Township of Willistown, PA
Chester County
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Table of Contents
Table of Contents
A. 
The following principles, standards and requirements shall be applied by the Board in evaluating plans for proposed subdivision and land development. In addition, the standards set forth in the Willistown Township Zoning Ordinance[1] for the particular district in which the subdivision or land development is taking place shall govern the layout of lots and/or design of buildings, parking lots and other facilities.
[1]
Editor's Note: See Ch. 139, Zoning.
B. 
The standards and requirements outlined herein shall be considered minimum standards and requirements for the promotion of public health, safety and general welfare.
C. 
Where literal compliance with the standards herein specified is clearly impractical, the Board may modify or adjust the standards to permit reasonable utilization of property while securing substantial compliance with the objectives of this Part 1.
A. 
Land shall be suited to the purposes for which it is to be subdivided or developed. Proposed land developments shall be coordinated with existing nearby neighborhoods so that the community as a whole may develop harmoniously.
B. 
No land shall be developed for residential purposes unless all hazards to life, health or property from flood, fire and disease shall have been eliminated or unless the plans for the land development shall provide adequate safeguard against such hazards. For example, low-lying wetlands which are swampy or are subject to periodic flooding shall not be platted for residential development or designated for such other uses as may involve danger to health, safety or the general welfare of the citizens unless adequate permanent drainage is provided and unless provision is made and indicated on the plan for adequate and healthful disposal of sanitary sewage and drainage of surface and subsurface water. In addition, all plans must comply with all applicable laws and regulations of the Commonwealth of Pennsylvania and of the United States of America, including, by way of example and not by way of limitation, the Pennsylvania Dam Safety and Encroachments Act[1] and the Federal Clean Water Act.
[1]
Editor's Note: See 32 P.S. § 693.1 et seq.
C. 
No plan of land development shall be approved which would result in lots or land use or which would in any other way be inconsistent with the Zoning Ordinance of Willistown Township then in effect for the zoning district in which the land to be developed or subdivided is located.[2]
[2]
Editor's Note: See Ch. 139, Zoning.
A. 
The length, width and shape of blocks shall be determined with due regard to:
(1) 
Provision of adequate sites for building of the type proposed.
(2) 
Topography.
(3) 
Requirements for safe and convenient vehicular and pedestrian circulation.
(4) 
Thoughtful and innovative design to create an attractive community and opportunities for the utilization of solar energy.
B. 
Blocks shall have a maximum length of 1,600 feet and, as far as practicable, a minimum length of 500 feet. In design of blocks longer than 1,100 feet, special consideration should be given to access for fire protection by an easement for emergency access.
C. 
Residential blocks shall be of sufficient depth to accommodate two tiers of lots, except where reverse frontage lots are used.
A. 
Lot dimensions and areas and minimum front yard setbacks shall not be less than as required by the Willistown Township Zoning Ordinance, as it may from time to time be amended.[1]
[1]
Editor's Note: See Ch. 139, Zoning.
B. 
Except as provided in Subsection G below, all lots shall have frontage on and direct access to a street, existing or proposed. Each lot shall have, in addition to the required minimum width at the front lot line, sufficient free and complete access to an existing street cartway or right-of-way to avoid the need to cross any portion of another lot to reach such street.
C. 
In general, side lot lines shall be substantially at right angles or radial to street lines.
D. 
The Township shall give consideration to proposed flexibility in lot layout so that the siting of residences may take maximum advantage of solar energy.
E. 
Any proposed residential lots abutting an existing or proposed arterial or collector street in the Township shall be designed as reverse frontage lots having direct access only to an interior street, as specified in the Willistown Township Zoning Ordinance.[2] This requirement may be waived by the Board of Supervisors if in its judgment the advantages to the Township of compliance with this standard are outweighed by the applicant's resulting inability to meet other requirements of this Part 1 or the Zoning Ordinance (minimum dimensions, layout of lots, disturbance of slopes, etc.); or compliance would be unreasonable or impractical due to the size of the proposed development, configuration of the site, etc.
[2]
Editor's Note: See Ch. 139, Zoning.
F. 
