hanover boundary)
Ziegler Road
(7) 
Industrial streets:
Blommer Drive
Pillsbury Road
Vic Lane
E. 
Street standards by functional classification.
(1) 
Principal arterials.
(a) 
Ultimate right-of-way: 50 feet from center line (100 feet total).
(b) 
Minimum cartway: twelve-foot travel lanes plus eight-foot paved shoulders (40 feet total).
(c) 
Minimum buffer: 10 feet.
(d) 
Pavement standards: PennDOT.
(e) 
On-street parking: not permitted.
(f) 
Site distance analysis: required in compliance with § 425-404 herein.
(g) 
Sidewalks, curbs and storm sewers: as required by § 425-410 herein.
(2) 
Minor arterials.
(a) 
Ultimate right-of-way: 40 feet from center line (80 feet total).
(b) 
Minimum cartway: twelve-foot travel lanes plus four-foot paved shoulders (32 feet total).
(c) 
Minimum buffer: 10 feet.
(d) 
Pavement standards: PennDOT.
(e) 
On-street parking: not permitted.
(f) 
Site distance analysis: required in compliance with § 425-404 herein.
(g) 
Sidewalks, curbs and storm sewers: as required by § 425-410 herein.
(3) 
Major collectors.
(a) 
Ultimate right-of-way: 30 feet from center line (60 feet total).
(b) 
Minimum cartway: twelve-foot travel lanes plus four-foot paved shoulders (32 feet total).
(c) 
Minimum buffer: 10 feet.
(d) 
Pavement standards: PennDOT.
(e) 
On-street parking: not permitted.
(f) 
Site distance analysis: required in compliance with § 425-404 herein.
(g) 
Sidewalks, curbs and storm sewers: as required by § 425-410 herein.
(4) 
Minor collectors.
(a) 
Ultimate right-of-way: 30 feet from center line (60 feet total).
(b) 
Minimum cartway: twelve-foot travel lanes plus four-foot paved shoulders (32 feet total).
(c) 
Minimum buffer: 10 feet.
(d) 
Pavement standards: PennDOT.
(e) 
On-street parking: not permitted.
(f) 
Site distance analysis: required in compliance with § 425-404 herein.
(g) 
Sidewalks, curbs and storm sewers: as required by § 425-410 herein.
(5) 
Local access residential.
(a) 
Ultimate right-of-way: 25 feet from center line (50 feet total).
(b) 
Minimum cartway: twelve-foot travel lanes plus four-foot paved shoulders (32 feet total).
(c) 
Minimum buffer: 10 feet.
(d) 
Pavement standards: Upper Hanover Engineering Standards.
(e) 
On-street parking: not permitted.
(f) 
Site distance analysis: required in compliance with § 425-404 herein.
(g) 
Sidewalks, curbs and storm sewers: as required by § 425-410 herein.
(6) 
Local access rural roads.
(a) 
Ultimate right-of-way: 25 feet from center line (50 feet total).
(b) 
Minimum cartway: twelve-foot travel lanes plus four-foot paved shoulders (32 feet total).
(c) 
Minimum buffer: 10 feet.
(d) 
Pavement standards: Upper Hanover Engineering Standards.
(e) 
On-street parking: not permitted.
(f) 
Site distance analysis: required in compliance with § 425-404 herein.
(g) 
Sidewalks, curbs and storm sewers: as required by § 425-410 herein.
(7) 
Local access industrial.
(a) 
Ultimate right-of-way: 30 feet from center line (60 feet total).
(b) 
Minimum cartway: twelve-foot travel lanes plus four-foot paved shoulders (32 feet total).
(c) 
Minimum buffer: 10 feet.
(d) 
Pavement standards: Upper Hanover Engineering Standards.
(e) 
On-street parking: not permitted.
(f) 
Site distance analysis: required in compliance with § 425-404 herein.
(g) 
Sidewalks, curbs and storm sewers: as required by § 425-410 herein.
[1]
Editor's Note: The Streets Functional Classification Map is included at the end of this chapter.

§ 425-404 Sight distance analysis for all streets.

The standards of this section regulate minor and major sight distance analysis for all proposals with existing or proposed vehicular access from a public street.
A. 
Purposes.
(1) 
To permit reasonable access to private properties and guard the general public's right to safe and efficient travel along public roads by requiring sufficient sight distance at street and driveway intersections with public streets.
(2) 
To identify safe and preferable locations for vehicular access using the driveway or approach regulations that permit access to public streets, while controlling the location, number and physical layout of access points.
(3) 
To reduce the degree of interference on traffic flow and/or safety caused by a proliferation of driveway and/or street intersections by minimizing the total number of access locations.
(4) 
To encourage subdivisions and land developments to use new local access roads for access rather than strip new lots and access driveways along higher classification roads.
(5) 
To encourage or require, as appropriate, the use of a shared access point, paired driveways, or new local access streets for vehicular access to proposed lots and/or development.
(6) 
To encourage the use of flexible lotting for visual benefits, preservation of natural features, and/or rural character where they may contribute to safe and efficient vehicular access.
(7) 
To encourage planning for entire tracts, blocks and superblocks rather than piecemeal subdivision and/or development.
B. 
Applicability.
(1) 
Applicants shall submit a sight distance analysis whenever a subdivision, land development, and/or other proposal would result in one or more existing or proposed driveway or street intersections with a public street for the following types of proposals:
(a) 
All preliminary and preliminary/final subdivision and/or land development plans.
(b) 
Preapplication sketch plans for nonresidential uses.
(c) 
Driveway permit applications not related to other proposals.
(2) 
Applicants are encouraged to prepare an access analysis for residential preapplication sketch plans that propose 10 or more lots or dwelling units so that access issues may be resolved before preliminary plans are submitted.
C. 
Minor sight distance analysis. A minor access analysis shall be the minimum required for all subdivision and/or land development plans.
(1) 
Required information. The following information shall be shown and labeled on the applicant's subdivision and/or land development plan:
(a) 
Safe stopping sight distance. For each existing or proposed driveway or street intersection, the applicant's plan shall identify the required and available safe stopping sight distance for the subject road in compliance with current PennDOT standards.
(b) 
Sight distance obstructions. The plan shall identify all obstructions that interfere with the required sight distance and label them as correctable (such as vegetation and obsolete, replaceable or moveable structures) or not correctable (such as road grades or curvature or structures to be retained).
(2) 
Review by Township Engineer. The Township Engineer shall review the submitted information in accord with current PennDOT standards and accepted engineering principles.
(a) 
Acceptable sight distance. If the available sight distance is acceptable, or will be corrected by the applicant to be acceptable, then no further analysis is required. The applicant shall guarantee correction of obstructed sight distance as required by the Township Engineer and maintenance of required sight distance in a manner acceptable to the Board of Supervisors.
(b) 
Unacceptable sight distance. If the available sight distance is unacceptable, the applicant shall be required to propose measures to provide acceptable sight distance or propose alternative access locations with acceptable sight distance.
(c) 
Severely limited sight distance. For any proposal where the Township Engineer determines that existing conditions severely limit sight distance, the applicant shall be required to conduct a major sight distance analysis.
D. 
Major sight distance analysis. When required in accord with § 425-404C(2)(c) herein, the applicant shall conduct an on-site survey along the entire frontage of the subject property to identify the physical characteristics that impede sight distance and/or suitable vehicular access, and provide the following information concerning those characteristics on the submitted plans:
(1) 
Horizontal plan. The horizontal plan information may be shown on the subdivision and/or land development plan or on a separate horizontal plan and shall show the following at a scale not exceeding 50 feet to the inch:
(a) 
Legal and ultimate rights-of-way and center line.
(b) 
Existing cartway and shoulder widths and conditions.
(c) 
Existing contours drawn at two-foot intervals.
(d) 
All existing natural and man-made features within the ultimate right-of-way on the subject property's side of the street.
(e) 
Existing natural and man-made features on the subject property, beyond the ultimate right-of-way, that may impede street or driveway access into the site, such as embankments, steep slopes, watercourses, floodplains, wetlands, vegetation, buildings, walls or other structures.
(f) 
Any other information needed to establish sight distances along the road frontage.
(g) 
Minimum safe stopping sight distance required by PennDOT standards for the road being accessed, regardless of road jurisdiction.
(h) 
Maximum sight distance available from each driveway or street intersection proposed.
(2) 
Profiles. Profiles shall be drawn along the following lines at a horizontal scale not exceeding 50 feet to the inch, and vertical scale of two, four or five feet to the inch, whichever is most appropriate, to identify obstructions and limitations to sight distances:
(a) 
Road center line, with road grades indicated.
(b) 
Ten feet from the edge of the existing cartway.
(c) 
Ten feet from the edge of the cartway when widened in compliance with this chapter.
E. 
Adjustments to existing street and driveway intersections. When the minor or major sight distance analysis shows that the designs and/or locations of existing street and/or driveway intersections do not satisfy sight distance, spacing, or other safety related considerations of this chapter, the applicant shall modify or relocate the existing intersections to comply with the standards herein, including §§ 425-406, 425-407 and 425-408, regarding intersection spacing, intersection design, and alignment of streets and driveways.
F. 
Plan approval. No plan that requires a major sight distance analysis shall be approved unless it satisfies the following:
(1) 
Required information. All information required for the major sight distance analysis shall be provided on the plans as verifiable graphic evidence and explanatory notes.
(2) 
Acceptable sight distance. The existing and proposed street and/or driveway intersections shall provide at least the minimum required safe stopping sight distances.
(3) 
Resolution of other issues. The applicant's plan shall otherwise resolve all sight distance and vehicular access issues identified by the Township Engineer's review of the major sight distance analysis in a manner consistent with the standards of §§ 425-406, 425-407 and 425-408 herein regarding intersection spacing, intersection design, and alignment of streets and driveways.

