[HISTORY: Adopted by the Department of Public Works of the Town of Barnstable Spring 2003. Amendments noted where applicable.]
As used in this chapter, the following terms shall have the meanings indicated:
- American National Standards Institute
- American Society for Testing and Materials
- BUILDING FLOOR DRAINS
- That part of the lowest horizontal piping of a drainage system which receives the discharge from soil, waste and other drainage pipes inside the walls of a building and conveys the discharge to the building sewer, beginning five feet outside the inner face of the building wall.
- BUILDING SEWER
- The sewer extension from the building drain to the public sewer, or other place of wastewater disposal.
- Any property on which an activity is carried which falls into any of the following Standard Industrial Classification codes.
- PUBLIC SEWER
- A sewer owned or controlled by the Town in which owners of abutting properties have rights.
- Any property which is used exclusively for residential use and where the waste being generated contains sanitary sewage with no waste from any process or industrial trade or business activity.
- SANITARY SEWER
- A sewer which carries sewage and to which stormwaters, surface waters and groundwaters are not intentionally admitted.
- A combination of the water-carried wastes from residences, business buildings, commercial or industrial establishments and other facilities of public or private institutions, together with such groundwaters, surface waters and stormwaters as may be present.
- A pipe or conduit for carrying sewage.
- SEWER SYSTEM
- The combination of building sewers, associated collection and storage containers, valve pits, buffer tanks and pumping stations, and public sewers through and by means of which wastewater flows and is transported to the wastewater treatment plant.
- The Town of Barnstable.
- A combination of liquid and water-carried wastes, whether treated or untreated, from residences, business buildings, industrial and manufacturing facilities, and facilities of private and public institutions, together with such groundwaters, surface waters and stormwaters as may be present, which is contributed into or permitted to enter the sewer system.
No sewer connection, disconnection or alteration of a sewer connection to a municipal sewer shall be constructed prior to obtaining the appropriate sewer connection permit, and payment of the appropriate permit fee, from the Town of Barnstable Department of Public Works. The building sewer connection must be installed by a contractor who is licensed as a disposal works installer by the Town of Barnstable Board of Health or by a contractor who has been approved by the Town of Barnstable Department of Public Works. Failure of a licensed installer to secure a permit prior to beginning work on a connection, disconnection or alteration shall result in a ninety-day license suspension for the first offense, a one year suspension for the second offense and license revocation for the third offense. In order to avoid these penalties, the installer must apply and pay for the required permit no later than 72 hours after initiating work on the connection. Any work on a municipal sewer connection by anyone not licensed by the Department of Public Works shall be subject to a fine not to exceed $500.
All building sewer connections for industrial/commercial discharges shall submit a copy of their State sewer connection permit to the Town of Barnstable Department of Public Works for review.
All industrial/commercial building sewer connections shall install any pretreatment equipment and meet all pretreatment discharge requirements, as determined to be necessary by the Town of Barnstable Department of Public Works Water Pollution Control Division.
All sewer connection permits are valid for a period of 180 calendar days from the date of issue. Forty-eight hours must be given to the Engineering Division before beginning work on a sewer connection. No work shall be backfilled until approval for backfilling is given by Engineering Division personnel. Any work that has been backfilled without that approval shall be uncovered at the request of Engineering Division personnel.
Other contractors (plumbers, general contractors, excavation contractors, etc.) who wish to install or alter building sewer connections in the Town of Barnstable must submit to the Department of Public Works a company history, certificate(s) of insurance(s) or bond(s), a list of references and any other information which the contractor believes may be pertinent. The information will be reviewed by the Town Engineer and a determination will be made.
Insurance(s) and bond(s) must include the following:
Workmen's compensation: minimum limit of employer's liability of $1,000,000.
Commercial general liability insurance: covering the premises, operations, completed operations, contractual and protective hazards that may be presented by the work to be done, in an amount of $1,000,000 each occurrence limit; a products-completed operations aggregate limit of $2,000,000 and a general aggregate limit of $2,000,000.
Owned and nonowned automobile liability insurance: combined single limit in an amount of not less than $1,000,000.
The appropriate sewer connection/extension permit, when applicable, must be obtained from the Massachusetts Department of Environmental Protection, prior to applying for a sewer connection permit from the Town of Barnstable Department of Public Works.
The property owner is responsible for obtaining all permits or license(s) from the Town of Barnstable Building Services Division; the Town of Barnstable Conservation Commission; Town of Barnstable Water Pollution Control Division; Massachusetts Highway Department; Massachusetts Department of Environmental Protection; and other federal, state or municipal regulatory agencies, when appropriate.