House numbers and street names shall be assigned to each lot by the Township.
G. 
Lot restrictions; access strip.
(1) 
No more than two contiguous interior lots shall be formed. The creation of such lots shall be permitted in any planned subdivision only in those circumstances where required by the configuration of the site. No more than 10% of the total subdivision shall be developed as interior lots. Under no circumstances shall the applicant be permitted to use interior lot design to avoid constructing an interior street.
(2) 
No more than two lots in depth (i.e., one tier of interior lots) shall be created along a new or existing street. Access to any other lots shall be directly from a new street.
(3) 
An interior lot shall have an access strip with a minimum width of 25 feet connecting to a street. Such access strip shall have a minimum width of 25 feet for its entire depth.
H. 
On a cul-de-sac street, no part of a fifth lot and no more than four lots may have any frontage or driveway on the circumference of the turnaround or its reverse radius.
A. 
Proposed streets shall be properly related to such street plans or parts thereof as have been officially prepared and adopted by the Township, including recorded subdivision plans and the Official Map of the Township, and shall be classified according to their function.
B. 
Proposed streets shall further conform to such Township and state road and highway plans as have been prepared, adopted and filed as prescribed by law.
C. 
Thoughtful and imaginative design of streets and their relationship to the arrangement and shape of lots is required. Streets shall be logically related to topography to produce usable lots, curvilinear design, reasonable grades, proper alignment and drainage, to provide for adequate vision and to enhance utilization of solar energy.
D. 
Minor streets shall be laid out as to discourage through traffic; but provisions for street connections into and from adjacent areas will generally be required.
E. 
If lots resulting from original subdivision are large enough to permit resubdivision or if a portion of the tract is not subdivided, adequate street rights-of-way to permit further subdivision shall be provided as necessary, to be no less than the rights-of-way then required for local service streets.
F. 
Major traffic street.
(1) 
Where a land development abuts or contains an existing or proposed major traffic street or arterial highway, the Board may require dedication of additional rights-of-way to provide the minimum right-of-way specified hereinafter and marginal access streets, rear service alleys, reverse frontage lots or such other treatment as will provide protection for abutting properties, reduction in the number of intersections with the major street and separation of local and through traffic.
(2) 
Where warranted because of additional traffic, drainage or comparable problems or conditions, both sides of the major street are to be improved as a responsibility of the developer himself or by means of sufficient funds escrowed for use by the Township to execute such improvement.
G. 
New half or partial streets shall not be permitted except where essential to reasonable land development of a tract in conformance with the other requirements and standards of this Part 1 and where, in addition, dedication of the remaining part of the street has been secured.
H. 
Wherever a tract to be developed borders an existing half or partial street, the other part of the street shall be plotted within such tract. Where half or partial streets are proposed, the acceptance of final plans shall be conditioned upon the provisions of guaranties providing for the construction or completion of such streets to Township standards.
I. 
Dead-end streets shall be prohibited, except as stubs to permit future street extension into adjoining tracts, or when designed as culs-de-sac.
J. 
Continuations of existing streets shall be known by the same name, but names for other streets shall not duplicate or closely resemble names for existing streets in the Eastern Chester County region. Where streets continue into adjoining municipalities, evidence of compatibility of design, particularly with regard to street widths, shall be submitted. The applicant shall coordinate such designs with both municipalities to avoid abrupt changes in cartway width or in improvements provided.
K. 
New streets shall be laid out to continue existing streets at equal or greater width, as regards both the cartway and right-of-way, where such continuations are reasonable and practical.
A. 
Cul-de-sac streets permanently designed as such shall not serve more than 24 lots nor exceed 1,600 feet in length from existing streets or from proposed streets having more than one access. The Board, at its sole discretion, may approve lengths in excess of 1,600 feet if the configuration of the tract puts constraints on alternative access or if similar site design problems exist so that in the opinion of the Board the purposes of this Part 1 will be more satisfactorily accomplished by permitting such additional length. Cul-de-sac streets shall have a minimum length of 250 feet and shall be provided at the closed end with a paved turnaround having a minimum diameter to the outer pavement edge of 80 feet and a minimum right-of-way diameter of 100 feet. Plans submitted under the requirements of the Open Space Conservation District shall be permitted to modify the requirements for cul-de-sac streets consistent with approved street right-of-way and cartway widths pursuant to § 123-25 upon approval by the Planning Commission and the Board of Supervisors.