§ 425-405 Spacing of street and driveway intersections.

This section regulates spacing of all proposed street and driveway intersections anticipated to generate more than 25 vehicular trips per day from all other existing and proposed intersections along all classifications of streets. Trip generation shall be projected in compliance with PennDOT and/or ITE standards. Section 425-406 regulates spacing for driveways anticipated to generate 25 or less vehicular trips per day (minimum-use driveways).
A. 
Spacing criteria. Table A below lists the minimum distance required between a proposed intersection and every other existing and/or proposed intersection along the street being intersected, according to the functional classification of the street being intersected. Spacing shall be measured between the center lines of proposed intersections and other intersections of streets and qualified driveways.
(1) 
Greater spacing shall be required where appropriate according to AASHTO or PennDOT standards and required by the Board of Supervisors with the advice of the Township Engineer.
(2) 
Nongrowth and growth areas are as defined in the Upper Perkiomen Valley Regional Comprehensive Plan. Streets running along the boundary of a growth area shall be subject to the growth area standards.
B. 
Spacing of intersections on opposite sides of the street. In nongrowth areas, intersections on opposite sides of arterials or major collectors shall satisfy the spacing listed in the table below where practicable. However, spacing may be reduced to a minimum of 400 feet if necessary and/or preferable in terms of sight distance and other safety-related factors, as determined from the sight distance analysis.
[Amended 6-14-2005 by Ord. No. 2005-08]
Table A
Intersection Spacing Standards by Functional Classification
Principal Arterials
Minor Arterials
Major Collectors
Minor Collectors
Local Access Streets
Nongrowth areas
800 feet (same side or opposite side)
800 feet (same side or opposite side)
600 feet (same side or opposite side)
400 feet (same side or opposite side)
300 feet (same side or opposite side)
Growth areas
400 feet (same side or opposite side)
400 feet (same side or opposite side)
300 feet (same side or opposite side)
300 feet (same side or opposite side)
300 feet (same side or opposite side)
C. 
Safe stopping sight distance. All intersections shall provide safe stopping sight distance in compliance with current PennDOT standards and § 425-404, Sight distance analysis for all streets.
[Amended 6-14-2005 by Ord. No. 2005-08]

§ 425-406 Intersection spacing for minimum-use driveways.

Intersections of proposed driveways anticipated to generate 25 or fewer vehicular trips per day shall comply with the standards of this section. Trip generation shall be projected in compliance with PennDOT and/or ITE standards.
A. 
Number of driveways per lot. To allow reasonable and adequate access and minimize possible hazards or congestion caused by new driveway intersections with arterial and collector streets, no more than one minimum-use driveway shall be permitted per existing and/or proposed lot per street.
B. 
Spacing of minimum-use driveway intersections.
(1) 
Individual driveways. Minimum spacing between proposed individual minimum-use driveway intersections and all other existing or proposed individual driveway intersections shall be 400 feet for arterial streets and 300 feet for collector streets, measured from center line to center line, whether located on the same side or opposite side of the arterial or collector street.
(2) 
Paired driveways. Where minimum-use driveways are paired in compliance with § 425-407F(2)(d) of this chapter, the minimum spacing of § 425-406B(1) above shall apply, measured between the common lot lines of two pairs of driveways or from the common lot line of one pair to the center line of the nearest unpaired minimum-use driveway.
(3) 
Corner lots. Minimum-use driveways for corner lots shall be located as far from the street intersection as practical for all street classifications but need not exceed the spacing of § 425-406B(1) above. A narrow strip of land may be retained between the lot line and driveway for grading, drainage and/or landscaping.

§ 425-407 Intersection design for streets and driveways.

