Township of Ross, PA
Allegheny County
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Table of Contents
Table of Contents

§ 18-401 Sanitary Sewers.

[Ord. 1223, 6/9/1975, § II; as amended by Ord. 1437, 3/28/1983, § I; and by Ord. 2288, 4/12/2010]
1. 
From and after the effective date of this Part all sanitary sewers constructed in the Township of Ross shall be constructed in accordance with the specifications for sanitary sewers construction, as more fully set forth in § 18-402 hereof, as the same may be amended by resolution from time to time by the Board of Commissioners of the Township of Ross. The standards of construction for sanitary sewers as herein set forth are intended to apply to those sanitary sewers which will be or become Township maintained sanitary sewers.
2. 
From and after the effective date of this Part, sanitary sewers to be constructed in the Township of Ross may be constructed of poly-vinyl-chloride (PVC) Pipe in accordance with specifications on file in the office of the Ross Township Building Code Official.

§ 18-402 Storm Sewer Installation.

[Ord. 1223, 6/9/1975]
1. 
Trench and bed for rigid and flexible pipe.
A. 
General. The trench shall have a width specified as follows:
Specified Trench Width*
Pipe Size Inside Diameter
Concrete Pipe
Metal Pipe
48 inches and less
Outside diameter of pipe measured at the bell, plus 1.0 foot on each side of the pipe.
Outside diameter of pipe, measured at the end of the pipe section without band, plus 1.0 foot on each side of the pipe
Over 48 inches
Outside diameter of pipe, measured at the bell, plus 1.25 feet on each side of the pipe.
Outside diameter of pipe, measured at the end of the pipe section without band, plus 1.25 feet on each side of the pipe
NOTES:
* Specified trench widths may be increased by a tolerance one foot on each side of the trench.
When rock, hard, shale, or any unyielding material is encountered in the trench, it shall be excavated for the full width of the trench below the proposed elevation of the bottom of the pipe for a depth of 1/4 inch per foot of fill over the pipe to a minimum depth of 12 inches and a maximum of 24 inches. The trench below the elevation of the bottom of the pipe shall be backfilled with selected fine compressible material and lightly compacted in four-inch layers, or when directed, with coarse aggregate meeting the requirements of § 18-402, Subsection 4B(3). The bed shall be shaped as specified in § 18-402, Subsection 2A, B, or C, for rigid pipe and § 18-402, Subsection 2C, for flexible pipe.
When the material encountered is unstable, it shall be entirely removed under the pipe for the full width of the trench or as otherwise required for the particular condition, replaced with suitable material compacted to a satisfactory density, and the bed shaped as specified in § 18-402, Subsection 2A, B, or C.
B. 
The trench shall be excavated through natural ground or as specified herein.
(1) 
Where pipe structures with an inside diameter of less than eight feet are to be placed under embankment, the contractor shall, unless otherwise directed by the Engineer, complete the construction of the embankment to a minimum of four feet, where practicable, above the top of the pipe before placing. Shallow installations, with less than four feet of cover over the top of the pipe, shall be constructed after all heavy hauling is completed over the pipe location. Where running water is encountered and cannot be diverted, a temporary pipe or structure shall be placed prior to constructing the embankment.
(2) 
Where pipe structures with an inside diameter of eight feet or more are to be placed under embankment, the contractor will not be required to construct the embankment, and trench, prior to placing the pipe.
2. 
Bedding Classification. Pipe shall be bedded in accordance with the class of bedding directed by the Engineer:
A. 
Class A Bedding. The pipe shall be bedded in a continuous cradle consisting of Class B concrete (or better), reinforced when directed, placed under and around the pipe, having a thickness under the pipe of one-quarter inside diameter but in no case less than four inches, and extending up each side of the pipe for a depth of 25% of the outside diameter. The cradle width shall be the outside diameter of the pipe plus four inches on each side.
B. 
Class B Bedding. The trench shall be shaped approximately to the curvature of the outside surface of the pipe to a minimum depth of 30% of the outside diameter plus four inches. A fine aggregate bedding not less than four inches thick shall be placed thereon and accurately shaped by means of a template to provide a uniform contact under the pipe. The fine aggregate for use in Class B Bedding shall meet the requirements of § 703.1(b) or § 703.2 of the PennDOT From 408.
C. 
Class C Bedding. The pipe shall be bedded with care in soil foundation shaped to fit the pipe exterior to a minimum depth of 15% of the outside diameter.
3. 
Laying Rigid and Flexible Pipe.
A. 
All pipe, unless otherwise permitted, shall be placed at least two weeks prior to placing the base course or pavement. No pipe shall be placed unless a suitable outlet is provided. Pipe laying shall begin at the downstream end. The pipes shall be laid carefully in the bedding, bells, or grooves up grade in shaped recesses when required, spigot ends fully entered into the hubs, and true to the lines and grades staked. Batter boards shall be placed at intervals of not over 25 feet, to eliminate sag in the line used in making the installation.
B. 
In lieu of using batter boards, the contractor may use a laser beam system for controlling the pipe alignment.
C. 
The grade line shall be cambered if directed to offset anticipated settlement due to height of embankment and type of bedding used.
D. 
The minimum cover over the pipe, under subgrade elevation, shall be three inches for cast iron pipe, and six inches for all other types of pipe, unless otherwise indicated or directed.
E. 