[Amended 6-28-1999 by Ord. No. 2-1999]
B. 
The turnaround right-of-way of a cul-de-sac street shall be placed adjacent to the tract boundary with sufficient additional right-of-way width provided along the boundary line to permit extension of a street at full width, unless future expansion of a cul-de-sac street is clearly impractical or undesirable. The small triangles of land beyond the cul-de-sac to the boundary shall be so deeded that maintenance of these corners of land will be the responsibilities of the adjoining owners until the roadway is continued.
C. 
The turnaround portion of a cul-de-sac street shall have a maximum slope of 5% across the diameter in any direction.
D. 
Cul-de-sac streets with center line slopes less than 2% which are level or nearly so across the diameter perpendicular to the center line must be graded so that there is a minimum two-percent fall in all drainage swales around the cul-de-sac.
E. 
The Board, at its sole discretion, may approve other designs for the closed end of a single-access street, provided that adequate provision is made for the maneuverability, access and egress of emergency, trash and snow-removal vehicles.
F. 
Where the proposed design of a single-access street includes an island at its closed end, arrangements acceptable to the Township must be made for landscaping with appropriate ground cover, or alternative treatment, and for regular maintenance.
A. 
The minimum rights-of-way and cartway widths for all new streets in the Township shall be as follows:
[Amended 6-28-1999 by Ord. No. 2-1999]
Type of Street
Right-of-Way
(feet)
Cartway
Principal arterial
80
Penn DOT Standard
Minor arterial
50
Penn DOT Standard
Major collector
50
26 feet
Minor collector*
50
24 feet (with curb) 22 feet (without curb)
Local*
50
22 feet (with curb) 20 feet (without curb)
Private, if permitted pursuant to § 123-32
50
22 feet (with curb) 20 feet (without curb) 18 feet (if permitted pursuant to § 123-32B)
NOTE:
*Plans submitted under the requirements of the Open Space Conservation District shall be permitted to modify the requirements for minor collector streets and local streets, provided that the right-of-way is not less than 34 feet and the cartway is not less than 18 feet. In all events, the right-of-way shall extend no less than eight feet beyond both edges of the cartway. The minimum widths of the right-of-way and cartway shall not be less than the above unless approved by the Board of Supervisors upon recommendation by the Planning Commission and Township Engineer.
B. 
Minimum cartway widths, as established herein for most residential streets, are not designed to accommodate on-street parking. Additional right-of-way and cartway widths may be required by the Board for the following purposes:
(1) 
To promote public safety and convenience.
(2) 
To provide parking space in commercial districts and in areas of high density residential development.
(3) 
To accommodate special topographical circumstances which may result in cut/fill slopes extending beyond the standard right-of-way width. These should in all circumstances be included within the right-of-way to assure accessibility for maintenance operations.
C. 
Rights-of-way of less width than prescribed in this section shall not be permitted.
D. 
Subdivisions abutting existing streets shall provide, for dedication, the minimum right-of-way widths for those streets in accordance with the provisions of this section.
A. 
All deflection of street lines shall be connected by use of horizontal curves.
B. 
To ensure adequate sight distance, minimum center-line radii for horizontal curves shall be as follows:
(1) 
Local streets: 150 feet.
(2) 
Collector streets: 300 feet.
(3) 
Arterial streets: 500 feet.
C. 
A tangent shall be required between curves; however, a long radius curve shall be preferred in all cases to a series of curves and tangents. Tangents of 100 feet shall be required between reverse curves.
D. 
Superelevation (commonly known as "banking a curve") shall be required when curve radii are less than 600 feet on collector streets and major thoroughfares.
A. 
Center-line grades shall be not less than 1%.
B. 
Center-line grades shall not exceed 7%, except that a maximum grade of 10% on local streets may be permitted for short lengths, in no event exceeding 300 feet, where natural contours provide conditions for minimal grading at the steeper grade.