The standards in this section apply to all proposed street and driveway intersections with public streets and to all improvements to existing street intersections.
A. 
Number of legs. No intersection shall have more than four legs. Three-way or "T" intersections shall be used instead of four-way intersections unless the four-way intersection can be justified in terms of necessary and desirable traffic movements.
B. 
Angle of intersections.
(1) 
All intersection approaches shall be designed at right angles unless sufficient reason exists to justify a lesser angle. However, no angle shall be less than 75° for intersections with arterials or collectors or 60° for intersections with local access streets, measured at the center line intersections.
(2) 
Where angled intersections are used they shall be designed so that the heavier traffic flow will make the obliquely angled (less abrupt) turn rather than the acutely angled (more abrupt) turn.
C. 
Corrective changes to existing intersections. When an existing intersection has oddly angled legs or more than four approaches, the applicant shall make corrective changes to bring the intersection into compliance with this chapter, as required by the Supervisors. In determining the corrective actions, the Supervisors shall seek the advice of the Township Engineer and Planning Commission and other technical advisors or agencies, as appropriate. For state and county highways, corrective changes shall comply with the requirements of the appropriate agency.
D. 
Approaches to intersections. Approaches to all intersections shall follow a straight course for a minimum of 50 feet, except driveways anticipated to generate less than 25 vehicular trips per day, in compliance with PennDOT and/or ITE standards. Intersections with collectors or arterials shall be required to provide a longer straight approach in accordance with AASHTO or PennDOT standards. Measurement shall be made from the intersection of curblines or edges of cartways for each corner.
E. 
Stopping areas. Regardless of classification, all streets and driveways shall be provided with a stopping area within which the grade shall not exceed 5%. The stopping area shall be measured as follows:
[Amended 6-14-2005 by Ord. No. 2005-08]
(1) 
The length of the stopping area for a driveway serving one single-family detached dwelling on an individual lot and for residential paired driveways shall be a minimum of 20 feet measured from the edge of the cartway.
(2) 
The length of the stopping area for all driveways other than those identified in § 425-407E(1) shall be a minimum of 30 feet or the length of the longest vehicles anticipated to use the driveway, whichever is greater, measured from the ultimate right-of-way line.
(3) 
The length of the stopping area for all streets shall be a minimum of 50 feet measured from the ultimate right-of-way line.
F. 
Prevention of intersection problems.
(1) 
The Board of Supervisors may prohibit any intersections that would create a problem related to the design, maintenance and/or drainage of the street, congestion, interference and/or hazards to traffic flow and safety by reason of street grades, land forms, vegetation, frequency of driveway intersections, limited sight distances, and/or high-speed traffic flow as identified in the sight distance analysis required by § 425-404 herein.
(2) 
Where intersections are prohibited because of potential problems, alternative vehicular access to the parcel of land shall be provided by means of one or more of the following methods:
(a) 
Alternative locations for proposed streets or driveways.
(b) 
Reverse frontage lotting.
(c) 
Other means which are legally and technically suitable in the opinions of the Township Solicitor and Engineer.
(d) 
Paired driveways that comply with the following standards:
[1] 
Paired driveways shall be two individual driveways located on opposite sides of a common lot line with each driveway located entirely within 25 feet of the common lot line for a minimum distance of 25 feet from the street ultimate right-of-way line.
[2] 
Beyond 25 feet from the street ultimate right-of-way line, the driveways may separate as needed for practical purposes.
[3] 
Within the street ultimate right-of-way, the two driveways may share a continuous paved access to the street's cartway or be separated the same as within the private lot areas.
(3) 
Where the Board of Supervisors prohibits driveway intersections and alternative forms of vehicular access would cause an undue burden upon an applicant, the Board of Supervisors may permit an alternative interim access solution in compliance with the following:
(a) 
It is the safest feasible alternative, acceptable to the Township Engineer and/or PennDOT.
(b) 
Suitable provisions are made for a preferable permanent access solution, including legal agreements to enable implementation of the permanent solution.
(c) 
A waiver is requested by the applicant in compliance with § 425-106 herein.
G. 
Driveways for individual residential lots.
(1) 
Distance from street intersections. Driveways for individual residential lots shall be located as far from street intersections as is reasonably possible but not less than 75 feet, measured from the point of intersection of the street ultimate right-of-way lines (extended).
(2) 
Choice of streets. When streets of different classes are involved, the driveway shall provide access to the street of lesser classification unless this requirement is waived by the Board of Supervisors for reasons of sight distance, incompatibility of traffic, grading, drainage or other major reasons, in accord with the sight distance analysis required by § 425-404 herein.
H. 
Final approval. No driveway location, classification or design shall be considered finally approved by the Township unless permits have been granted by the state and/or Township and preliminary plan approval has been granted by the Board of Supervisors for the subdivision and/or land development that the driveway(s) will serve.
I. 
Preapplication sketch plans. Applicants are encouraged to prepare a preepplication sketch plan for informal discussion and guidance in conformance with §§ 425-302 and 425-303 herein, preapplication sketch plan standards and procedure, in the following circumstances:
(1) 
When lots are proposed to be subdivided along an existing arterial or collector, with vehicular access to that street.
(2) 
For all nonresidential proposals that require a new driveway or upgrading of an existing driveway to handle larger volumes of traffic than that which exists at the time of plan submission.
(3) 
For all proposals whose driveways would generate 25 or more vehicular trips per day, based on ITE trip generation standards.

§ 425-408 Alignment of streets and driveways.

The standards in this section apply to all proposed streets, improvements to or extensions of existing streets, and to all driveways except those that serve one single-family detached dwelling on one individual lot.
A. 
General standards. Unless otherwise stated in the chapter, sight distance, horizontal and vertical curvature, super-elevation, intersection radii and maximum and minimum street grades shall comply with the standards contained in "A Policy on Geometric Design of Highways and Streets," published by the American Association of State Highway and Transportation Officials, most recent edition, or PennDOT standards, whichever is more restrictive, subject to approval by the Board of Supervisors upon recommendation of the Engineer.
[Amended 6-14-2005 by Ord. No. 2005-08]
B. 
Minimum horizontal curvature. Minimum horizontal curvature for all local access streets and all driveways with an anticipated traffic generation of more than 25 vehicular trips per day shall be a one-hundered-fifty-foot radius, measured along the center line.
C. 
Curve/tangent relationships. Curve-tangent relationships shall follow accepted engineering guidelines for safety and efficiency. As examples, short radius curves shall not be used at the ends of long tangents and long radii; gentle curves shall be used in place of a series of shorter radius curves connected by tangents.
D. 
Grades. Grades shall be measured along the street or driveway center line in accordance with the following:
[Amended 6-14-2005 by Ord. No. 2005-08]
(1) 
Minimum grade shall be 1%.
(2) 
Maximum grade shall be 10%.
(3) 
Curve-grade combinations shall follow accepted engineering guidelines for safety and efficiency. For example, minimum radius horizontal curves will not be permitted in combination with maximum grades.[1]
[1]
Editor's Note: Former Section 408.4.D, which immediately followed this subsection, was repealed 6-14-2005 by Ord. No. 2005-08.

§ 425-409 Culs-de-sac and other single-access streets.

The standards of this section regulate all permanent and temporary culs-de-sac and all streets that are served by only one intersection with a through street. These types of streets include single culs-de-sac, multiple culs-de-sac, single-access loops, and stub streets.
A. 
Functional classification.
(1) 
Permanent culs-de-sac and single access loops shall be classified as local access streets.
(2) 
Temporary culs-de-sac and stub streets shall be subject to the requirements for their functional classification of street upon completion of their extension, as determined during the plan review process for the proposal creating the original cul-de-sac or stub street.
B. 
Emergency access. Culs-de-sac longer than 500 feet and all single access loops shall be served by an appropriately located emergency access that complies with the Engineering Standards (Appendix A).[1]
[1]
Editor's Note: Appendix A is included at the end of this chapter.
C. 
Standards for all cul-de-sac streets.
(1) 
Vehicular turnaround dimensions:
(a) 
Minimum right-of-way radius: 60 feet.
(b) 
Minimum paving radius: 50 feet.
(2) 
Maximum length: 750 feet, measured along the cul-de-sac street's center line from the edge of pavement of the through street to the most distant point on the edge of pavement of the turnaround.
(3) 
Intersections and signage:
(a) 
Culs-de-sac shall be permitted only as side streets extending from a through street.
(b) 
Culs-de-sac may create a four-way intersection only where two permanent cul-de-sac streets intersect directly opposite one another along a through street.
(c) 
A standard warning sign stating "No Outlet" shall be installed at the intersection with a through street when deemed appropriate by the Board of Supervisors to help avoid mistaken turning movements.
D. 
Additional standards for temporary cul-de-sac streets. Temporary cul-de-sac streets may be permitted or required by the Board of Supervisors where it is logical to extend the street onto the abutting tract upon its development. Temporary culs-de-sac shall satisfy the requirements of § 425-409C herein and the following additional standards:
(1) 
Location and grade. A temporary cul-de-sac shall be built to the tract boundary line at a location and grade that are logical for extension onto the abutting tract satisfactory to the Engineer.
(2) 
Connection to a through street. When a temporary cul-de-sac is extended to be longer than 750 feet, it shall not be extended as a cul-de-sac street but shall be connected to another through street as a logical step in the circulation pattern of the area in which it is located.
(3) 
Extension standards. The developer responsible for extension of the street shall also be responsible for the following:
(a) 
Removal of all curbing and paving of the temporary turnaround beyond the width of the street's cartway.
(b) 
Installation of new sidewalk, curbing and cartway paving to complete the street connection.
(c) 
Extension of utilities as necessary.
(d) 
Grading, installation and/or restoration of lawn areas where affected by this removal and construction process.
(e) 
Repair of any improvements damaged in this process, including private driveways.
(4) 
Upon extension of the street, ownership and the full rights and responsibilities for the area formerly occupied by the vehicular turnaround shall be transferred by simple conveyance to the abutting lot owners, at no cost to those lot owners.
E. 
Multiple cul-de-sac streets.
(1) 
Single-access streets that terminate in more than one vehicular turnaround are multiple cul-de-sac streets and shall be avoided in favor of more desirable street layouts, when feasible.
(2) 
Maximum length shall be 750 feet in length, measured from the single through street intersection to each turnaround.
F. 
Single-access loop streets.
(1) 
Single-access streets that do not terminate in a vehicular turnaround, but instead loop back to intersect with themselves, are single-access loop streets.
(2) 
The Board of Supervisors may permit single-access loop streets when no alternative are determined to be feasible and preferable, upon advice of the Township Planning Commission and Engineer.
(3) 
Single-access loop street requirements:
(a) 
Maximum length: 2,000 feet, measured from the single intersection with a through street along the entire center line around to the loop street's intersection with itself.
(b) 
Maximum number of residential lots or dwelling units with access from the single-access loop street shall be 45.
G. 
Stub streets.
(1) 
Shall be provided in appropriate locations for vehicular access to abutting undeveloped lands when required by the Supervisors, upon advice of the Township Planning Commission and Engineer.
(2) 
Shall not be longer than:
(a) 
The depth of one building lot abutting the street; or
(b) 
The width of two building lots abutting the street.
(3) 
Shall not be provided with a vehicular turnaround.

