Part 1 BACKFLOW PREVENTION AND CROSS-CONNECTION CONTROL
Part 2 WELL CONSTRUCTION STANDARDS
[Ord. 2007-7, 5/9/2007; as amended by A.O.]
The Easton Suburban Water Authority Backflow Prevention by Containment and Cross-Connection Control Program revised April 2006, as may be updated and amended from time to time, is hereby adopted as though more fully set forth herein at length.
[Ord. 2012-7, 12/12/2012, § 1]
This Part shall be known and may be cited as the "Williams Township Well Construction Standards Ordinance."
[Ord. 2012-7, 12/12/2012, § 2]
The purpose of this Part is to ensure and protect the quality and suitability of individual water supply systems by requiring that a permit be obtained prior to the construction of individual water supply and semi-public water supply systems and wells (each capitalized term is defined below), production wells, test wells and monitoring wells; and to establish minimum construction standards for the location, installation, reconstruction, replacement, modification, reactivation or abandonment of these systems.
[Ord. 2012-7, 12/12/2012, § 3]
This Part applies to all individual water supply and semi-public water supply systems, as each of these terms is defined by this Part and all wells that have not been completed, or that are not in operation or are not in an operable condition at the time of the effective date of this Part. Additionally, this Part shall apply to all alterations (as defined herein) to an existing well. Public water systems (as defined by this Part) are exempt from this Part. This Part shall not apply to routine maintenance and/or minor repairs to keep an existing well in proper working order.
[Ord. 2012-7, 12/12/2012, § 4]
The following words and terms when used in this Part shall have the following meaning unless the context specifically and clearly indicates otherwise:
- ABANDONED SUPPLY
- A supply, the regular use of which has been discontinued for a period of one year or more, or which is in such a state of disrepair that continued use for the purpose of obtaining groundwater is impracticable, or which has been replaced by a new well or public water supply.
- Any action which necessitates entering a well with drilling tools; treating a well to increase yield, altering the physical structure or depth of the well; blasting; removal or replacement of well casing.
- ANNULAR SPACE
- The space between two cylindrical objects, one of which surrounds the other, such as the space between a drill hole and a casing pipe and a liner pipe.
- American National Standards Institute.
- American Petroleum Institute.
- A geological formation that contains and transmits water.
- American Society for Testing Materials.
- American Water Works Association.
- BACK SIPHONAGE
- The flowing back of used, contaminated or polluted water from a plumbing fixture or vessel or other sources into a potable water supply pipe due to negative pressure in such pipe.
- An impervious durable pipe placed in a well to prevent the walls from caving and to seal off surface drainage or undesirable water, gas or other fluids and prevent their entering the well.
- All of the aerobic and facultative anaerobic, gram negative, non-spore forming, rod-shaped bacteria which are capable of fermenting lactose with gas formation within 48 hours at 35° C.
- COMMUNITY WATER SYSTEM
- A water system which serves at least 15 service connections used by year round residents or regularly serves at least twenty-five year round residents.
- CONSTRUCTION OF WELLS
- All acts necessary to obtain groundwater, or artificially recharge groundwater. Provided, however, such term does not include an excavation made for the purpose of obtaining or prospecting for oil, natural gas, minerals, or products of mining or quarrying, or for inserting media to repressure oil or natural gas formations or for storing petroleum, natural gas or other products and services. Construction of wells includes the location and excavation or drilling of the well, but excludes the installation of pumps and pumping equipment.
- Any individual, partnership, company, association, corporation, group or entity employed, hired, contracted or otherwise engaged by the owner to perform defined services for compensation, including but not limited to a well driller.
- An arrangement allowing either direct or indirect connection through which backflow, including back siphonage, can occur between the drinking water in a public water system and a system containing a potential source of contamination.
- Pennsylvania Department of Environmental Protection.
- FLOWING WELL
- A well that yields water by artesian pressure at the ground surface.
- Water within the earth below the water table within the zone of satisfaction. Groundwater includes both water under water table conditions and confined within deep aquifers.
- A permanent watertight joint or connection made by filling with concrete, neat cement or bentonite material between the casing and the undisturbed formation surrounding the well or between two strings of casing. Grouting materials shall conform to AWWA standards, as the same may be amended from time to time.
- INDIVIDUAL WATER SUPPLY
- A system including wells, pumps, and piping equipment, which supplies water to a private home.
- INSTALLATION OF PUMPS AND PUMPING EQUIPMENT
- The procedure employed in the placement and preparation for operation of pumps and pumping equipment, including all construction involved in making entrance to the well and establishing seals but not including repairs to existing installations.
- National Sanitation Foundation.