C. 
Vertical curves.
(1) 
Vertical curves shall be used at change of grade exceeding 1% and shall be designed in relation to the extent of the grade change (at a rate no more abrupt than 1% change in grade per 25 feet along the center line), provided that the following minimum sight distances are maintained:
(a) 
Local street: 200 feet.
(b) 
Collector street: 300 feet.
(c) 
Arterial street: 400 feet.
(2) 
Vertical curves shall not produce excessive flatness in grade. There shall be no dips, cross-gutter bumps or humps in the paving.
D. 
Under no conditions will maximum grades be permitted with minimum curve radii.
E. 
Where the grade of any street at the approach to an intersection exceeds 4%, a leveling area shall be provided having not greater than four-percent grades for a distance of 40 feet measured from the nearest right-of-way in the intersecting street.
A. 
Right-angle intersections shall be used whenever practicable, especially when local residential streets empty into arterial streets. There shall be no intersection angle measured at the center line of less than 60°.
B. 
No more than two streets shall cross at the same point.
C. 
To the fullest extent possible, intersections involving arterial streets shall be located not less than 1,000 feet apart, measured from center line to center line. Exceptions shall be those cases deemed by the Board to require close spacing without endangering the public's safety.
D. 
Streets entering the opposite sides of another street shall either be directly across from each other or offset by at least 200 feet on local and collector streets, and 400 feet on arterial streets, measured center line to center line.
E. 
Corner curb radii shall be according to the following schedule of minimum lengths: local and collector streets, 30 feet; and arterial streets, 35 feet. Where streets of different categories intersect, the greater requirement shall prevail.
F. 
The right-of-way line for corner curbs shall be an arc concentric with the curbline with radius of a minimum of 20 feet or shall be a triangle constructed by drawing the chord of an arc concentric with the curbline with a radius of a minimum of 15 feet.
G. 
Minimum paving radius of 30 feet shall be provided at all intersections. The Board may increase the required radii where it considers such design advisable at intersections involving major thoroughfares.
H. 
All necessary street name signs and traffic control signs shall be provided and erected by the developer. The street signs shall be of the type existing in the neighborhood and shall be subject to approval by the Board. Street signs shall be erected before acceptance of the street.
I. 
Clear sight triangles shall be provided at all street intersections. Within such triangles, no vision-obstructing object shall be permitted which obscures vision above the height of 30 inches or below 10 feet measured from the center-line grade of intersecting streets. Each side of the sight triangle shall be a minimum of 75 feet measured from the point of intersection along each road center line.
J. 
Intersections shall be controlled by warranted traffic control signs, except that one through street may be designated for each intersection, or by traffic signals as may be required.
K. 
In designing street intersections, the following vehicle sight distance dimensions shall be used:
Posted Speed of Intersected Street
(or Design Speed for Proposed Street)
Vehicle Sight Distance (measured from a point set back 15 feet from the intersected pavement edge on the street controlled by a traffic control sign or signal)
(feet)
Stop condition (all streets)
75
25 mph
175
35 mph
300
45 mph
450
55 mph
600
L. 
Greater sight triangles imposed by Pennsylvania Department of Transportation for intersections with the state highway system shall supersede the above.
Deceleration or turning lanes may be required by the Township along existing and proposed streets whenever such lanes appear to the Board to be required by reasonable safety needs as determined by a traffic impact study or otherwise by the Board.
A. 
Deceleration lanes shall be designed to the following standards:
(1) 
The lane shall have a minimum width of 12 feet or, in the case of intersections with state highways, such widths as are required by the applicable regulations and standards of the Pennsylvania Department of Transportation.
(2) 
The lane shall provide the full required lane width for the entire length, which shall be measured from the center line of the intersecting road. In addition, there shall be a seventy-five-foot taper provided at the beginning of the lane so that traffic can leave the main traveled lane smoothly.
(3) 
The minimum lane length shall be as follows:
Design Speed of Road
(mph)
Minimum Deceleration Lane Length
(feet)
30
165
40
275
50
300
B. 