The installer must obtain all appropriate permits necessary from the Town of Barnstable Board of Health, prior to performing the installation/disconnection of grease traps, waste interceptors or septic systems.
A pretreatment survey from the Town of Barnstable Water Pollution Control Division must be filed for all industrial and commercial building sewer connections, and the property owner shall install any pretreatment equipment necessary to meet all pretreatment discharge requirements, as determined by the Town of Barnstable Department of Public Works.
A grease trap installation permit obtained from the Town of Barnstable Department of Public Health must be provided to the Engineering Division prior to the issuance of a sewer connection permit.
A permit to abandon the existing septic system must be obtained from the Town of Barnstable Department of Public Health.
A road opening permit must be obtained from the Town of Barnstable Department of Public Works Engineering Division prior to any work being performed within the designated layout of a Town road or sidewalk. All road opening work must be performed by a contractor licensed to perform road opening work by the Town of Barnstable Department of Public Works Engineering Division.
All industrial or commercial properties and any residential property whose flow is expected to exceed 2,000 gallons per day (7,500 liters per day), based on Title V quantity estimates, connecting to the municipal sewer must obtain and file a pretreatment survey with the Town of Barnstable Water Pollution Control Facility. All industrial building sewer connections shall install any pretreatment equipment and meet all pretreatment discharge requirements, as determined to be necessary by the Town of Barnstable Department of Public Works.
All building sewer connections and alterations of an existing sewer connection shall be designed and installed in accordance with accepted engineering principles. A plan of the proposed building sewer connection or alteration must be submitted to the Department of Public Works Engineering Division as part of the sewer connection application for residential flows expected to exceed 2,000 gallons per day (7,500 liters per day), based on Title V quantity estimates, and for all commercial or industrial flows. This plan shall include a sketch of the lot and buildings to be served and the proposed layout, locations and depths of the sewer piping and other appurtenant structures (manholes, valve pits, buffer tanks, grease traps, cleanouts, etc.).
The plan for a disconnection shall include a sketch of the lot and buildings located on the property, locations of existing sewer pipe and appurtenances. The disconnection shall be performed at the property line and the cut sewer line, and pipe end shall be capped and encased in concrete.
The building sewer shall be constructed of PVC SDR 35 pipe, Schedule 40 PVC or better, as acceptable to the Department of Public Works. The minimum size of the building sewer shall be four inches (100 mm) in diameter for residential connections and six inches (150 mm) in diameter for commercial or industrial connections. Upon approval from the Department of Public Works, larger diameter pipe may be installed. Pipe and fittings shall be uniform and homogeneous throughout and free from visible cracks, holes, foreign inclusions or other injurious defects. Pipe, fittings and other materials shall be examined prior to installation for any defects.
All pipe joints of the building sewer shall be made watertight and protected against damage from roots, stones or other objects. Each length of pipe shall be laid to form a tight joint and to bring the inverts into a continuous line. All pipe shall be clean and free of dirt before laying and open ends shall be kept covered and free of dirt during construction. Where new pipes are to join existing piping, structures and appurtenances, extreme care shall be taken in cutting into the existing material and tight connections shall be made. Where new piping and construction is to join existing structures and appurtenances, care shall be taken so as to not interrupt existing service.
The building sewer shall be laid on a firm base. The subbase shall be compacted prior to placing the pipe bedding material. Material used for bedding and cover shall be free of large stones, frozen clumps of earth, masonry, stumps or any other deleterious materials. The bedding material shall be placed and compacted by manual or mechanical means to suit the material, and acceptable to the Department of Public Works, to minimize settlement or other movement of the piping and any appurtenant structures. Commercial or industrial connections and appurtenant structures shall be laid on a layer of crushed stone Type A, 3/4 inch (19 mm), and shall meet the following gradation requirements:
Cover for building sewer connections shall be a minimum of three feet (900 mm).
For residential connections, suitable excavated material may be used as backfill for pipe bedding and cover.
Each pipe shall be held firmly in position by carefully and thoroughly tamping backfill material around the barrel of the pipe. Tamping irons shall be used.
The building sewer shall not be designed or constructed so as to pass over a water pipe or storm drainpipe. Sewer connections shall be installed with a minimum horizontal separation of 18 inches (450 mm) and a minimum vertical separation of 36 inches (900 mm) from a waterline or storm drain. If it is necessary to cross above a water utility or storm drainpipe, the building sewer shall be encased in concrete or placed in a large diameter watertight sleeve for a distance of 10 feet (three meters) on both sides of the crossing.
