City of Fredericksburg, VA
 
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[Amended 6-10-2014 by Ord. No. 14-23; 8-11-2015 by Ord. No. 15-19; 10-23-2018 by Ord. No. 18-16; 1-22-2019 by Ord. No. 19-02; 9-8-2020 by Ord. No. 20-19]
A. 
Purpose and intent. The purpose of this section is to ensure provision of off-street parking and loading facilities in proportion to the generalized parking, loading, and transportation demand of the different uses allowed by this chapter. The standards in this section are intended to provide for adequate off-street parking while allowing the flexibility needed to accommodate alternative solutions. The standards encourage pedestrian-oriented development in downtown and commercial centers, while avoiding excessive paved surface areas, promoting low-impact development, where appropriate, and safeguarding historic resources.
B. 
Applicability.
(1) 
General. These off-street parking and loading standards shall apply with respect to the use of land, buildings and structures within the City.
(2) 
Exemptions. The following activities are exempt from the requirements of § 72-53.1C, Off-street parking requirements:
(a) 
Re-striping an existing parking lot, which does not create a deficit in the number of required parking spaces, or other nonconformity with the requirements of this § 72-53.1;
(b) 
Rehabilitation or re-use of an historic building;
(c) 
A lot of record, vacant or otherwise, that existed on or before April 25, 1984, and has a residential zoning designation on the Zoning Map;
(d) 
On-street parking that directly abuts a lot may be credited once to the off-street parking requirements for the abutting lot. The Zoning Administrator shall maintain a record of all on-street parking spaces that have been credited towards any particular lot;
(e) 
Changes in use in the C-D and CM Zoning Districts shall be exempted from the requirement to provide additional on-site parking spaces beyond those that existed prior to the change in use; and
(f) 
The first 1,500 square feet of commercial uses that are in the C-D, CM, C-T, or Planned Development Zoning Districts, or where form-based code standards are applied and that have required parking based on square footage. This exemption shall not apply where a shared parking factor calculation is used.
C. 
Off-street parking requirements.
(1) 
Parking plan required. A parking plan shall be required in connection with every proposed development, for every proposed change in use of land, buildings or structures, and for every proposed alteration of a building or structure. The parking plan shall accurately designate the required parking spaces, access aisles, and driveways, and the relation of the off-street parking facilities to the development the facilities are designed to serve.
(2) 
Minimum number of spaces required. Unless otherwise expressly stated in this section or approved through an alternative parking plan, the minimum number of off-street parking spaces shall be provided in accordance with Table 72-53.1C(2), Minimum Off-Street Parking Standards.
Table 72-53.1C(2): Minimum Off-Street Parking Standards
Use Category
Use Type
Minimum Number of Parking Spaces
(sf = gross square feet of floor or use area)
Residential Use Classification
Household living
Dwelling, duplex
1.5 per DU
Dwelling, live/work
1 per DU
Dwelling, mobile home
2 per DU
Dwelling, multifamily
1.75 per DU; 1 per DU in C-D, CM, or Planned Development Zoning Districts or where form-based code standards are applied
Dwelling, single-family attached
1.75 per DU; 1.5 per DU in C-D, CM, or Planned Development Zoning Districts or where form-based code standards are applied
Dwelling, single-family detached
2 per DU; 1 per DU on infill lots
Dwelling, upper story
See Dwelling, multi-family
Group living
Convent or monastery
1 per every 500 sf
Dormitory
1 per every 2 resident beds
Fraternity or sorority
1 per resident bed
Group homes
1 per every 2 resident beds
Institutional housing
1 per every 3 beds
Institutional Use Classification
Community services
Art center and related facilities
1 per every 335 sf
Community center
1 per every 335 sf
Cultural facility
1 per every 335 sf
Library
1 per every 335 sf
Museum
1 per every 500 sf
Social service delivery
1 per every 335 sf
Day care
Adult day-care center
1 per every 300 sf
Child-care center
1 per every 325 sf
Educational facilities
College or university
1 per every 900 sf
School, elementary
10 + 1 per classroom
School, middle
10 + 1 per classroom
School, high school
1 per every 300 sf
Vocational or trade school
1 per every 300 sf
Government facilities
Courthouse
1 per every 6 seats in each courtroom
Government facility
1 per every 600 sf
Government office
1 per every 335 sf; 1 per every 500 sf in the C-D, CM, or Planned Development Zoning Districts
Post office
1 per every 250 sf