§ 425-410 Sidewalks, curbs and storm sewers.

For all subdivisions and land developments, sidewalks, curbs and storm sewers shall be installed along both sides of all existing and proposed public and private streets, common driveways, and common parking areas in compliance with the Township Engineering Standards.
A. 
If an applicant requests a waiver of the sidewalk installation requirement, the Board of Supervisors may use the following factors as a guide in evaluating whether or not to grant the waiver:
(1) 
Will proposed residential lot widths be 125 feet or more?
(2) 
Is there a destination to be reached by pedestrians (e.g., shopping center, bus stop, employment, schools), or any anticipated in the foreseeable future?
(3) 
Would the sidewalk(s) be an extension of an existing network that provides neighborhood or village circulation?
(4) 
Can an alternative pedestrian circulation concept be shown to be more desirable, especially when using open space areas, provided that appropriate walks are provided between the open space walkways and the pedestrian origins and destinations?
(5) 
Does the rural character, density of the area, and/or small size of the proposal preclude the purposeful use of sidewalks?
(6) 
Is the waiver request supported by the Township Planning Commission and Engineer?
B. 
Regardless of the small size of a land development or subdivision proposal, sidewalks, curbs and storm sewers shall be required wherever they fill a gap in an existing network.
C. 
If for any reason an interim waiver of these requirements is made, a sufficient guaranty shall be posted for the eventual installation of these items, subject to approval by the Supervisors, upon recommendation of the Township Engineer and Solicitor, in accordance with § 425-602, Financial security, of this chapter.
D. 
Sidewalks shall not be less than four feet in width, although the Supervisors may require additional width in commercial, industrial, office or higher density residential areas where higher volumes of pedestrian traffic are anticipated.
E. 
Sidewalks shall be located a minimum of three feet from the curbline or edge of cartway but shall not extend beyond the right-of-way line of public streets or equivalent right-of-way line of private streets and shall not interfere with monuments or pins at lot corners.
F. 
Sidewalks shall be provided in appropriate locations to provide safe and efficient pedestrian access between parking areas and buildings.
G. 
Additional sidewalks shall be required where deemed necessary by the Supervisors to provide access to schools, places of worship, parks, community facilities, and commercial or employment centers, and to provide necessary pedestrian circulation within land development and/or subdivisions where otherwise-required sidewalks would not be sufficient for public safety and convenience. Such additional sidewalks may be constructed of alternative materials in compliance with the Engineering Standards.
H. 
Sidewalks shall be designed to facilitate access and use by the handicapped in compliance with the Township Engineering Standards and Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA) requirements.
I. 
Driveway crossings of sidewalks shall be designed in compliance with the Township Engineering Standards.

§ 425-411 Traffic impact study.