The building sewer shall be designed so as to provide a minimum flow velocity of two feet per second (0.6 meters per second), when flowing full. The building sewer shall be laid on a continuous grade and in a straight line. Allowable slope shall not be less than that listed on the following table:
A cleanout tee shall be provided at the exterior wall of the building for all building sewer connections. Residential sewer connections shall include a cleanout tee upstream of all major bends. Where right-angle bends cannot be avoided, they shall be long sweeps or a series of bends of 45° with a short pipe length between each bend. Cleanout tees shall be sealed with a removable, reusable threaded screw-on cap. Cleanouts, or riser connections, shall be installed at or just below grade, for reasonable access and use. All cleanouts installed in areas subject to vehicular traffic must be constructed to withstand H-20 wheel loads.
A minimum four-inch diameter vent pipe shall be provided at the exterior wall of the building for all sewer connections to valve pits or buffer tanks connected to the vacuum sewer system. All aboveground vent piping shall be Schedule 80 PVC and shall have a stainless steel bird screen. Vent piping shall be located a minimum of 20 linear feet away from the valve pit or buffer tank it is connected to. Bollards or similar Department of Public Works approved protective devices shall be installed to protect above-grade piping at all commercial and/or industrial sites. Protective devices for residential installations shall be required as determined by Department of Public Works Sewer Inspector.
Commercial or industrial sewer connections shall include a sampling station, to be used for discharge sampling, located in the road layout at the property line.
For commercial or industrial sewer connections manholes shall be used at all locations where pipe size, slope or direction changes. Distance between manholes shall not exceed 300 feet (90 meters). With prior approval from the Town of Barnstable Department of Public Works, minor direction changes may consist of long sweeps or a series of bends of 45° with a short pipe length between each bend. Manholes shall be constructed of pre-cast concrete. Pre-cast concrete manholes shall be commercially manufactured units of 3,000 psi (20 mpa) minimum, air-entrained concrete conforming to ASTM Standard C478. All joints between pre-cast sections shall be sealed with bitumastic sealant or other method acceptable to the Department of Public Works. Steps in pre-cast concrete manholes shall be aluminum or polypropylene. Polypropylene steps shall be steel reinforced and shall be embedded a minimum of three inches (75 mm) into the concrete. Joints between the manhole and pipes shall consist of cast-in-place flexible rubber sleeves with stainless steel clamps. Manholes shall be laid on a layer of crushed stone Type A, 3/4 inch (19 mm), meeting the gradation requirements listed above. The layer of bedding material for the manhole base shall be not less than six inches (150 mm) thick. Inverts may be cast of cement concrete or brick and mortar, and must be surfaced with cement or clay brick. Brick shall be laid in portland cement mortar composed of one part portland cement and two parts sand, measured by volume, to which not more than 10 pounds of lime shall be added for each bag of cement. Portland cement shall conform to ASTM Standard C150, Type II. Sand for the mortar shall be clean and sharp and contain no grains that will be retained on a mesh screen of 1/8 inch (3.125 mm). Backfill material shall consist of clean soil material and be free of large stones, frozen clumps of earth, masonry, stumps or any other deleterious materials. Backfill shall be uniformly placed, in six-inch layers around the structure and thoroughly compacted with hand tampers or mechanical equipment.
The appropriate permits must be obtained from the Town of Barnstable Board of Health before installation of the grease trap and building sewer connection is started. The installation of the grease traps or waste interceptors shall be inspected and accepted by the Town of Barnstable Board of Health prior to being backfilled by the contractor.
A waste interceptor or grease trap shall be installed for all facilities discharging other than domestic wastes, such as food handling/preparation facilities, laundromats, scientific/research facilities or facilities handling/storing petroleum products. Grease traps or waste interceptors shall be constructed of pre-cast reinforced concrete or other prefabricated materials acceptable to the Department of Public Works. All joints between pre-cast sections shall be sealed with bitumastic sealant or other method acceptable to the Department of Public Works. The grease trap or waste interceptor shall be installed on a separate discharge line serving that part of the plumbing system into which the grease or waste will be discharged before flowing to the building sewer. Grease traps and interceptors shall have a minimum depth of four feet (1.2 meters) and a minimum capacity of 1,000 gallons (3,750 liters). The waste interceptor or grease trap shall have sufficient capacity to provide at least a twenty-four-hour detention period. Grease traps and interceptors shall be located so as to be accessible for cleaning and servicing. Records pertaining to the cleaning shall be delivered to the Town of Barnstable Board of Health.