All pipe shall be laid with mortared joints, except the interlocking style and pipe joined with bands. Before the succeeding sections of pipe are placed, the lower 1/2 of the joint shall be plastered with cement mortar meeting the requirements of § 705.8(a) of the PennDOT Form 408 to bring the inner surface of the abutting pipe flush and even. Before placing mortar the pipe shall be wetted with as much water as it will readily absorb. The outside of the joint of bell and spigot pipe shall be filled with the plastic mortar flush with the end of the bell. The joint of tongue and groove pipe shall be filled flush with the outside surface of the pipe. On the inside of the pipe, the lower half of the joint shall be filled flush with mortar, wiped clean, and finished smoothly for all sizes of pipe; but for twenty-four-inch diameters and over, the joints shall be filled flush with mortar for the entire inside periphery, and finished smoothly in the same manner. Voids for lift holes shall be filled with mortar after the pipe is placed.
F. 
Backfilling may proceed immediately after the joints are mortared as long as the operation avoids damage to the joint, maintains the pipe in the proper alignment and grade, and provides satisfactory curing conditions for the mortar.
G. 
When permitted by the Engineer, either a preformed joint or a caulking compound of an approved type may be used to join sections of the pipe in lieu of cement mortar.
H. 
When pipes are protected by endwalls, or connected with drainage structures, the exposed ends of the pipe shall be placed as directed by the Engineer, or cut off flush with the face of the structure. Where pipe culverts are constructed in conjunction with existing drainage structures, provision shall be made for satisfactory connections.
4. 
Backfilling of Trench and Placing Embankment.
A. 
After the pipe is laid and approved, the trench shall be backfilled with coarse aggregate meeting the requirements of § 350.2 of the PennDOT Form 408 to a height of not less than one foot above the top of the pipe. The remaining height shall be backfilled with suitable material. All pipe backfill material shall be placed in four-inch layers, except eight-inch layers will be permitted when approved vibratory compaction equipment is used and in those areas accessible to the equipment and provided the backfill material is suitable for testing for compaction. When coarse aggregate is not specified the entire trench shall be backfilled with suitable material. Pipe with an inside diameter of eight feet or more shall be backfilled simultaneously with the construction of the embankment and as specified herein, and the limits for coarse aggregate shall be the same as for the trench condition. All backfilling shall be thoroughly compacted with mechanical tampers or other approved methods to a density satisfactory to the engineer.
B. 
Rigid Pipe. The embankment over rigid pipe shall not exceed the heights in the following table for the ultimate strength of the pipe, the class of bedding, and method of backfilling.
Ultimate Strength of Pipe
Case 1, Maximum Embankment in Feet
Case 2, Maximum Embankment in Feet Imperfect Trench
Class of Bedding
Class of Bedding
Pipe Class D Load*
A
B
C
A
B
C
Class I**
1,200D
Class II**
1,500D
Class III
2,000D
25
15
13
121
44
33
Class IV
3,000D
40
23
18
142
69
53
Class V
3,750D
47
29
24
180
87
67
4,000D***
NOTES:
* Ultimate strength of pipe per linear foot when tested by three edge bearing method, where D is the nominal inside diameter of pipe in feet.
** Class I and II shall be used only for special designs.
*** 4,000 D Cast-Iron Pipe shall be used when cover is shallow and high impact and concentrated loading are involved.
(1) 
When the depth of material over rigid pipe is equal to or less than that given in Case 1, the trench shall be backfilled and the embankment shall be constructed as specified in § 206 of the PennDOT Form 408.
(2) 
Imperfect Trench. When the height of material over a rigid pipe exceeds the maximum as given in Case 1 but is equal to or less than the maximum height as given in Case 2 of the table, an imperfect trench shall be constructed. The pipe culvert shall first be installed in accordance with the requirements for Class A, B, or C bedding. The trench shall be backfilled in accordance with the requirements of § 18-402, Subsection 4A, and the embankment over the culvert shall be constructed in accordance with § 206 of the PennDOT Form 408, to an elevation equal to the outside diameter of the pipe plus one foot above the top of the pipe. Next, a trench equal in width to the outside diameter of the pipe shall be dug in the fill directly over the culvert, down to an elevation of one foot above the top of the pipe. Care shall be taken to keep the sides of this trench as nearly vertical as possible. After the trench is excavated, it shall be refilled with loose, highly compressible earth or other approved material. After the trench is backfilled, the embankment shall be placed and compacted in accordance with § 206 of the PennDOT Form 408.
(3) 
Rigid Pipes Placed Through Structures other than Endwalls and Dry Masonry Walls. Where rigid pipe are placed through structures other than endwalls and dry masonry walls, they shall be wrapped with two layers of two-ply bituminous paper over the entire surface of the pipe so encased.
C. 
Materials. The aggregate shall be stone, gravel, or slag meeting the requirements of § 703.3 of the PennDOT Form 408 for Type C, or better, No. 2A material. The size and gradation of the material shall be determined in accordance with PTM No. 619.
Approved granulated blast-furnace slag will be acceptable. Approved granulated blast-furnace slag is the glassy granular material formed when molten blast-furnace slag is rapidly quenched by immersion in water. Further, it is normally light gray or tan in color and it shall not weigh more than 90 pounds per cubic foot nor less than 55 pounds per cubic foot (dry rodded unit weight, PTM No. 609). The material shall be reasonably uniform and free from harmful amounts of clay, silt, vegetation or other substances determined to be deleterious. It shall have a maximum size of two inches and not more than 20% passing the No. 100 sieve.
A change in the source of material may be made only with the written permission of the Engineer. References given are to PennDOT Form 408, Published in 1973.

§ 18-403 Stormwater Drainage.

[Ord. 1223, 6/9/1975, §§ II-IV]
From and after the effective date of this Part, all stormwater drainage facilities constructed in the Township of Ross shall be constructed in accordance with the specifications for stormwater drainage facilities construction, as the same may be amended by resolution from time to time by the Board of Commissioners of the Township of Ross. The standards for construction for stormwater drainage facilities are intended to apply to those stormwater drainage facilities which will be or become Township maintained stormwater drainage facilities.