- NON-COMMUNITY WATER SYSTEMS
- A public water system which is not a community water system.
- Any person responsible for a subject property, including but not limited to the record owner, a tenant and any other person vested with sole or partial, legal or equitable ownership of property located in the Township.
- Any individual, public or private corporation for profit or not for profit, association, partnership, firm, trust, estate, department, board, bureau or agency of the Commonwealth or the Federal government, political subdivision, municipality, district, authority or any other legal entity whatsoever which is recognized by law.
- PITLESS ADAPTOR
- A device or assembly of parts which will permit water to pass through the wall of the well casing or extension thereof, and which provides access to the well and to the parts of the water system within the well in a manner to prevent entrance of pollution into the well and the water produced.
- PUBLIC WATER SYSTEM
- As defined by the Pennsylvania Safe Drinking Water Act (35 P.S. § 721.1 et. seq.), a system which provides water to the public for human consumption which has at least 15 service connections or regularly serves an average of at least 25 individuals daily at least 60 days out of the year. The term is either a community or non-community system and includes collection, treatment, storage and distribution facilities under the control of the operator of the system and used in connection with the system. The term also includes a system which provides water for bottling or bulk hauling for human consumption.
- SEMI-PUBLIC WATER SUPPLY
- A water supply which services one or several facilities such as industrial or commercial establishments, parks, camps, hotels, motels, schools, institutions, eating and drinking establishments or a water supply which services two or more dwelling units and is not a public water system.
- Williams Township, Northampton County, Commonwealth of Pennsylvania.
- Any excavation that is drilled, cored, bored, washed, driven, dug, jetted or otherwise constructed when the intended use of such excavation is for the location, acquisition or artificial recharge of groundwater or as a geothermal well. This includes but is not limited to test wells, test borings and monitoring wells, in addition to wells to be utilized as individual water supplies or semi-public water supplies.
- WELL DRILLER
- An individual or company that is permitted or licensed by the Commonwealth of Pennsylvania to drill wells in Pennsylvania.
- WELL SEAL
- An approved device or method used to protect a well casing or water system from the entrance of any external pollutant at the point of entrance into the casing of a pipe, electric conduit or water level measuring device.
- WELL TAG
- A metal marking device supplied by the Township for installation on the well seal or well cap for every new or reconstructed water well, or geothermal well.
[Ord. 2012-7, 12/12/2012, § 5]
The owner of the property on which a well for domestic water use is to be utilized shall:
Prior to construction of a well or undertaking any alteration to a well, apply to the Township for a well installation permit, providing, on the prescribed form: name and address of applicant, name and address of owner of the land where the well is to be drilled, name and address and license number of the well driller, site location and address of the property where the well is to be drilled and proposed date for drilling to begin. A site plan (sketch) drawn to scale showing the location and identification of existing or proposed buildings, structures, improvements, driveways, septic systems, and other wells within 100 feet of the proposed well must be attached to the application. The site plan need not be prepared by an engineer or surveyor so long as it is prepared to scale. At the time the application is presented to the Township for review, the applicant shall pay the application fee as established by resolution of the Township from time to time. In no case will the application be accepted for review prior to payment of the applicable fee.
Have all wells constructed by a qualified Pennsylvania licensed well driller to meet, at a minimum, the rules and regulations of this Part and any administrative agency of the Commonwealth of Pennsylvania.
Submit any relevant information or data concerning the constructed well to the Township, including a signed well completion report and a copy of well water test results obtained from the well driller to permit the Township to determine whether construction of the well complied with the requirements of this Part.
[Ord. 2012-7, 12/12/2012, § 6]
The source of supply shall be from a water bearing formation drawn not less than 35 feet from the ground surface. Wells shall be located at a point free from flooding, at a higher elevation and at the following minimum setback distances to existing or potential sources of pollution.
[Ord. 2012-7, 12/12/2012, § 7]
All wells supplying an individual water supply or semi-public water supply shall be equipped with watertight and durable casing of wrought iron, steel or plastic (PVC) with a minimum wall thickness of 0.1875 for iron and 0.175 for PVC (Schedule 80) or such other thickness as may be established from time to time by AWWA Standard A100.
The sections of casing shall be joined together by threaded couplings or joints, welding or other watertight approved method. The casing shall be carried to a minimum depth of 40 feet and meet competent bedrock then extended an additional 10 feet into firm bedrock or other impervious strata and grouted in place. Casing and grouting must be compatible. Pressure grouting is required for all wells by running tremie pipe to the bottom of and along the casing. Cement concrete or bentonite are required for use in grouting. Casing shall extend at least eight inches above ground surface. The borehole shall be at least three inches larger than the outside diameter of the casing to allow for grout.