Health care facilities
Hospital
1 per every 3 inpatient beds
Medical laboratory
1 per every 400 sf
Medical treatment facility
1 per every 335 sf
Institutions
Assisted living facility
1 per every 3 patient beds
Auditorium, conference, and convention center
1 per every 400 sf
Club or lodge
1 per every 300 sf
Continuing care retirement community
1 per every 3 beds
Nursing home
1 per every 3 patient beds
Religious institution
1 per every 6 seats in worship area
Parks and open areas
Arboretum or botanical garden
See § 72-53.1C(5)
Community garden/gardening, noncommercial
See § 72-53.1C(5)
Community garden/gardening, commercial
See § 72-53.1C(5)
Cemetery, columbaria, mausoleum
See § 72-53.1C(5)
Park, playground, or plaza
See § 72-53.1C(5)
Public safety
Swimming pool, public or private
See § 72-53.1C(5)
Fire/EMS facility
See § 72-53.1C(5)
Police station
See § 72-53.1C(5)
Transportation
Airport
See § 72-53.1C(5)
Heliport
See § 72-53.1C(5)
Passenger terminal (surface transportation)
See § 72-53.1C(5)
Utilities
Data center
4 for the first 4,000 sf + 1 per every additional 6,000 sf
Small data center
1 per 1,000 sf
Solar array
None
Telecommunications facility, structure
None
Telecommunications facility, co-location
None
Telecommunications tower, freestanding
None
Utility, major
1 per every 1,500 sf
Utility, minor
None
Commercial Use Classification
Adult entertainment
1 per every 300 sf
Animal care
Animal grooming
1 per every 300 sf; 1 per every 335 sf in the C-D, CM, or Planned Development Zoning Districts
Animal shelter/kennel
1 per every 300 sf; 1 per every 335 sf in the C-D, CM, or Planned Development Zoning Districts
Veterinary clinic
1 per every 300 sf; 1 per every 335 sf in the C-D, CM, or Planned Development Zoning Districts
Eating establishments
Bakery
1 per every 240 sf
Restaurant, fast-food
1 per every 100 sf
Restaurant, with indoor or outdoor seating
1 per every 180 sf; no spaces required for outdoor seating
Specialty eating establishment
1 per every 240 sf
Microbrewery/taproom
1 per every 240 sf for food/beverage preparation and consumption area; 1 per every 1,000 sf for brewery operations area
Offices
Business and professional services
1 per every 335 sf; 1 per every 500 sf in the C-D, CM, or Planned Development Zoning Districts
Medical and dental
1 per every 300 sf; 1 per every 335 sf in the C-D, CM, or Planned Development Zoning Districts
Parking, commercial
Parking lot
None
Recreation, Indoor
Fitness center
1 per every 300 sf; 1 per every 335 sf in the C-D, CM, or Planned Development Zoning Districts
Theater
1 per every 4 seats
Arena or stadium
1 per every 4 seats
Recreation, Outdoor
Golf course
3 per hole
Marinas
1 per slip or mooring
Recreation, outdoor
See 72-53.1C(5)
Retail sales and services
Artist studio
1 per every 300 sf; 1 per every 335 sf in the C-D, CM, or Planned Development Zoning Districts
Auction house
1 per every 300 sf; 1 per every 335 sf in the C-D, CM, or Planned Development Zoning Districts
Convenience store (with gasoline sales)
1 per every 250 sf
Convenience store (without gasoline sales)
1 per every 250 sf
Crematorium
1 per 4 seats in main assembly room
Financial institution
1 per every 335 sf; 1 per every 500 sf in the C-D, CM, or Planned Development Zoning Districts
Funeral home
1 per 4 seats in main assembly room
Gasoline sales
1 per every 300 sf
Grocery store
<60,000 sf: 1 per every 300 sf; 1 per every 335 sf in the C-D, CM, or Planned Development Zoning Districts
60,000 sf to 100,000 sf: 1 per every 400 sf
>100,000 sf: 1 per every 450 sf
Historic dependency limited office retail
1 per every 335 sf; 1 per every 500 sf in the C-D, CM, or Planned Development Zoning Districts
Laundromat
1 per every 300 sf; 1 per every 335 sf in the C-D, CM, or Planned Development Zoning Districts
Lumber/building materials
1 per every 300 sf
Open-air market
See 72-53.1C(5)
Personal services establishment
1 per every 300 sf; 1 per every 335 sf in the C-D, CM, or Planned Development Zoning Districts
Pharmacy
1 per every 250 sf
Plant nursery
1 per every 500 sf
Repair establishment
1 per every 300 sf; 1 per every 335 sf in the C-D, CM, or Planned Development Zoning Districts
Retail sales establishments, including groups of 2 or more commercial uses
<60,000 sf: 1 per every 300 sf; 1 per every 335 sf in the C-D, CM, or Planned Development Zoning Districts
60,000 sf to 100,000 sf: 1 per every 400 sf
>100,000 sf: 1 per every 450 sf
Shopping center
See "retail sales establishments"
Tattoo parlor/body piercing establishment
1 per every 300 sf; 1 per every 335 sf in the C-D, CM, or Planned Development Zoning Districts
Seasonal events
All
See 72-53.1C(5)
Vehicle sales and service
Automobile sales or rentals
1 per every 500 sf of building area + 1 per every 5,000 sf of outdoor display area
Automobile towing and impoundment
1 per every 500 sf + storage area