Acceleration lanes are only required when indicated as needed by a traffic impact study. The design shall be as per the recommendation of the Township Engineer. As necessary, a paved taper shall be provided for right-hand turns.
[Amended 5-19-1998 by Ord. No. 3-1998]
A. 
Submission.
(1) 
A traffic impact study is required for any development which intends to access an arterial or collector road when any of the following conditions apply:
(a) 
The proposed development consists of more than any one of the following:
[1] 
Forty-five single-family detached dwelling units.
[2] 
Eighty dwelling units other than single-family detached.
[3] 
Ten thousand square feet gross leasable area of commercial use(s).
[4] 
Seventeen thousand square feet of office use(s).
[5] 
Fifty thousand square feet of industrial use(s).
[6] 
Thirty thousand square feet of institutional use(s).
(b) 
Any use or combination of uses which will generate more than 1,500 vehicle trips per day.
(c) 
The proposed development is located within 1/4 mile of any roadway or intersection which is already heavily congested or is operating at or below a level of service of "D." In order to determine the location of any such roadway or intersection, the applicant shall reference existing documentation such as the Comprehensive Plan or an area-wide traffic plan. In addition, where indicated, the applicant shall perform new traffic counts and level of service studies as may be necessary.
(d) 
The proposed development will affect any roadway which has been identified as having inadequate or unsafe circulation or stopping distances.
(e) 
The proposed access is within close proximity (less than 200 feet) of an existing or proposed medium- or high-volume (over 750 average daily traffic) driveway or intersection.
(f) 
Traffic from the development would be significant enough to change the designated functional classification of any adjacent road.
(2) 
A traffic impact study is required for any development which intends to access a local road when any of the following conditions are met:
(a) 
The proposed development consists of one or more of the following:
[1] 
Any nonresidential or nonagriculture use(s).
[2] 
More than 45 single-family detached dwelling units with only one access point.
[3] 
More than 80 dwelling units other than single-family detached with only one access point.
[4] 
Any residential use generating more than 100 total peak-hour trips.
(b) 
Traffic from the development would be significant enough to change the designated functional classification of any adjacent road.
B. 
Contents. The traffic impact study shall comply with the procedural and content requirements of the Chester County Planning Commission Circulation Handbook, dated April 1994, page 5-31, Table 5.8, Basic Components of a Traffic Impact Study, and, when required, pages 5-34 and 5-35, or as such requirements are amended from time to time.
A. 
All materials entering into the construction of streets and the methods of construction and drainage shall be in accordance with the applicable requirements of the Pennsylvania Department of Transportation Specifications, Form 408, or the latest revision thereof. Road cross sections shall be as detailed in the appendix.
B. 
Subgrade.
(1) 
The area within the limits of the proposed road surface shall be shaped to conform to the line, grade and cross section of the proposed road.
(2) 
All unsuitable subgrade materials shall be removed or stabilized.
(3) 
Wet or swampy areas shall be permanently drained and stabilized.
(4) 
Fills shall be placed and compacted in accordance with Pennsylvania Department of Transportation Form 408 (latest edition), Section 206.3(b). The contractor shall have a reputable testing laboratory make appropriate field compaction tests during the construction of the fill to ensure compliance with this section and shall submit the test results to the Township for approval prior to placing any form of construction upon the fill.
(5) 
The subgrade shall be placed and compacted in accordance with Pennsylvania Department of Transportation Form 408 (latest edition), Section 210.3(a) and (b). The contractor shall have a reputable testing laboratory make appropriate field compaction tests during the construction of the subgrade to ensure compliance with this section and shall submit the test results to the Township for approval prior to placing the base stone.
(6) 
Backfill of trenches within the cartway and curb area shall be thoroughly compacted prior to application of the base course.
C. 
Base course.
(1) 
Base course shall consist of eight inches of PA. No. 4A crushed stone placed on a two-inch initial layer of screening and rolled uniformly and thoroughly with the ten-ton roller. Rolling shall continue until the material does not creep or wave ahead of the roller wheels. Base course shall extend 12 inches beyond specified road widths on each side where curbs are not provided.