The following regulations govern the preparation of traffic impact studies for all preliminary plans for subdivisions and/or land developments and for other types of proposals when required by § 500-825 of Chapter 500, Zoning.
A. 
Intent. A traffic impact study is intended to enable the Township to assess the traffic impacts of a proposal. Specifically, its purpose is to:
(1) 
Identify any traffic problems that may be created in the existing highway network as a result of the proposal.
(2) 
Delineate solutions to potential problems and to present improvements to be incorporated into the proposal or into the highway and/or public transit systems within the study area.
(3) 
Assist in the protection of air quality and the conservation of energy and to encourage the use of public transit where available.
B. 
Preparation of study. A qualified traffic engineer and/or transportation planner shall prepare the traffic impact study, with the cost borne by the applicant.
C. 
Applicability. Applicants shall prepare a traffic impact study for all preliminary plans for subdivisions and/or land developments. In addition, applicants shall prepare a traffic impact study for zoning map or text amendments, special exceptions, conditional uses, variances, and/or any other pertinent proposal, as required by § 500-825 of Chapter 500, Zoning.
(1) 
The applicant shall determine the anticipated number of trips per day by using the Institute of Transportation Engineers' (ITE) Trip Generation Report (third edition, as amended). The proposed use or development shall be identified using the appropriate ITE land use code. The Engineer shall make a final determination on the literal application of these standards.
(2) 
An application that requires a traffic impact study shall not be considered complete until the traffic impact study is submitted to the Township in accordance with the provisions of this section.
(3) 
The Board of Supervisors may, with the advice of the Township Planning Commission and Township Engineer, waive the requirement for a traffic impact study for a proposal that is not expected to create a significant traffic impact.
D. 
Site description. The site description shall include the size, location, proposed land uses, construction staging, and completion date of the proposed land development. If the development is residential, types of dwelling units shall also be included. A brief description of other major existing and proposed land development within the study area shall be provided.
E. 
Transportation facilities description. The description shall fully document the proposed internal and existing external transportation system.
(1) 
This description shall include proposed internal vehicular, bicycle and pedestrian circulation, all proposed ingress and egress locations, all internal roadway widths and rights-of-way, parking conditions, traffic channelizations, and any traffic signals or other intersection control devices at all intersections within the site.
(2) 
The report shall describe the entire external roadway system within the study area. Intersections in the study area shall be identified and illustrated. Any existing and proposed public transit services and facilities within a one-mile radius of the site shall also be documented.
(3) 
All future highway improvements proposed by others, including proposed construction and traffic signalization, shall be indicated. This information shall be obtained from the Pennsylvania Department of Transportation's Twelve-Year Highway and Bridge Program, Montgomery County Department of Roads and Bridges, and from the Township. Any proposed roadway improvements associated with surrounding proposed development shall be noted.
F. 
Existing traffic conditions. Existing traffic conditions shall be measured and documented for all roadways and intersections in the study area and shall include:
(1) 
Current average daily traffic volumes, peak highway hour(s) traffic, and peak development-generated hour(s) traffic.
(2) 
Manual traffic counts at all intersections in the study area, encompassing the peak highway and development-generated hour(s), with documentation included as a technical appendix to the report.
(3) 
Delay analysis based upon existing volumes, performed during the peak highway hour(s) and the peak development-generated hour(s) for all roadways and intersections in the study area.
(4) 
Volume/capacity (v/c) analysis for all intersections having a level of service D, E or F or which should be reasonably expected to have such a level of service after the proposed development Volume/capacity ratios and delay levels of service shall be determined for each location according to the 1985 Highway Capacity Manual, as amended.
(5) 
The date or dates when any and all traffic counts were made.
(6) 
Analysis of the adequacy of the existing roadway system to serve the current traffic demand. Roadways and/or signalized intersections experiencing level of service E or F and v/c ratios greater than or equal to 1.0 shall be noted as deficient. Unsignalized or undersignalized intersections with level of service E or F shall be noted as deficient.
G. 
Impact of development. The traffic impact study shall describe the impact(s) of the proposal on existing and proposed streets in the study area, including the following:
(1) 
Vehicular trip generation resulting from the proposal shall be estimated for the average daily peak highway hour(s) and peak development-generated hour(s). All turning movements shall be calculated.
(2) 
These calculated volumes shall be distributed to the study area and assigned to the existing roadways and intersections throughout the study area. The applicant shall provide documentation of all assumptions used in the distribution and assignment phases. Traffic volumes shall be assigned to individual access points.
(3) 
Pedestrian volumes shall also be calculated, if applicable. If school crossings are to be used, pedestrian volumes shall be assigned to each crossing.
(4) 
The applicant shall note any characteristics of the site that may cause specific trip generation or distribution problems.
H. 
Impact analysis. The applicant shall analyze the impacts of the proposal's traffic generation in conformance with accepted traffic engineering methods.
(1) 
The total future traffic shall be calculated and shall consist of the existing traffic volume expanded to the project completion year using an annual background growth factor plus the development-generated traffic and the traffic generated by other proposed developments in the study area.
(2) 
The annual background growth factor shall be determined using the projected rates of population and employment growth as determined by the Montgomery County Planning Commission and the average annual traffic growth of the area's roadways as determined from the Delaware Valley Regional Planning Commission's highway network coverage traffic counts and current twenty-four-hour traffic counts.
(3) 
Delay analysis shall be conducted using the total future demand and the future roadway capacity. If staging of the proposed development is anticipated, calculations for each stage of completion shall be made.
(4) 
Analysis shall include the peak highway hour(s) and peak development-generated hour(s) for all roadways and intersections in the study area. Delay calculations shall be completed for all intersections and proposed access points to the development. A volume/capacity (v/c) analysis shall be conducted for all intersections having a future level of service D, E or F.
(5) 
All access points and pedestrian crossings shall be examined for the feasibility of installing traffic signals. This evaluation shall compare the projected traffic and pedestrian volumes to the warrants for traffic signal installation.
I. 
Conclusions and recommendations. The traffic impact study shall provide a clear and concise description of the study's conclusions and recommendations, including the following:
(1) 
Levels of service (LOS) and volume/capacity (v/c) ratios shall be listed for all roadways and intersections. All roadways and intersections showing a level of service E or F and v/c ratios equal to or greater than 1.0 shall be considered deficient.
(2) 
The proportion of site-generated traffic to total future traffic shall be identified at each lane group that is considered deficient. Specific recommendations for the elimination of all deficiencies shall be listed and shall include: internal circulation design, site access location and design, external roadway intersection design and improvements, traffic signal installation and operation including signal timing, and transit design improvements.
(3) 
All physical roadway improvements shall be illustrated.
(4) 
Signal timing shall be evaluated for any intersection with a level of service D, E or F, but a volume/capacity (v/c) ratio less than 1.0. Warrants for signalization shall be examined for unsignalized or undersignalized intersections with level of service E or F.
(5) 
Existing and/or future public transit service shall also be addressed and any transportation management techniques available to the proposed development shall be identified. A listing of all actions to be taken to encourage public transit usage for development-generated trips and/or improve existing service, if applicable, shall be included.
J. 
Implementation of recommendations. The applicant shall be required to implement the recommendations of the traffic impact study. The Board of Supervisors may have an independent review done of the applicant's traffic impact study, at the applicant's expense, to make a final determination of the improvements that must be implemented.

§ 425-412 Private streets.

Private streets shall not be permitted unless an applicant receives a waiver in compliance with § 425-106 of this chapter to permit a local access street to be privately owned and maintained. Private streets shall be permitted only in those applications specifically outlined in § 500-1304E(7)(d)[2], Age-qualified housing standards, and § 500-1406, Vehicular access standards (in R-3, High Density Residential District), of Chapter 500, Zoning. If the Board of Supervisors grants the waiver, the following requirements shall apply:
A. 
Private streets shall comply with all the design, construction and other requirements of this chapter that apply to public streets.
B. 
The applicant shall enter into such binding legal agreements as are determined necessary to ensure proper maintenance and functioning of the private street, including compliance with § 500-805, Private ownership and maintenance of common elements, of Chapter 500, Zoning, applicable construction standards, and maintenance bonds.

§ 425-413 Blocks.

The length, width and shape of blocks shall be guided by the following:
A. 
Minimum dimensional requirements of the Zoning Ordinance.
B. 
Respect for existing natural features that may constrain subdivision or land development.
C. 
Need to provide efficient, convenient and safe pedestrian and vehicular circulation.
D. 
Suitability of lotting pattern and building sites created by the blocks.

§ 425-414 Lotting standards.

All lots shall comply with the dimensional requirements of the Zoning Ordinance and with the following:
A. 
Access to a public street.
(1) 
All lots shall abut a public street for at least 50 feet at the ultimate right-of-way line, and said 50 feet must be usable for purposes of ingress and egress to the lot. For lotted dwellings where zoning requires a minimum lot width narrower than 50 feet, this requirement shall be reduced to equal the minimum lot width required for the specific dwelling type.
(2) 
For condominium and/or rental/leased development, the minimum 50 feet required by Subsection A(1) above shall be provided for the development as a whole, provided that suitable internal common driveways provide sufficient vehicular access to all units.
(3) 
Preexisting landlocked parcels may be developed with one single-family detached house provided with a fifty-foot-wide easement of access, provided that the developable portion of the lot otherwise complies with the lot size and dimensional requirements of the district in which it is located.
(4) 
Rear lotting or flag lotting. Rear or flag lotting is permitted under this chapter in compliance with the rear lotting provisions of this chapter (§ 425-415) and Subsection A(1) above.
B. 
For single-family detached dwellings and all nonresidential lots, lot depth shall be no less than one and no more than three times the lot width.
C. 
For two-family residential buildings (single-family semidetached and duplex), lot depth shall be no more than five times the lot width.
D. 
For single-family attached dwellings (e.g., townhouses), lot depth shall be no more than eight times the lot width.
E. 
Every lot shall contain a building envelope suitable for the type(s) of development proposed.
F. 
Lot lines shall be drawn parallel, concentric, perpendicular or radial to the right-of-way line whenever feasible and not otherwise justifiable by existing, permanent, natural or man-made features.

§ 425-415 Rear lotting.