Car wash
1 per every 500 sf
Visitor accommodations
Bed-and-breakfast inn
2 spaces + 1 per guest bedroom
Historic dependency lodging
1 per every guest room
Hotel or motel (including extended stay)
1 per every guest room
Industrial Use Classification
Industrial services
Contractor office
See 72-53.1C(5)
Equipment rental and sales
1 per every 400 sf
General industrial service/repair
1 per 1,500 sf
Research and development
1 per every 800 sf
Abattoir
See 72-53.1C(5)
Manufacturing and production
Manufacturing, heavy
1 per every 1,000 sf
Manufacturing, light
1 per every 1,000 sf
Bulk storage
1 per every 2,500 sf
Warehousing and storage
Outdoor storage (as a principal use)
See 72-53.1C(5)
Self-service storage
1 per every 100 units
Freight terminal
1 per every 2,000 sf
Warehouse (distribution)
1 per every 2,500 sf
Waste-related services
Incinerator
See 72-53.1C(5)
Recycling center
1 per every 500 sf
Wholesale sales
All uses
1 per every 1,000 sf
(3) 
Spaces meeting only the dimensional requirements for compact cars may be credited for compliance with up to 10% of the minimum number of parking space standards in this table. Spaces meeting only the dimensional requirements for motorcycles may be credited for compliance with up to 5% of the minimum number of parking space standards in this table.
(4) 
The Shared Parking Factor Table shall be applied to the number of parking spaces required by Table 72-53.1C(2) when at least two or more functions are present in a development in the C-D, CM, or Planned Development Zoning Districts or where form-based code standards are applied.
(a) 
A shared parking factor for two functions in a development is divided into the sum of the parking required for the two uses to produce the effective parking required.
(b) 
The lowest factor shall be used when there are three or more functions.
(c) 
Uses in the institutional and commercial use classifications in Table 72-53.1C(2), but not shown as functions in the Shared Parking Factor Table, shall be considered as a retail function.
(d) 
A shared parking factor shall not be applied when any one of the four functions constitutes more than 75% of square footage of a development.
(e) 
A shared parking factor shall not be applied when parking spaces are assigned to specific dwelling units or nonresidential uses.
(5) 
Uses with variable parking demand characteristics. Wherever Table 72-53.1C(2) includes a reference to this § 72-53.1C(5), the specified uses have widely varying parking and loading demand characteristics, making it difficult to establish a single off-street parking or loading standard. Upon receiving a development application for a use subject to this subsection, the Zoning Administrator is authorized to apply the off-street parking standard in the table that is deemed most similar to the use, or establish the off-street parking requirements by reference to standard parking resources published by the National Parking Association or the American Planning Association. Alternatively, the Zoning Administrator may require the applicant to submit a parking demand study that justifies estimates of parking demand based on the recommendations of the Institute of Traffic Engineers (ITE) and includes relevant data collected from uses or combinations of uses that are the same or comparable to the proposed use in terms of density, scale, bulk, area, type of activity, and location.
(6) 
Maximum number of spaces permitted. Commercial and industrial uses identified in Table 72-53.1C(2), Minimum Off-street Parking Standards, shall be limited in the maximum number of parking spaces that can be provided, in accordance with the following standards:
(a) 
Except as allowed in this subsection, commercial and industrial uses of 1,000 square feet in area or larger listed in Table 72-53.1C(2), Minimum Off-Street Parking Standards, shall not exceed 125% of the minimum number of parking spaces required in the table.
(b) 
Through approval of an alternative parking plan in accordance with § 72-53.3A, Provision over the maximum allowed, commercial and industrial uses over 1,000 square feet in area or larger may provide up to a maximum of 175% of the minimum number of parking spaces required in the table.
(c) 
Provision of more than 175% of the minimum number of parking spaces for commercial and industrial uses over 1,000 square feet in area shall require approval of a special exception in accordance with § 72-22.7, Special exceptions.
(7) 
Stacking spaces. In addition to meeting the off-street parking standards in Table 72-53.1C(2), Minimum Off-Street Parking Standards, uses with drive-through facilities and other auto-oriented uses where vehicles queue up to access a service shall provide the minimum number of stacking/standing spaces established in Table 72-53.1C(7), Required Stacking Spaces.