In areas known to be contaminated, the minimum depth for casing shall be 40 feet the criteria established in AWWA Standards A100-84, as the same may be amended from time to time, must be followed.
Well Depth. The minimum drilled depth for any water well is 80 feet from surface of the ground.
Ferrous Casing. Ferrous casing shall be new pipe meeting ASTM or API Specifications for water well construction. It shall be equipped with a drive shoe or other effective casing seal and have full circumference welds or threaded pipe joints.
Non-Ferrous Casing. Non-ferrous casing shall meet appropriate ANSI, ASTM or NSF Standards for water well casing applications. It shall not be driven.
An annular space shall be provided between the well casing and the earth formation. It shall be completely filled with grout in one continuous operation under pressure from the bottom of the casing to the natural ground surface within 24 hours of completion of drilling. No activity in and around the well is permitted to occur within 48 hours after grouting of the casing, or within two hours if using bentonite.
All obstructions must be completely cleared prior to placement of grout material. The casing shall be sealed by grouting to a minimum of 15 feet each above and below the polluted or undesirable water-bearing zone.
During the installation of a pitless adaptor, grout material may be removed from the exterior of the casing in order to provide a watertight seal between the casing and this adaptor. For such an adaptor, a ditch at least three feet deep will be required along with conduits, stone, dust or sand. A sanitary well cap shall be incorporated for protection from leakage and identification of the well.
Packer. Packers when used shall be of material that will not adversely impact taste or odor or introduce toxic substances or bacterial contamination into the well water.
Gravel Packs. Gravel packs when used shall be 95% siliceous material and placed in uniform continuous operation. Refill pipes shall be Schedule 40 steel. The annular opening shall be surrounded by a minimum of 1 1/2 inches of grout. Protection from leakage shall be guaranteed by the contractor.
Pits. Pit installations are not permitted.
Pitless installations are those where the casing terminates above the ground surface. Where used, they shall be effectively sealed. All buried suction lines shall be encased. The access casing shall be protected against corrosion and shall extend at least eight inches above the natural ground surface and to a point below the frost line. This area shall be designed for blockage of water, insects and rodents.
Pitless adaptors cannot be installed with torch or flame, but must be installed using hole saw or drill.
Well Screens. Well screens shall provide maximum amount of open area while still maintaining structural strength. They shall have the size of openings based on a sieve analysis to preclude entry by sand, silt and other undesirable elements.
Well Cap. Install a secure, screened, varmint free well cap on all wells to prevent any surface pollutants from entering the well or any vandalism to the well or aquifer. In the event of a flowing well, the well cap must stop overflow from the well.
Well Tag. An identification tag must be permanently attached to each new or reconstructed water well or each geothermal well. These tags will be issued by the Township after the completion report and well analysis required by this Part are delivered to the Township and demonstrate compliance with the terms hereof.
Venting. Where venting is required, an overlapping cover or pipe with an opening facing downward shall be required. In no case shall openings be less than 12 inches from the ground.
Monitoring Wells. Monitoring wells shall be designed such as to minimize potential contamination of the aquifer and to maximize the information obtained from each such well.
Heat Pumps. Heat pump (geothermal) installations shall be designed and constructed to provide an effective watertight seal with the well casing or water storage reservoir and to prevent contamination from reaching the water chamber or interior pump surfaces. In closed loop systems, holes must be grouted from bottom to top with cement or bentonite. Open loop systems must conform to same requirements as water well.
Power Pump Installations. The base installed directly over a well casing or pipe sleeve shall be designed to provide an effective watertight seal. It shall be located in a flood-free area. Power pumps shall not be placed in pits. The pump and related equipment shall permit convenient access, removal, maintenance and repair. The suction opening shall be placed at least two feet below the maximum drawdown of the water in the well. However, it shall be located at a sufficient distance from the bottom of the well so as to prevent agitation of accumulated sediment.
Disinfection. Following completion of construction, the well shall be pumped continuously until the water discharge is clear. It shall be filled with water containing concentration of not less than 100 parts per million of free chlorine. A portion of this solution shall be recirculated directly to the well in order to insure proper agitation. The water shall not be used for a period of 24 hours to allow sufficient contact time to disinfect the system. Other combinations of water/chlorine concentration and time interval may be used if demonstrated equally effective to the satisfaction of the Township's dully appointed representative. Disposal of the purged water shall be at a point so as to minimize adverse effects to aquatic life and in no way directed into any subsurface sewage disposal system. One ounce of dry calcium hypochlorite dissolved in 52.5 gallons of water makes the proper strength disinfectant solution.