Building floor drains may be connected to the Town sewer system, provided that an appropriately designed and constructed oil/water separator is installed between the floor drain(s) and the sewer connection. The amount of oil in the discharge effluent from the oil/water separator shall not exceed 10 parts per million. A description of the proposed oil/water separator must be submitted to the Department of Public Works with the sewer connection application. The description submittal shall include a list of materials that will be stored or utilized in or adjacent to the area of the floor drain(s). Additional treatment requirements, protection or surety may be required by the Town, after review of the sewer connection application, on a case-by-case basis. The oil/water separator shall be inspected monthly and cleaned in accordance with the manufacturer's recommendations or when the level of waste oil is 25% of the effective depth or at least every three months, whichever comes first.
PVC pipe for force mains or low-pressure sewers shall be Schedule 40 or SDR 21. Ductile iron pipe shall conform to ANSI Standards A21.50 and A21.51, Thickness Class 52, and shall have either mechanical joint or a type of joint which employs a single, elongated, grooved rubber gasket. Rubber gaskets shall be oil-resistant, conforming to ANSI Standard A21.11. In-line flushing connections shall be installed at terminus of pressure lines. Distance between cleanout/flushing connections shall not exceed 600 feet (180 meters). Air-release valves shall be installed at each high point on a force or pressure sewer.
The building sewer connecting to a vacuum valve pit shall be constructed of Schedule 40 or SDR-21 PVC pipe. Pipe shall be connected to existing pipe stubs from the valve pit or buffer tank. The contractor shall field verify the invert elevation at each buffer tank or valve pit to be connected. Valve pits are provided with four-inch stubs and will require the use of four-inch by six-inch reducers for commercial connections. Reducers shall be located within two feet of the valve pit for proper connection. Gravity piping to the valve pit or buffer tank shall be installed with proper slope and bedding as specified in this document. Pipe joints shall be as specified under § 901-8, Pipe joints.
Only homes or apartments whose lower floor elevations are identical shall be connected to a common valve pit. Multiple-floor apartment complexes shall have each floor served by its own valve pit or shall be served by a buffer tank.
The Department of Public Works shall be notified a minimum of seven days prior to making the final connection to any valve pit or buffer tank. Connections shall be scheduled with the Department of Public Works to allow for the installation of the vacuum valves. Vacuum valves shall only be installed following the installation of the vent pipe but prior to final connection to the building. Valve installation shall be performed by the Town during the hours of 8:00 a.m. to 1:00 p.m., Monday through Thursday, excluding all holidays.
Force main piping shall be as specified under § 901-17, Force main and low-pressure sewers, and gravity piping shall be constructed of SDR-21 PVC pipe. A minimum of 20 feet of gravity piping shall be provided at two-percent slope prior to entering the valve pit or buffer tank. The vent pipe on the force main connection line may be optional at the discretion of the Department of Public Works if one or more additional gravity vents are installed on gravity lines servicing the same valve pit or buffer tank. Force main and low-pressure sewer systems may only connect to a vacuum sewer system after approval from the Department of Public Works. Any force main and low pressure sewer systems allowed to connect to a vacuum sewer system shall not pump to a rate greater than that listed on the following table.
With prior approval from the Department of Public Works, wastewater may be pumped up to a properly designed and constructed distribution box or sampling manhole prior to the valve pit or buffer tank and then connected to the valve pit or buffer tank by gravity as describe above. Flows shall not exceed those as shown on the table above. Distribution boxes and manholes shall be constructed of pre-cast reinforced concrete or other prefabricated materials acceptable to the Department of Public Works. A description of the proposed distribution box connection must be submitted to the Department of Public works with the sewer connection application.
Pumps shall be either factory preassembled grinder pump(s) or nonclog centrifugal pump(s) capable of passing four-inch (100 mm) solids, appropriately sized for required capacity at design head. The pre-engineered pump station shall consist of either submersible pump(s) within a wet well or dry pit pump(s) housed separately from the wet well. Either shall have appropriate level controls within the wet well. A separate electrical control panel, with warning alarms connected from the wet well level controls shall be contained within a watertight enclosure or be located within a building. A red flashing alarm light shall be located on the exterior of the building at a location visible from the street. The pre-engineered pump station shall have a check valve and a gate valve along the discharge pipe, located outside the wet well and contained within a pre-cast pit for accessibility and servicing. Single-family residential sewer connections may be served by a simplex pump installation; all commercial or industrial sewer connections and multiple residential sewer connections shall install a duplex pump system.