Figure 72-53.1C(7). Required Stacking Spaces
072-5 Fig 72-53.1C(5).tif
Table 72-53.1C(7): Required Stacking Spaces
Use or Activity
Minimum Number of Stacking Spaces
Measured From
Automated teller machine (drive-up)
2
Teller window
Automobile repair and service
2 per bay
Bay entrance
Car wash
1 per bay
Bay entrance
Day-care center, elementary, and middle school
2
Main building entrance
Financial institution or drug store with drive-through service
3 per lane
Agent window
Gasoline sales
1
Each end of the outermost gas pump island
Nursing home or assisted living facility
3
Building entrance
Personal services with drive-through (e.g., laundry/dry-cleaning establishment)
3 per lane
Agent window
Restaurant, with drive-through service
3 per order window + 3 per order board
D. 
Parking space computation.
(1) 
Fractions. When computation of the number of required parking spaces results in a fraction, the fraction shall be rounded up to the next whole number.
(2) 
Seat-based standards. Where the minimum number of off-street parking spaces is based on the number of seats, all computations shall be based on the design capacity of the areas used for seating. The applicant shall specify the anticipated maximum number of seats or maximum seating capacity for the proposed use and shall include calculations based on standards set forth in the Virginia Uniform Statewide Building Code, as may be applicable.
(3) 
Floor-area based standards. Where the minimum number of off-street parking spaces is based on gross square feet of floor area, the square footage shall not include outdoor display or use area.
(4) 
Driveways used to satisfy requirements. For single-family detached and duplex dwellings, driveways may be used to satisfy minimum off-street parking standards, provided sufficient space is available to satisfy the standards of this section and this chapter.
E. 
Configuration.
(1) 
General standards for off-street parking, stacking, and loading areas.
(a) 
Use of parking area, stacking area, or loading space. All vehicular parking spaces, stacking spaces, internal aisles and other circulation areas, and loading areas required by this section shall be referred to as "vehicular use area" and shall be used only for their intended purposes. Any other use, including, but not limited to, vehicular storage, vehicle sales, vehicular repair work, vehicle service, or display of any kind, is prohibited.
(b) 
Identified as to purpose and location. Except for single-family detached and duplex dwellings, off-street parking areas consisting of three or more parking spaces and off-street loading areas shall include painted lines, wheel stops, or other methods of identifying individual parking spaces and loading areas and distinguishing such spaces and areas from aisles or other vehicular use areas.
(c) 
Surfacing.
[1] 
Except for single-family detached and single-family attached dwellings, and duplexes, and as provided for in § 72-53.3F, Alternative materials, all off-street parking, loading, and circulation areas shall be surfaced with asphalt, concrete, brick, crushed stone (within floodplain areas), pavers, aligned concrete strips, or an equivalent material. These materials shall be maintained in a smooth, well-graded condition.
[2] 
Overflow parking, and parking for temporary, special and seasonal events may take place on grass surfaces.
(d) 
Arrangement.
[1] 
Convenient access.
[a] 
All off-street parking, loading, and circulation areas shall be arranged to facilitate access by and safety of both pedestrians and vehicles.
[b] 
Except for single-family detached and duplex dwellings, off-street parking areas shall be arranged so that no parking or maneuvering incidental to parking shall occur on a public street or sidewalk, and so that an automobile may be parked and unparked without moving another automobile (except as provided in § 72-53.3E, Valet and tandem parking).
[2] 
Backing onto streets prohibited. Except for parking areas serving single-family detached dwellings, all off-street parking, loading, and circulation areas shall be arranged so that no vehicle is required to back from such areas directly onto a public street. Vehicular access ways and vehicular use areas on private lands are not considered public streets.
[3] 
Easements. No off-street parking or loading area shall be located within an easement without the written consent of the person or agency that holds the easement, unless already provided for by an existing easement agreement.
(e) 
Drainage. All off-street parking, loading, and circulation areas shall be properly drained in accordance with the stormwater management standards referenced in § 72-54.3 of this chapter. Where existing parking, loading and circulation areas are altered, a revised stormwater management plan may be required. Nothing shall prevent planting islands from serving as stormwater management devices.
(f) 
Exterior lighting. When lighted, off-street parking, loading, and circulation areas shall be lighted so as to prevent glare or illumination exceeding maximum allowable levels on adjacent land (see Table 72-58.2D, Maximum Illumination Levels), and unless exempted, shall comply with the standards of § 72-58, Exterior lighting.
(g) 
Landscaping. Except for parking areas serving single-family detached and duplex dwellings, or other exempted uses, all off-street parking, loading, and circulation areas shall be landscaped to soften their visual impact on adjacent property in accordance with § 72-55.2, Vehicular use area landscaping.
(h) 
Curbs and motor vehicle stops. All off-street parking, loading, and circulation areas shall be designed to prevent vehicles from encroaching into:
[1] 
A sidewalk or walkway less than six feet wide; or
[2] 
Adjacent property.