(2) 
After compaction of the base stone, dry screenings shall be applied in sufficient quantity to fill all of the voids in the rolled stone base. A vibratory roller of Pennsylvania Department of Transportation approved design must be used in this step of construction, and rolling shall continue until all voids are filled. Small areas around inlets and manholes that cannot be reached by the vibratory roller shall be compacted with a mechanical tamper or whacker.
(3) 
When the stone surface is tight and will accept no more screenings, all loose screenings shall be broomed from the surface to expose the top 1/2 inch of the aggregate over at least 75% of the road.
(4) 
No base material shall be placed on a wet or frozen subgrade.
(5) 
As an alternate, an aggregate-lime-pozzolana base course may be used when approved by the Township. This possopac base course must be applied with an approved paver to a thickness to be determined by the Township Engineer.
(6) 
Application of a possopac base course shall be followed immediately by application of the binder course.
(7) 
As an alternate, for roads not serving residential areas, the road may be constructed of six inches of compacted aggregate bituminous base course and 1 1/2 inches wearing course. The type and installation of road material shall be equal or superior to that required in the Pennsylvania Department of Transportation Specifications, Form 408.
D. 
Bituminous surface.
(1) 
Bituminous material shall be ID-2 or FB-1 cold mix, with two inches of binder course and one inch of surface course after compaction.
(2) 
The completed road surface shall have a uniform slope of 1/4 inch per foot from edge to center line, except that on superelevated curves, this slope shall not be less than 1/4 inch per foot and shall extend up from the inside edge to the outside edge of the paving.
E. 
Grading and shoulders.
(1) 
Roadways shall be graded for not less than eight feet beyond the edge of the proposed paving on each side, provided that the Board of Supervisors may waive this requirement when, in the Board's discretion and judgment, waiving the requirement will preserve significant trees or for other good cause shown. This grading width shall be increased as necessary where sidewalks and/or planting strips are to be provided. Shoulders shall be graded with a slope of one inch per foot. Beyond the limits of this grading, banks shall be sloped to prevent erosion, but this slope shall not exceed two horizontal to one vertical with tops of slope in cuts rounded.
Private streets may be permitted by the Board under the following circumstances:
A. 
There is a recorded agreement between the applicant and the Township specifying that said streets will not be offered for dedication and will not be accepted by the Township unless constructed to Township standards then existing at the time of offer of dedication.
B. 
The design of private streets shall vary from Township standards otherwise applicable to the construction of streets to be dedicated to the Township only in respect to width. Type of paving, grades, sight distances, horizontal curve limitations, storm drainage facilities and other elements of street design shall be in accordance with the standards contained hereinafter in this Part 1. The width of a private street may be reduced to a minimum cartway of 18 feet.
C. 
Lots fronting on private streets shall meet the requirements of the Willistown Township Zoning Ordinance, as amended, with regard to lot width and setbacks.[1]
[1]
Editor's Note: See Ch. 139, Zoning.
D. 
A private street shall provide access to three or more lots.
[Amended 11-28-2011 by Ord. No. 10-2011]
A. 
Private driveways shall be provided for all residences, and the construction shall be in accordance with the regulations of this section and the Willistown Street Opening Ordinance,[1] in order to provide safe access to Township and state roads, to eliminate problems of stormwater runoff and to assure sufficient area for and access to off-street parking.
[1]
Editor’s Note: See Ch. 119, Streets and Sidewalks.
B. 
The finished surface of the driveway sloping toward the public road shall be shaped so that no stormwater runoff from the property shall discharge upon the public right-of-way. This shall be accomplished by providing a minimum crown of two inches or a side-to-side slope of three inches and shaping the last 20 feet of length of the driveway at the street line so that all surface runoff discharges on the owner's property. On steep driveways, an interceptor may be required at the edges to restrain runoff and deflect it to the side, and installation of a concrete drop structure with steel grate cover across the driveway and connected by storm sewer to an appropriate watercourse also may be required. Discharge of roof drains or downspouts onto a driveway which slopes toward the street shall not be permitted. No drainpipe from any basement sump pump, foundation drain, disposal field, terrace, roof or pavement shall be discharged on the public right-of-way.