The Board of Supervisors, in accordance with the following standards and criteria, may permit rear lots or flag lots as defined herein.
A. 
Purposes of rear lotting.
(1) 
To preserve existing farmland and/or rural appearance and character by locating new development remote from existing road frontage, especially when new development can be screened from view by intervening topographic features such as hills and/or wooded areas.
(2) 
To permit reasonable subdivision of land which is physically constrained by unusual configuration of the tract and which could not be subdivided in a desirable manner using conventional street and lotting patterns.
B. 
Parts of a rear lot. Rear lots shall be comprised of two parts, the access strip and the body of the lot, in compliance with the following standards:
(1) 
The access strip is that portion of a lot that abuts a public street right-of-way for access and that does not meet the minimum lot width requirement for that zoning district. The access strip shall be a minimum of 50 feet wide for its entire length, including that portion which abuts a public street right-of-way for access.
(2) 
In order to provide better grading or drainage or to preserve natural features such as trees, the Board of Supervisors, upon recommendation of the Township Engineer, may require that the access strip be widened beyond the minimum requirement.
(3) 
When the body of the rear lot is capable of being further subdivided, its access strip shall be approximately located for future use as a road right-of-way, unless further subdivision is prohibited by a deed restriction or other legal instrument approved by the Township Solicitor.
(4) 
The access strip shall be a fee-simple part of the rear lot and shall not be a separate parcel or easement.
(5) 
The body of a rear lot shall comply with all the minimum dimensional requirements of the zoning district in which it is located. The area of the access strip shall not be counted toward the minimum lot area requirement, nor shall the access strip be considered a buildable portion of the lot.
(6) 
Nested flag lots, where access strips are adjacent and parallel to each other and the body of one flag lot is located behind the body of another flag lot, shall not be permitted.
C. 
Review factors. In reviewing applications for rear lots, the following factors will be considered by the Board of Supervisors, Planning Commission and Engineer:
(1) 
The amount of road frontage and configuration of the property being subdivided.
(2) 
The sizes and number of lots proposed, including both the total number of lots and the number of rear lots.
(3) 
The type and character of road that the tract abuts. Section 425-415D(3) herein prohibits rear lots along arterial and collector streets for major subdivisions but permits them for minor subdivisions that cannot be divided into lots complying with the width requirements otherwise required by § 425-414.
(4) 
The topography of the parcel being subdivided, with an emphasis on trees and slopes.
(5) 
The characteristics of the site and its surrounding area:
(a) 
The area's physical characteristics and whether or not the subdivision site is distinguishable from the surrounding area.
(b) 
The site's and surrounding area's planned future character: Is it in or abutting a growth area or in an area planned for agricultural or other rural uses?
(6) 
The development status of the surrounding sites.
(7) 
The visual character preferred for the tract; that is, whether, to be consistent with development surrounding the tract, it is more appropriate to have houses abutting the road or to develop housing sites interior to the tract in order to screen the development from the road, thus reducing the perceived density of the development.
(8) 
Whether rear lots would set an undesirable precedent for nearby sites.
(9) 
The economic impact of requiring road construction as compared to using rear lots.
(10) 
The visual and physical impacts of road construction as compared to the use of access strips.
D. 
Design standards for rear lots.
(1) 
The length of the access strip shall be kept to a minimum.
(a) 
The length should be approximately equal to the depth of one lot that complies with the minimum lot width and area requirements of the district in which it is located.
(b) 
No access strip should exceed three times the lot depth described in Subsection D(1)(a) above unless the primary purposes of the additional length are to preserve farmland or other land for preservation of agriculture or rural character by locating new development remote from road frontage.
(2) 
The location of the access strip should be appropriate, relative to the body of the rear lot, surrounding property configurations, and natural features of the land, and it shall intersect the public street at a safe, visible location.
(3) 
Access strips for rear lots shall be permitted to extend only from local access streets. For traffic safety reasons, access strips shall not be permitted to extend from arterial or collector streets. Access strips shall not be permitted to extend from culs-de-sac where the intent of that extension is to avoid exceeding the permitted cul-de-sac length as defined in § 425-409.
(4) 
Turns greater than 60° should be avoided in access strips.
(a) 
It may be necessary to widen the access strip at such sharp turns to accommodate grading, drainage, or tree preservation.
(b) 
For access strips that may become roads, the Board of Supervisors shall require turns to be designed to accommodate horizontal curves required for roads.
(5) 
Driveways serving access strips shall comply with the Township's Engineering Standards for drainage and cartway from the edge of road pavement to a distance of 50 feet beyond the ultimate right-of-way line of the road.
(6) 
No more than two access strips may abut one another.
(7) 
The building setback line shall be measured from a line drawn parallel or concentric to the street from which access is drawn, at the point where the body of the lot begins. This point is where the lot width meets the minimum requirements of the applicable zoning district.
E. 
Provisions for future roads. The Board of Supervisors may permit the use of rear lots where one or more access strips are intended to serve as a right-of-way for a road that will serve future lotting. The following regulations shall apply:
(1) 
Legal guarantees shall be provided to assure future use of any access strip proposed for future use as a road, subject to approval of the Township Solicitor.
(2) 
The road shall be constructed or financially guaranteed at the applicant's expense, in compliance with Township standards.
(3) 
Access strips legally and financially guaranteed for future use as roads may comprise the legal and physical access to otherwise landlocked residual parcels only if the access is irrevocably guaranteed.
(4) 
An overall tentative sketch plan shall be submitted as part of the proposed subdivision, to show how the rear lotting and reservation of access strips for future roads forms a logical and appropriate first phase in subdivision of the entire tract and/or how it will allow interconnection with adjacent tracts.
(5) 
When the road is constructed, any access strips that are no longer needed shall revert to the owners of the abutting lots, in accordance with the terms agreed to as part of the original preliminary plan approval that created the access strips.
(6) 
When an access strip is proposed for a future road, the access strip shall be provided with appropriate street right-of-way radii at the intersection with the existing street, provided that the subdivider owns or has access to the land required for the radii.

§ 425-416 Parking standards for land developments.