(i) 
Maintained in good repair.
[1] 
Maintained at all times. All off-street vehicular use areas shall be maintained in good repair and in safe condition at all times.
[2] 
Periodically restored. After being established, all off-street parking, loading, and circulation areas shall be periodically painted or otherwise restored, whenever necessary to maintain a clear identification of separate parking spaces and loading spaces.
(j) 
Construction of off-street parking and loading areas. All off-street parking and loading areas shall be completed prior to issuance of a certificate of occupancy for the premises they serve. In the case of phased development, surface off-street parking, loading, and circulation areas need only be completed for the portion(s) of the development for which a site plan has been approved.
(2) 
Dimensional requirements.
(a) 
Except for single-family detached, duplex, and single-family attached dwellings, off-street parking spaces shall meet the following dimensional requirements or meet modified requirements per Subsection E(2)(b) below:
Table 72.53.1E(2)(a)
Dimensional Standards for Parking Spaces and Aisles
Stall width and length shall be measured from the face of the curb or the outer edge of lane striping
Aisle Width
Parking Angle
Space Width
(feet)
Space Length
(feet)
2-way with two parking rows
(feet)
2-way with one parking row
(feet)
1-way with any parking rows
(feet)
Parallel
8 (non-residential)
7 (residential)
22
20
18
12
45°
8.5
18
20
18
16
60°
20
18
18
90°
24
22
18
Table 72-53.1E(2)(b)
Dimensional Standards for Other Parking Lot Features
Feature
Width
(feet)
Length/Depth
(feet)
Other
Aisles: two-way with no parking rows
20
NA
Aisles: one-way with no parking rows
12
NA
Compact car spaces
8
16
Must be clearly marked "compact cars only"
Motorcycle spaces
4
8
Must be clearly marked "motorcycles only"
(b) 
The Fire Marshal may require greater aisle width for compliance with the Virginia Fire Prevention Code. In addition, the Zoning Administrator may approve reduced parking aisle widths upon approval of an auto-turn diagram provided by the applicant, which demonstrates that vehicles can safely navigate the proposed vehicular use area.
(3) 
Accessible parking spaces for physically disabled persons shall be provided in accord with the most-recent version of the Virginia Construction Code, Section 116.
(4) 
Location. Off-street parking spaces in the nonresidential and mixed-use districts may be located within required yards, provided:
(a) 
All spaces shall be setback at least 10 feet from any front lot line;
(b) 
All spaces shall be setback at least five feet from any side or rear lot line; and
(c) 
These requirements may be reduced by the Zoning Administrator, as needed, on an infill lot in recognition of existing lot sizes or site configuration on developed adjacent lots.
F. 
Loading spaces.
(1) 
Number of required off-street loading berths. The following uses shall provide on-site loading areas or berths in accordance with the standards in Table 72-53.1F(1), Required Off-Street Loading Berths.
Table 72-53.1F(1): Required Off-Street Loading Berths
Use or Activity
Gross Floor Area
(GFA)
Minimum Number of Loading Berths
Eating establishments
> 10,000 sf
1 + 1 for every additional 25,000 sf of GFA
Retail, office, service, supply and light industrial uses
> 10,000 sf
1 + 1 for every additional 20,000 sf of GFA
Manufacturing, heavy industrial, warehousing, and heavy equipment establishments
> 5,000 sf
1+ 1 per every additional 30,000 sf of GFA
(2) 
Standards.
(a) 
Minimum dimensions. Each loading space required by this subsection shall be at least 15 feet wide by 25 feet long (or deep), with at least 15 feet of overhead clearance. Each off-street loading space shall have adequate, unobstructed means for the ingress and egress of vehicles.
(b) 
Location. Where reasonably practical, loading areas:
[1] 
Shall be located to the rear of the use they serve;
[2] 
Shall be located adjacent to the buildings' loading doors, in an area that promotes their practical use;
[3] 
Shall not be located within a front yard area;
[4] 
Shall not be located within 40 feet of the nearest point of a public street intersection serving the loading approach;
[5] 
Shall not be located within 60 feet of a residential zoning district; and
[6] 
In the C-D and CM Zoning Districts, loading berths may be located in the public right-of-way as a curb parking space between 5:00 a.m. and 11:00 a.m., if approved by the Public Works Director. The minimum width is reduced to eight feet. Such loading berths shall also serve as pickup/delivery areas.
(c) 
Delineation of loading spaces. All loading spaces shall be delineated by signage and striping and labeling of the pavement.
(d) 
Access to a street. Every loading area shall be provided with safe and convenient access to a street, but in no case shall the loading space extend into the required aisle of the parking lot. Off-street loading spaces shall be configured to avoid the need for vehicles to back up within the street right-of-way, to the maximum extent practicable.