C. 
The sight distance at the intersection of a proposed driveway with any state, Township or private road shall be maintained as specified in § 123-29 of this Part 1.
D. 
Two contiguous lots may share a common driveway, provided shared access easements are executed to the Township's satisfaction pursuant to § 123-46.
[Added 8-14-2017 by Ord. No. 6-2017]
E. 
Joint private access and affiliated access easements may be required between adjacent lots fronting on arterial and collector streets to minimize the total number of access points along those streets and to facilitate traffic flow between lots. The location and dimensions of said access shall be approved by the Township.
[Added 8-14-2017 by Ord. No. 6-2017]
A. 
Alleys and service streets shall not be permitted in residential developments except by special permission of the Township. Where alleys and service streets are permitted in residential developments, they shall be 25 feet wide, curbed, where required, and paved for a width of at least 12 feet. No part of any dwelling, garage or other structure may be located within 20 feet of the center line of a public alley.
B. 
Alleys and service streets serving commercial and industrial establishments and multifamily developments may be required if the Township deems it necessary. Such alleys shall have a paved cartway of at least 20 feet and right-of-way width of 30 feet. Where necessary, corners shall have a radius of 20 feet or a triangle using the chord of a radius of 15 feet, cut back to permit safe use by large vehicles. If it is impossible for an alley to go through a block, the alley shall be provided with a turnaround at its closed end of a design approved by the Township Engineer and/or Planning Commission.
C. 
Where deemed necessary to facilitate circulation, alleys shall be offered for dedication.
Unless the Willistown Township Zoning Ordinance of 1981, as amended, requires otherwise (in which event the terms of the Zoning Ordinance shall control),[1] at least one off-street parking space with access to a public street shall be provided for each proposed dwelling unit. Where such access is to other than a minor residential service street, adequate turnaround space shall be provided on the lot. Parking areas shall be provided for commercial and industrial use as required by the Zoning Ordinance.
[1]
Editor's Note: See Ch. 139, Zoning.
A. 
Monuments shall be accurately placed at the intersection of all lines forming angles and at changes in direction of lines in the boundary (perimeter) of the property being subdivided. The subdivider, or his representative, shall notify the Township Engineer in order that he may inspect the placement of the monuments before they are covered.
B. 
All monuments shall be placed by a registered professional engineer or surveyor so that the scored (by an indented cross or drill hole at not more than one-fourth-inch diameter in the top of the monument) point shall coincide exactly with the point of intersection of the lines being monumented.
C. 
Monuments shall be set with their top level with the finished grade of the surrounding ground, except:
(1) 
Monuments which are placed within the lines of existing or proposed sidewalks shall be so located (preferably beneath the sidewalks) that their tops will not be affected by lateral movement on the sidewalks.
(2) 
Where monuments are located beneath a sidewalk, proper access shall be provided for their use.
D. 
All streets shall be monumented at range line, on the right-of-way lines of the street at the following locations:
(1) 
At least one monument at each intersection.
(2) 
At changes in direction of street lines, excluding curb arcs at intersections.
(3) 
At each end of each curbed street line, excluding curb arcs at intersections.
(4) 
At such places where topographical or other conditions make it impossible to sight between two otherwise required monuments, intermediate monuments shall be placed.
(5) 
At such other place along the line of streets as may be determined by the Township Engineer to be necessary so that any street may be readily defined for the future.
E. 
All lot corners shall be clearly identified by either a monument or an iron pin. Where iron pins are used, they shall be a minimum of one-half-inch diameter solid bar or reinforc-ing rod, shall be a minimum of 29 inches in length and shall be driven with finished grade.
A. 
Sidewalks shall generally be required in Zoning Districts R-2, R-3, H-B, O, I and O-P, but the Board of Supervisors may waive the sidewalk requirement upon review of the proposed subdivision or land development plan when, in the discretion and judgment of the Board of Supervisors, the purposes of this Part 1 and of the Zoning Ordinance[1] will be better served by the waiver of this requirement. In addition, sidewalks may be waived at the discretion of the Planning Commission and the Board of Supervisors within Open Space Conservation Developments where it can be demonstrated that the objectives of § 139-150, Open Space Conservation District, will be advanced; and the applicant has considered the use of bicycle, equestrian and/or pedestrian paths for public use described in Subsections C and D below.