Parking for land developments shall be governed by the following regulations:
A. 
General standards.
(1) 
Off-street parking facilities shall be provided and constructed in compliance with the parking requirements of the Zoning Ordinance, the regulations contained herein, and the Township's Engineering Standards (see Appendix A).[1]
[1]
Editor's Note: Appendix A is included at the end of this chapter.
(2) 
No parking shall be permitted along public or private streets or along driveways with an anticipated ADT of more than 200 trips in residential subdivisions and/or land developments or 300 trips in nonresidential subdivisions and/or land developments.
(3) 
The term "parking" shall include "parking lot" and "parking area." Parking includes the driveway that provides direct access to parking spaces. However, for residential parking requirements, the area of any driveway shall not be counted toward the fulfillment of off-street parking space requirements.
B. 
Standards for all parking lots.
(1) 
No parking along entrance driveways. Parking shall not be permitted along entrance driveways for parking areas with a capacity of 50 cars or more. A minimum driveway length of 50 feet shall be provided between the road ultimate right-of-way line and the first parking space or internal driveway intersection.
(2) 
Setbacks. Parking areas shall comply with the setback requirements of the Zoning Ordinance where specified. In any other situation, parking areas shall not be located closer than 25 feet from any tract boundary line or ultimate right-of-way line.
(3) 
Dead-ended parking lots. Dead-ended parking lots are those served by only one access driveway. They shall comply with the following standards:
(a) 
No more than 20 parking spaces may be located in a dead-ended parking lot if there is no more desirable alternative feasible and sufficient backup areas are provided for the end stalls, as recommended by the Township Engineer.
(b) 
More than 20 parking spaces may be located in a dead-ended parking lot only if a turnaround area is provided at the closed end that provides convenient turning capability for the largest types of vehicles expected to use the turnaround. The turnaround area may be circular, "T" or "Y" shaped, or other configuration acceptable to the Board of Supervisors.
(4) 
All parking lots with 10 or more parking spaces shall be landscaped in compliance with the parking lot landscaping standards in Article V of this chapter.
(5) 
Handicapped parking stalls shall be installed in all parking lots as close and convenient to building entrances as is reasonable. The specific number and locations of handicapped stalls shall satisfy the requirements of the Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA).
C. 
Residential parking lots.
(1) 
In the center of a parking lot, parallel rows of parking spaces shall not abut one another but shall be separated from each other by a raised and curbed planting strip a minimum of 10 feet wide, landscaped in accordance with the parking lot landscaping standards in Article V of this chapter.
(2) 
In the center of a parking lot, a single row of parking spaces shall not be permitted between two driveways unless it is separated from one of the driveways by a raised and curbed planting strip a minimum of 10 feet wide, landscaped in accordance with the parking lot landscaping standards in Article V of this chapter.
(3) 
Parking lots shall be divided into sections of not more than 20 cars each, with the sections separated by raised and curbed planting islands, each equal to one parking space in area, landscaped in accordance with the parking lot landscaping standards in Article V of this chapter.
D. 
Nonresidential parking lots.
(1) 
Parking lots in nonresidential land developments shall be divided into sections by raised and curbed planting strips parallel to the rows of parking. These planting strips shall be landscaped in accordance with the parking lot landscaping standards in Article V of this chapter to serve the following purposes:
(a) 
To separate entrance/exit driveways and other major driveways (service drives, general internal circulation) from rows of parking spaces and reduce random vehicular flow across parking areas.
(b) 
To add visual character, provide shade for parked cars and improve the appearance of large parking areas by reducing their massiveness into smaller units.
(c) 
To create units of parking at reasonable intervals of not more than four rows of parking stalls with each unit capacity not greater than 100 cars.
(2) 
For land developments with parking lots with a total capacity for 100 to 299 cars, the curbed planting strips shall be a minimum of 10 feet wide, located every four rows of parking stalls, with each unit capacity not greater than 100 cars.
(3) 
For land developments with parking lots with a total capacity for 300 to 499 cars, the curbed planting strips shall be a minimum of 15 feet wide, located every four rows of parking stalls, with each unit capacity not greater than 100 cars.
(4) 
For land developments with parking lots with a total capacity for 500 or more cars, the curbed planting strips shall be a minimum of 25 feet wide, located every six rows of parking stalls, with each unit capacity not greater than 150 cars.
(5) 
For all nonresidential parking lots, the ends of each row of parking shall be divided from other driveways by a raised and curbed planting island equal in area to one parking space and landscaped in accordance with the parking lot landscaping standards in Article V of this chapter.
(6) 
The applicant may request the Township to permit an alternative design that achieves the same purposes as these requirements as well or better than the requirements herein. The final decision to permit an alternative design shall be made by the Board of Supervisors, with the advice of the Township Planning Commission and Engineer.
E. 
Parking space and parking aisle standards.
(1) 
Dimensions. Parking space and parking aisle driveway dimensions shall comply with the following standards:
Parking Space
Aisle Width
Parking Angle
Width
(feet)
Depth
(feet)
Two-Way
(feet)
One-Way
(feet)
90°
10
20
24
NP
60°
10
21
NP
18
45°
10
19
NP
18
NP — Not Permitted.
(2) 
Restrictions. One-way driveways and/or parking at less than right angles may be permitted in compliance with the dimensional standards of § 425-416E(1) only when right-angled parking and two-way driveways are not feasible because of site characteristics or when proven by the applicant to be superior for the particular development proposal.
F. 
Handicapped parking spaces shall comply with the design, location, and capacity standards of the Americans with Disabilities Act.

§ 425-417 Driveway standards for land developments.

The following requirements apply to all driveways within all sites proposed for land development, as well as to other sites proposed for development that will provide parking capacity for 50 or more cars:
A. 
A smooth transition shall be provided between the driveway section required for access to a public street and the driveway(s) required for internal site circulation.
B. 
Entrance driveways. The primary function of entrance driveways is to provide access to distribution driveways that lead to and from parking aisle driveways. A secondary function may be to provide access to driveways along the front of buildings as in a shopping center or office complex.
(1) 
Number and location of entrance driveways. The number and location of driveways proposed along the street frontage of a land development shall be in accordance with Table B, § 425-405. Vehicular access to all uses and buildings within the land development shall be from interior driveways only, with no independent driveway access to public streets.
[Amended 6-14-2005 by Ord. No. 2005-08[1]]
[1]
Editor's Note: This ordinance also repealed original Section 417.2.B, which previously followed this subsection.
(2) 
Internal intersections. To reduce hazards and congestion, no driveway intersections shall be permitted along entrance driveways within 150 feet of the ultimate right-of-way of the street from which access is taken.
(3) 
Cartway width. Entrance driveways shall be a minimum of 30 feet wide for two-way traffic, widened appropriately for turning lanes at intersections. Right-turn-only entrance drives shall be a minimum of 15 feet wide for each right-turn movement. Intersections with major streets may be subject to PennDOT standards regarding the volume of traffic anticipated.
C. 
Distribution driveways. The primary function of distribution driveways is to distribute traffic between entrance driveways and parking aisle driveways. Distribution driveways should be generally parallel to the building-front driveway serving the principal building in the land development (e.g., storefront driveway in a shopping center).
(1) 
Parking is prohibited along distribution driveways.
(2) 
Minimum cartway width: 30 feet.
D. 
Parking aisle driveways. The primary function of parking aisle driveways is to provide direct access to parking spaces within parking areas.
(1) 
Excessively long parking aisle driveways shall be divided by distribution driveways at intervals of 20 parking spaces on each side of the driveway.[2]
[2]
Editor's Note: Original Section 417.4.B, which immediately followed this subsection, was repealed 6-14-2005 by Ord. No. 2005-08.
E. 
Service driveways. The primary function of service driveways is to provide access to loading and other service facilities while minimizing interference with customer traffic circulation.
(1) 
Only employee parking may be located along these driveways, to the side or rear of principal buildings.
(2) 
Minimum cartway width: 30 feet.
F. 
Traffic movements. Wherever feasible, internal circulation driveways shall permit and encourage entering traffic to turn and enter the parking aisles without first traveling along a building-front driveway. This feature is intended to reduce the volume of vehicular traffic along building-front driveways to make it safer for pedestrian traffic.

§ 425-418 Proposals with existing buildings.

All existing buildings shall be shown on properties proposed for subdivision and/or land development as required by Article III of this chapter and in compliance with the following standards:
A. 
Retention of buildings.
(1) 
Setbacks.
(a) 
Minimum building setbacks required by the Zoning Ordinance shall be satisfied in respect to all new lot lines created, even if this results in a lot area or dimensions in excess of the otherwise applicable minimums.
(b) 
Building setbacks larger than the applicable minimums are encouraged when the height and/or bulk of the existing building significantly exceeds that of existing or proposed abutting development. For tall buildings, a setback equal to the height of the building is suggested as a minimum. For wide or deep buildings, a setback equal to 1/2 the width or depth of the building is suggested as a minimum.
(2) 
Rehabilitation.
(a) 
Aesthetic. Run-down buildings shall be rehabilitated on the exterior to conform in quality with surrounding new development.
(b) 
Structural. Structurally deficient buildings shall be rehabilitated in conformance with the Township's Building Code and BOCA Property Maintenance Code.
(3) 
Additions. Additions to retained buildings shall conform in all respects to the requirements of Chapter 500, Zoning, applicable to the district in which the building is located and shall be in harmony with the character, design, building materials, and other architectural features of the building.
(4) 
Historic or cultural significance. Historic and/or culturally significant buildings shall retain their respective characters to the greatest extent practical.
(5) 
New buildings. New buildings abutting the retained building shall reflect the retained building's character to the greatest extent practical.
(6) 
Plan approval.
(a) 
No plan approval will be granted to a subdivision or a land development unless and until the above requirements are complied with to the satisfaction of the Township Supervisors, upon recommendation of the Planning Commission and Engineer.
(b) 
No proposal will be approved with a property line extending through any portion of an existing building, except where that property line follows a party wall separating semidetached or attached units, in accordance with Chapter 500, Zoning.
B. 
Removal of buildings.
(1) 
The plan shall show the location and include a brief description of the building(s) to be removed.
(2) 
Plan approval will be granted for the expeditious removal of buildings, in conformance with demolition permits and upon receipt of a properly executed agreement. Alternatively, a financial guarantee may be posted for its removal, in compliance with § 425-602, Financial security, of this chapter.
(3) 
Applicant shall comply with all applicable Township requirements and procedures regarding demolition of buildings and the disposal of the reusable parts and/or disposal of the rubble.