If pump and piping is not installed by the well driller, the owner and its contractor are responsible for proper installation of check valves and backflow protection. Backflow protectors must be incorporated into the system and be used as needed for each outside water hose connectors. At least two check valves must be incorporated into each water system that derives water from a well.
A cross-connection prevention assembly shall be provided. For semi-public water supplies, this device is required to be installed at any fixed potable water outlet to which a hose may be connected.
Well Analysis. After well disinfection, the owner or its representative shall collect and have water samples analyzed for pH, total solids, iron, nitrate-nitrogen, and coliform bacteria. The owner or its representative shall utilize the appropriate means and methods for sampling and stabilization, and obtain sample analysis from a certified lab. One copy of the analysis results shall be provided to the owner of the well and one copy provided to the Township. If the well analysis demonstrates that the water samples comply with this Part and the completion report addressed in Subsection 20 of this section has been submitted and accepted, the Township shall issue the well tag and the owner or contractor shall affix the well tag to the well.
Completion Report. The owner or its representative shall submit one copy of DCNR's water well completion report form 8700-FM-TG-5001S, as may be amended, to the Township for review and approval. In addition, distribute the remaining copies of this form as directed including one copy to the owner. In the case of geothermal wells, a report must be filed indicating the well was constructed in accordance with this Part.
[Ord. 2012-7, 12/12/2012, § 8]
A permit is required for any existing well that is to be abandoned. At the time the application is presented to the Township for review, the applicant shall pay the application fee as established by resolution of the Township from time to time. Drilled wells shall be filled and sealed by cement, concrete or bentonite grout. Hand dug wells shall be filled with clean stone to within 10 feet of the top of the well, then concrete shall be placed to within two feet of ground level. The top two feet may be covered with topsoil.
Dry wells being abandoned must be filled with clean stone and the top 18 feet filled with cement or bentonite; however, the top two feet may be covered with topsoil.
After the well has been filled as required by this section, the contractor shall submit all relevant information or data concerning the abandonment to the Township for review and approval by the Township.
[Ord. 2012-7, 12/12/2012, § 9]
[Ord. 2012-7, 12/12/2012, § 10; as amended by A.O.]
Any person, firm or corporation who shall violate any provision of this Part, upon conviction thereof in an action brought before a magisterial district judge in the manner provided for the enforcement of summary offenses under the Pennsylvania Rules of Criminal Procedure, shall be sentenced to pay a fine of not more than $1,000 plus costs and, in default of payment of said fine and costs, to a term of imprisonment not to exceed 90 days. The Township Solicitor's office may assume charge of the prosecution without the consent of the District Attorney as required under the applicable Pennsylvania Rules of Criminal Procedure relating to trial in summary cases. All fines and penalties collected for any violation of this Part shall be paid to the Township and delivered to the Township Treasurer for deposit. Each day that a violation of this Part continues or each section of this Part which shall be found to have been violated shall constitute a separate offense.
Upon discovery of any violation of this Part, the Township may, in its sole and absolute discretion, forego any prosecution hereunder, and may grant to the owner a period of seven calendar days to comply with the provisions of this Part. Upon failure of the owner to effect such compliance, the Township may initiate prosecution as hereinabove set forth.
[Ord. 2012-7, 12/12/2012, § 11]
In addition to any other remedies provided in this Part, any violation of this Part shall constitute a public nuisance. The Township shall have the authority to order any person causing a public nuisance to abate the public nuisance. In the event that the person fails to abate the public nuisance, the Township shall have the authority to enter upon the property and abate the public nuisance or to institute a suit or suits in law or in equity to restrain or prevent violations of this Part, including but not limited to seeking a preliminary injunction under the applicable provisions of the Pennsylvania Sewage Facilities Act, or by seeking other legal relief from a court of competent jurisdiction. The Township shall be entitled to recover the expenses of abatement and all reasonable attorneys' fees.
[Ord. 2012-7, 12/12/2012, § 12]
Approval of any application and issuance of a permit for construction of a well shall not constitute any guarantee or warranty by the Township regarding quantity or quality of water that may be obtained as a result of any well drilled under the permit. The permit only provides the Township's approval to drill a well at the site shown on the application, and does not provide any other guarantees, approval, warranties, etc.
The Township, and its boards, committees and commissions, their elected and appointed officials and their employees, contractors and other professional consultants, engineers, solicitors, managers, representatives, advisors, predecessors, successors, agents, independent contractors, insurers and assigns shall not be liable or responsible for damages to any person or property caused by, resulting from, relating to or arising out of the issuance of any permit under this Part or by reason of the conduct of any activity undertaken pursuant to this Part.