Manholes shall be topped with a cast-iron frame and cover. Manhole frames and covers shall be marked "SEWER." Frames and covers shall be of tough, gray cast iron conforming to ASTM Standard A48, Class 30. Cast-iron frames and covers shall be set in full mortar beds true to line and grade. Cement concrete collars shall be placed around the castings after the final setting.
Adjustments to grade shall be accomplished by the use of a stackable frame riser ring. Frame and cover adjustments may not be obtained by brick and mortar under the flange of the casting.
No direct sewer connections or repairs shall be made to a vacuum sewer, except by written permission of the Department of Public Works. All proposed connections to a vacuum sewer shall be accompanied by a written request from the owner, and/or contractor, clearly identifying the proposed flow to be connected, to allow the Town to determine the impact on system capacity and allow for proper sizing of required valve pit or buffer tank. Only following verification of sufficient available capacity of the vacuum system shall the DPW issue approvals for connection.
When a gravity sewer connection must be made into a sewer main, where a service connection is not available, the sewer connection shall be tied in using an appropriate tapping saddle or PVC wye. The tapping saddle shall be made of aluminum, stainless steel or other material acceptable to the Department of Public Works. The saddle shall be a wrap-around type with full-length internal gasket and multiple nut and bolt clamps. The sewer main shall be cleaned of all dirt and foreign matter and inspected for any scores, dents, pin-holes, small surface cracks or other injurious defects which may interfere with the proper installation or operation of the saddle. The saddle and tapping shall be installed according to the manufacturer's recommendations and in such a manner so as not allow any exfiltration of wastewater from the sewer main or infiltration of groundwater into the sewer main. The sewer main and service pipe shall be encased in concrete for a distance of 12 inches beyond the tapping saddle.
For installation of a PVC wye tie-in, a suitable length of sewer main shall be cut out using a saw with a high speed rotating cutting blade. The sewer main pipe ends shall be wiped clean with a clean cloth. All rough edges and burrs shall be removed or smoothed. Any foreign material shall be removed from the sewer main prior to installation of the tie-in wye assembly.
The sewer main tie-in assembly shall consist of an appropriately sized PVC wye, two short lengths of PVC transition pipe with spigot ends, and two PVC repair couplings (for PVC sewer main tie-ins) or two flexible couplings (for tie-ins to vitrified clay, AC transite, steel or other types of sewer main pipe).
All couplings, pipe, wyes and other materials shall be examined, prior to installation, and shall be clean and free of any injurious defects. The PVC wye and repair coupling gaskets shall be free of any cuts, slices, abrasions or other defects which could interfere with a proper fit of all pieces. The flexible coupling gaskets shall be free of any cuts, slices, abrasions or other defects. The flexible coupling body shall be free of any cracks, inclusions, dents or other defects. The threads on the flexible coupling bolts and collar shall be free of cracks, burrs, rust or other defects which could interfere with the proper fit and function of the coupling and tie-in assembly.
The tie-in assembly shall be installed and shall not allow any exfiltration of wastewater from the sewer main or infiltration of groundwater into the sewer main.
When the building sewer connection or other appurtenant structures may be subject to vehicular traffic, the system should be designed and constructed to withstand H-20 wheel loads.
During the construction project, soil erosion can be a major contributing factor to environmental pollution. In order to minimize the effect of sedimentation, washouts, etc., during construction activity, erosion control devices may need to be installed for the duration of the construction.
The form and design of the controls will vary with the type of area that is to be protected and the anticipated cause of the environmental degradation. In most situations the type and location of controls can be determined during the design phase; however, field conditions may require a reevaluation of the controls needed during construction.
Erosion control methods must be submitted to the Department of Public Works for review and approval.
Gravity sewers may not be available to service a basement or other below-ground area. In such situations the sanitary sewage shall be lifted, by a pumping system or other approved means, and discharged to the building sewer. Before design is begun the Department of Public Works should be contacted to determine the availability of service for below-grade connections.
The preceding standards are based on known and accepted engineering practice and theory. The Town of Barnstable Department of Public Works will give reasonable consideration and review of alternate designs or technologies, which may be available, that transport and discharge sanitary sewage to a municipal sewer system and treatment facility.