§ 425-419 Lighting standards for all uses, subdivisions and land developments.

The standards of this section shall regulate lighting for all residential and/or nonresidential land uses, subdivisions and land developments.
A. 
Purposes. Applicants shall provide lighting for safe and convenient visibility for pedestrian, bicycle and motor vehicle access to residential and nonresidential properties and for the legitimate use of properties by residents, visitors, customers and/or employees.
B. 
Luminaire mounting height. No part of any luminaire mounted on a freestanding lighting standard or on a building wall shall exceed 20 feet in height above the adjacent finished grade.
C. 
Level of lighting. Illumination of all parking lots, around all buildings and along all pedestrian walkways shall provide a minimum maintained level of 1/2 footcandle and an average of one footcandle and a maximum level of four footcandles. (One footcandle equals one lumen per square foot.)
D. 
Shielding. All luminaires shall comply with Illuminating Engineering Society of North America (IESNA) full-cutoff criteria, shall have flat lenses, and shall be aimed straight down.
E. 
Lighting of building facades. Floodlighting of entire building facades shall be prohibited. Partial lighting of building facades for decorative and/or security purposes may be permitted, provided that no more than 25% of any one facade is so lighted.
F. 
Protection of poles with luminaries. Lighting poles or standards that abut parking spaces shall be protected from damage by vehicles by being placed on concrete bases or pedestals that are at least 30 inches high above finished grade or by being placed at least five feet behind the edge of the paved area, tire stops or curbing, or by other suitable location within a raised island.
G. 
Hours of operation.
(1) 
Nonresidential development. Lighting shall be extinguished within one hour after the close of business and remain off until dawn, but in no case past 11:00 p.m. For all-night operations and/or all-night security lighting, the Board of Supervisors may permit an appropriate lighting scheme, with the advice of the Township Engineer and Planning Commission.
(2) 
Residential development. Security lighting and lighting of common walkways, parking lots, and shared building entrances shall be maintained from dusk to dawn for multifamily and single-family attached dwellings.
H. 
Light trespass. The amount of light trespassing onto an adjacent residential use or property shall not at any time exceed 0.1 vertical footcandle line of sight from any location on the residential property or use and shall not exceed 1.0 vertical footcandle line of sight from any location on any nonresidential property or use.
I. 
Hazards and nuisances. Violations of the standards herein shall be considered hazards and/or nuisances, and the person(s) responsible for the lighting violation shall be required to correct the violation, in conformance with §§ 500-400 through 500-403 of Chapter 500, Zoning, and/or § 425-803 of this chapter, as appropriate. Potential and/or apparent hazards and/or nuisances should be reported to the Zoning Officer.
(1) 
Public roads. Where lighting appears to be a potential hazard or nuisance along public roads, the Township Zoning Officer shall determine the need to relocate, diminish, reorient, shield or remove the luminaires in question, with the advice of the Township Engineer. The determination shall be made mainly in terms of the effect of the lighting on traffic safety, such as from glare or brightness interfering with a driver's ability to see safely.
(2) 
Abutting property. Where lighting appears to be a potential hazard or nuisance to an abutting property, the owner or tenant of the affected property shall notify the Zoning Officer, who shall then determine the need to relocate, diminish, reorient, shield or remove the luminaires in question, with the advice of the Township Engineer. The standards in § 425-419H, Light trespass, and the following shall be used as criteria:
(a) 
No light shall shine directly into the windows of a building on abutting property.
(b) 
No light shall shine directly from a light source onto the ground or improvements of an abutting property, although incidental light may be permitted to fall on abutting property.
(c) 
Where the abutting property is residentially zoned or used, nonresidential uses shall direct luminaires toward the nonresidential development and shield the residential properties from direct lighting or glare. An intensely lighted nonresidential use shall also require the installation of a landscaped screen buffer along the residential property line, in compliance with the landscaping regulations of this chapter (§ 425-500).
(d) 
Luminaires closer to a side or rear lot line than the side or rear yard setback shall be no more than 10 feet high and shall be so constructed that all light shall be aimed perpendicular to the side or rear lot line and in the direction of the nonresidential development.
(e) 
All luminaires for nonresidential uses shall use the most current lighting industry technology to ensure that these performance standards are satisfied.
J. 
Intermittent lights. Flashing, blinking, moving or any other forms of intermittent lighting, including lights on, near or within signs or buildings, are prohibited.
K. 
Sign lighting. Sign lighting shall comply with the regulations of Article X, Signs, of Chapter 500, Zoning.

§ 425-420 Street names and signs.

[Added 6-14-2005 by Ord. No. 2005-08; amended 1-10-2006 by Ord. No. 2006-01]
Street names shall be chosen and street signs shall be placed in accordance with the following.
A. 
Assignment and approval. Street names shall be determined in consultation with the Township and are subject to approval by the Board of Supervisors upon recommendation of the Planning Commission. Street names shall conform to the requirements of the Montgomery County 911 system and the postal service. Street addresses will be assigned by the Township based upon proposed driveway locations.
B. 
Extension of existing names. Proposed streets which are in alignment with existing streets shall bear the name of the existing street.
C. 
Duplication of existing names. In no case shall the name of a proposed street duplicate or be similar to an existing name in the Township and/or the postal district. This is irrespective of the use of a suffix such as street, road, avenue, boulevard, drive, way, place, court, lane, etc. The Montgomery County 911 system shall be contacted to ensure compliance with this requirement.
D. 
Naming guideline. Street names that bear a relationship to the significant natural features or history of the community or region would be preferable.
E. 
Street sign installation. The developer shall be responsible for installing street signs at all street intersections per Township specifications in Appendix A.[1] Street signs shall be erected prior to the issuance of the first certificate of occupancy.
[1]
Editor's Note: Appendix A is included at the end of this chapter.

§ 425-421 Compliance with other standards.

The items listed below shall be designed, constructed, developed, installed and/or maintained in conformance with the Township Engineering Standards as defined in Appendix A and the Township's Stormwater and Erosion and Sedimentation Pollution Control Ordinance.[1]
A. 
Street and driveway paving; emergency accessways.
B. 
Curbing, sidewalks, and storm drainage related to or needed for streets and driveways.
C. 
Intersection radii for both curbs and rights-of-way.
D. 
Erosion and sediment control.
E. 
Stormwater runoff and other drainage facilities.
F. 
Utilities.
G. 
Sanitary sewer facilities.
H. 
Public or centralized water supply.
I. 
Fire hydrants.
J. 
Bridges, culverts, dams, and/or other structures related to watercourses.
K. 
Wetland staking intended to assure an undisturbed condition.
L. 
All cutting, filling, grading, regrading and/or other forms of earthmoving activities.
M. 
All other items related to subdivision and/or land development for which it is reasonable and prudent to require compliance with accepted engineering principles and practices.
[1]
Editor's Note: See Ch. 415, Stormwater and Erosion and Sedimentation Pollution Control.