(e) 
Paving. The ground surface of loading areas shall be paved with a durable, dust free, and hard material, such as surface and seal treatment, bituminous hot mix, Portland cement, concrete, or some comparable material. Such paving shall be maintained for safe and convenient use at all times.
(f) 
Landscaping. Loading areas shall be landscaped in accordance with § 72-55.2, Vehicular use area landscaping.
(g) 
Exterior lighting. Exterior lighting for loading areas shall comply with the standards in § 72-58, Exterior lighting.
[Amended 1-22-2019 by Ord. No. 19-02]
Off-street parking serving single-family detached, duplex, and single-family attached dwellings and located within front yard and/or corner side yard areas shall comply with the following standards:
A. 
Authorized vehicles. Only the following vehicles may be parked in single-family residential districts: passenger vehicles designed to transport 15 or fewer passengers, including the driver; pickup trucks and sport utility vehicles with a gross vehicle weight of less than 10,000 pounds; or any vehicle used by an individual solely for his own personal purposes, such as personal recreational activities.
B. 
Parking in vehicular use area required. All licensed and operable vehicles, whether parked or stored, shall be located in a vehicular use area, unless the required off-street parking has been waived by the Zoning Administrator.
C. 
Maximum area available for vehicular use.
[Amended 9-8-2020 by Ord. No. 20-19]
(1) 
For lots of record greater than 6,000 square feet, vehicular use areas located within the primary front or secondary front yard (as measured from the edge of the street right-of-way) shall be limited to the greater of 33% of the entire primary front or secondary front yard area or 600 square feet.
(2) 
Vehicular use areas on lots of record smaller than 6,000 square feet shall be limited to the greater of 33% of the entire primary front or secondary front yard area or 350 square feet.
(3) 
Nothing in this subsection shall be construed to limit the size of the vehicular use area located beyond the primary front or secondary front yard area.
D. 
Surfacing.
(1) 
Vehicular use areas shall be surfaced in accordance with the standards in § 72-53.1E(1)(c), or gravel, crushed stone, or similar material may be used.
(2) 
When used, gravel or crushed stone shall be at least two inches deep throughout the vehicular use area, and the vehicular use area shall maintain a visibly discernible and definable edge composed of landscape timbers, metal edging, vegetation (such as low shrubs or decorative grasses), or a similar technique.
(3) 
Vehicular use areas within utility easements disturbed during installation or servicing of underground utilities shall be resurfaced with materials to match the existing surface after completion of utility work.
E. 
Dimensions. Vehicular use areas shall be at least 18 feet deep, measured from the right-of-way, or three feet measured from the rear property line or easement line of an intersecting alley.
[Amended 1-27-2015 by Ord. No. 15-03; 9-8-2020 by Ord. No. 20-19]
The Zoning Administrator is authorized to approve an alternative parking plan as an element of a site plan, as set forth within this section. The alternative parking plan may include a combination of one or more of the following parking alternatives for a single use. Reductions in the minimum number of required parking spaces in order to preserve the root zones of existing, healthy specimen trees in accordance with § 72-55.6D, Trees, shall not require approval of an alternative parking plan.
A. 
Provision over the maximum allowed. The Zoning Administrator may approve an alternative parking plan that authorizes a number of off-street parking spaces in excess of the required by § 72-53.1C(4), Maximum number of spaces permitted, in accordance with the following:
(1) 
Parking demand study. Requests to exceed the maximum number of required off-street parking spaces shall be accompanied by a proposed parking plan, including a parking demand study performed by a professional who is licensed or demonstrated technical expertise to prepare such a study. The purpose of the parking demand study is to provide data and supporting analysis in support of the applicant's contention that the parking spaces required by § 72-53.1C(6), Maximum number of spaces permitted, will be insufficient for the proposed development. In addition to the parking demand study, the requesting party may provide other relevant and appropriate data supporting his request.
(2) 
Minimum additional spaces allowed. The maximum number of off-street spaces allowed shall be limited to the minimum number of additional spaces deemed necessary, according to the parking demand study referenced above, or other relevant and appropriate data.
B. 
Off-site parking. The Zoning Administrator may approve an alternative parking plan that authorizes off-site parking. Generally, all off-street parking areas shall be provided on the same parcel of land as the use to be served. Off-street parking may be located on another parcel of land ("off-site" parking), if there are practical difficulties in locating the parking area on the same parcel or the public welfare, safety, or convenience is better served by off-site parking. Off-site parking shall comply with the following standards:
(1) 
Location.
(a) 
Except for shared parking located within a parking structure or served by a parking shuttle, shared parking spaces shall be located within 1,000 feet of the primary entrance of all uses served.
(b) 
Shared parking located within a parking structure or served by a shuttle shall be located within 2,000 feet of the primary entrance of all uses served.
(c) 
Shared parking spaces shall not be separated from the use they serve by an arterial or collector street, unless the shared parking area or parking structure is served by an improved pedestrian crossing.
(2) 
Pedestrian access. Adequate and safe pedestrian access, which complies with all applicable ADA requirements, shall be provided from and to the off-site parking areas.
(3) 
Directional signage. When determined necessary by the Zoning Administrator, due to distance, indirect locations, or visual barriers, directional signage that complies with the standards of this chapter shall be provided to direct the public to the off-site parking spaces.
(4) 
Recorded agreement. If approved, an off-site parking facility shall be described and made binding upon the all owners of record of the subject properties, within a written agreement prepared in a form suitable for recording among the City's land records. A signed and attested copy of the off-site parking agreement between the owners of record must be recorded with the Clerk of the Circuit Court. Recordation of the agreement shall occur prior to the issuance of any occupancy permit for any premises to be served by the off-site parking area. An off-site parking agreement may be revoked only if all required off-street parking spaces are provided in accordance with the requirements of Table 72-53.1C(2), Minimum Off-Street Parking Standards.
(5) 
Duration. An off-site parking agreement shall run with the land and shall be and remain in effect until revoked or revised by the parties thereto. In the event the parking requirements for the subject properties change (increase) following recordation of the agreement, due to any change in use(s) or structural alterations of buildings or structures containing such uses, then the City may require the parking plan for the properties to be updated, which may include, but is not limited to, a revision of the off-site parking agreement.
C. 
Parking reductions. The Zoning Administrator may approve an alternative parking plan to reduce the number of parking spaces required in Table 72-53.1C(2), Minimum Off-Street Parking Standards, and the Shared Parking Factor Table. The applicant shall demonstrate there is a reasonable probability the number of parking spaces actually needed to serve the development is less than the minimum required by Table 72-53.1C(2), Minimum Off-Street Parking Standards, and the Shared Parking Factor Table. The application shall include relevant and appropriate data and information, including location, nature, or mix of uses, the location and number of parking spaces that will be provided, and a parking demand study prepared by a professional who is licensed to prepare such a study. The study shall provide data and supporting analysis demonstrating the feasibility of the proposed shared parking facilities. The parking demand study shall include information on the size and type of the proposed development(s), composition of tenants, anticipated rate of parking turnover, and anticipated peak parking and traffic loads for all uses that will be sharing off-street parking spaces. The applicant may submit other relevant and appropriate data supporting the request.
D. 
Downtown Parking, Transit, and Bicycle Fund.
(1) 
An applicant may meet the parking requirement for a use in the Downtown Parking, Transit, and Bicycle District through the payment of a standard amount established by City Council per required parking space.
Incremental Payment Amount
0 to 50% of Total Required Parking Spaces
For Each Additional Parking Space From 51% to 70% of Requirement
For Each Additional Parking Space From 71% to 85% of Requirement
For Each Additional Parking Space From 86% to 100% of Requirement
Amount of payment
Standard amount (established in Planning Fee Schedule)
2 x standard amount
3 x standard amount
4 x standard amount
The Zoning Administrator is authorized to grant this reduction. The applicant may combine this reduction with one or more of the foregoing parking alternatives to reduce the number of required on-site parking spaces to zero. The credit for an off-street parking requirement met in this manner shall run with the land. No refund of any payment shall be made when there is a subsequent change of use that requires less parking.
(2) 
The fee shall be collected by the Zoning Administrator as a condition to site plan approval. Payment of this fee does not guarantee that parking spaces will be constructed for the sole use of or in the immediate proximity of a particular development. It will not guarantee the availability of parking specifically for the development. Funds collected from such payment shall be deposited by the City in a special fund and shall be used in the Downtown Parking, Transit, and Bicycle District to:
(a) 
Provide additional off-street public parking;
(b) 
Acquire land for such parking through purchase, lease, or license;
(c) 
Develop land to make it suitable for public parking;
(d) 
Replace existing municipal parking lots with public parking structures;
(e) 
Engage in projects that increase the amount of available public parking spaces or reduce dependence upon the automobile and thereby reduce parking demand;
(f) 
Improve transit/shuttle facilities or services; or
(g) 
Improve bicycle facilities and services.
(3) 
The collection of the fee shall not obligate the City to provide off-street parking for any particular location. In order to provide a logical and cost-effective construction of parking improvement, projects funded through this fee may be phased and may be constructed such that the public parking spaces do not directly serve the parcels from which the fee was collected.
Figure 72-53.3D. Downtown Parking, Transit, and Bicycle District
E. 
Valet and tandem parking. The Zoning Administrator may approve an alternative parking plan that includes valet and tandem parking, in accordance with this subsection. An off-street parking program utilizing limited valet and tandem parking may be allowed for uses listed under the commercial use classification in Table 72-53.1C(2), Minimum Off-Street Parking Standards, in accordance with the following standards:
(1) 
The development served shall provide 75 or more parking spaces;
(2) 
No more than 30% of the total number of spaces shall be designated as tandem; and
(3) 
A valet parking attendant must be on duty during hours of operation.
F. 
Alternative materials. The Zoning Administrator may approve an alternative parking plan that authorizes the use of alternative paving materials for vehicular use areas. The use of pervious or semi-pervious parking area surfacing materials — including, but not limited to, "grass-crete," "turfstone," geo-cells, porous concrete, or recycled materials (such as rubber, used asphalt, brick, block, and concrete) — may be approved for a vehicular use area on a site, upon a determination that the property owner has provided sufficient assurance that such areas will be properly maintained. Such assurance may be demonstrated by written instrument recorded among the City's land records, site plan provisions, or other methods satisfactory to the Zoning Administrator with the approval of the City Attorney. Where possible, such materials should be used in areas proximate to and in combination with on-site stormwater control devices or tree protection measures (see Figure 72-53.3F, Alternative Materials).
Figure 72-53.3F. Alternative Materials
072-5 Fig 72-53.3.G.tif
[Amended 9-8-2020 by Ord. No. 20-19]
Lots used for multifamily residential development with 20 or more dwelling units, and institutional or commercial development with 5,000 or more square feet of gross floor area, shall provide individual or shared bicycle parking facilities in accordance with the following standards.
A. 
General standards.
(1) 
Location.
(a) 
Bicycle parking facilities shall be conveniently located, but in no case shall such facilities be located more than 150 feet from the primary building entrance;
(b) 
Bicycle parking facilities shall have an improved pedestrian access to the primary building entrance;
(c) 
Facilities may be located within required open space or landscaped areas;
(d) 
Facilities for institutional or commercial uses may be located in the public right-of-way with the approval of the Public Works Director.
(2) 
Bicycle parking spaces shall be provided at the rate of one bicycle space for every 10 required off-street parking spaces for vehicles.
(3) 
Bicycle parking facilities shall be surfaced in accordance with § 72-53.1E(1)(c)[1].
B. 
Bicycle rack required. Bicycle parking facilities shall incorporate a rack or other similar device intended for the storage of bicycles. The rack element shall:
(1) 
Be located on and anchored to a solid, immovable stall surface and installed vertically plumb in two planes;
(2) 
Be in "inverted U" type or equivalent, which supports the bicycle upright by its fame in two places;
(3) 
Be at least 18 inches wide and 33 inches tall when installed; be uniformly aligned and evenly spaced; be centered in a "design stall" with a minimum dimension of 36 inches by 72 inches; and be at least 24 inches from any wall or other obstruction;
(4) 
Not result in a tripping hazard;
(5) 
Prevent the bicycle from tipping over;
(6) 
Enable the frame or both wheels to be secured;
(7) 
Support bicycles without a diamonds-shaped frame;
(8) 
Allow a U-lock to lock one wheel and a frame tube of an upright bicycle; and
(9) 
Resist being cut or detached using hand tools.
[Added 1-22-2019 by Ord. No. 19-02]
All development, except single-family detached, single-family attached, and duplex dwellings, shall be designed to allow cross-access to parking lots in adjacent compatible developments in accordance with the following standards:
A. 
Limited to two parcels. Cross-access ways shall be designed and located based on the standards of this section, but in no case shall a development be required to provide cross-access to more than two adjacent parcels. The location and dimensions of the required cross-access shall be shown on a subdivision plat or site plan submitted for approval. When a proposed site plan is subject to the cross-access requirement, the site plan shall be accompanied by an access easement document, in a form suitable for recording among the City's land records, reserving the area within the easement for the required cross-access.
B. 
Future stubs required. A connection for future parking lot cross-access shall be provided to all adjacent vacant land zoned for a nonresidential and mixed-use or planned development zoning district. Development subject to these standards shall be designed to provide future cross-access in at least one location.
C. 
Minimum width. Cross-access ways shall allow for two-way traffic between parcels through the use of a single drive aisle with a minimum width of 24 feet, or through two one-way aisles, each with a minimum width of 15 feet, unless the Virginia State-Wide Fire Prevention Code requires greater width.
D. 
Delay in installation. The Development Administrator may, for good cause shown, allow the installation of a cross-access way to be delayed, provided that there has been recorded among the land records of the City an instrument creating an access easement in the dimensions required by this section, and reserving the area within the easement for use as the required cross-access way.
E. 
Developing parcel required to connect to cross-access. In cases where a cross-access stub or cross-access easement has been provided by an adjacent development, the developing parcel shall provide all cross-access ways necessary to connect to two parking lots.