[Amended 6-28-1999 by Ord. No. 2-1999]
[1]
Editor's Note: See Ch. 139, Zoning.
B. 
When provided, sidewalks shall be constructed of concrete with a minimum twenty-eight-day strength of 3,000 pounds per square inch, with a minimum width of four feet and a thickness of four inches, except at driveway crossings when the sidewalk thickness shall be increased to six inches with reinforcement. The Board of Supervisors may require wide pavements in high density areas and in commercial areas. The location of sidewalks relative to planting strips shall be at the discretion of the Board. Where sidewalks are required, ramps must be provided to adequately accommodate handicapped persons and devices, such as wheelchairs, customarily used by handicapped persons.
C. 
At the discretion of the Board of Supervisors, with recommendations from the Planning Commission, a system of bicycle, equestrian and/or pedestrian paths for public use generally unrelated to and separate from streets shall be established and secured by dedication or easement. Such paths shall be consistent with any existing plans specified by the Township so as to encourage the formation of an interconnecting trail network both within and beyond the Township. Such paths normally shall not exceed 10 feet in width and, at the option of the applicant, shall be located adjacent to existing or proposed lot lines or in such other manner so as to minimize any obstruction to the development. Existing paths may be relocated if a connection with a path on an adjoining property is thereby established.
D. 
To facilitate circulation, pedestrian walkways may be required to serve the interior of developments. Such walkways shall be a minimum of four feet and shall be of a durable surface satisfactory to the Board. Where the walks are not within a street right-of-way, a separate right-of-way of at least 10 feet in width shall be designated on the subdivision or land development plan. As appropriate, the walks shall be maintained by the homeowners' association when the walks traverse common areas or by the abutting property owners when the walks traverse existing lots.
A. 
Curbs shall be provided along all streets or roads and at the intersections thereof where center-line grades are 5% or above, or as needed to control drainage. Curbs may be waived at the discretion of the Planning Commission and the Board of Supervisors within Open Space Conservation Developments where it can be demonstrated that the objectives of § 139-150, of the Open Space Conservation District, will be advanced. Where curbs are not provided, stabilized shoulders shall be provided. Except when waived by the Board of Supervisors upon the recommendation of the Planning Commission in order to preserve existing trees or other similar reasons, the ground shall be graded to a slope of 1/2 inch to one inch to the foot to the right-of-way line and either seeded or sodded to such standards as shall be prescribed by the Board. In cut areas, this slope shall be toward the curb, and in fill areas it shall be away from the curb. Where sidewalks are required, ramps must be provided to adequately accommodate handicapped persons and devices, such as wheelchairs, customarily used by handicapped persons.
[Amended 6-28-1999 by Ord. No. 2-1999]
B. 
Unless constructed in accordance with Subsection C below, all curbs shall be constructed of concrete in accordance with the applicable standards of the Pennsylvania Department of Transportation Specifications, Form 408, Section 630, for plain cement concrete curbs, as such specifications may be amended or superseded from time to time.
C. 
Granite curbs may be installed, provided that their construction conforms with standards set forth in the above-referenced specifications, as the same may be amended or superseded from time to time, as such specifications provide for standards for the construction of granite curbs.
[Amended 11-11-2002 by Ord. No. 6-2002; 11-23-2009 by Ord. No. 8-2009; 9-12-2011 by Ord. No. 8-2011]
A. 
Purpose. The standards established in this section set forth criteria for:
(1) 
Providing lighting in outdoor public places where public health, safety and welfare are potential concerns.
(2) 
Controlling glare from nonvehicular light sources that shine directly into drivers' and pedestrians' eyes and thereby impair their safe travel.
(3) 
Protecting neighbors and the night sky from nuisance glare and stray light from poorly aimed, placed, applied or shielded light sources.
(4) 
Promoting efficient design and operation with regard to energy conservation.
(5) 
Protecting and retaining the intended visual character of the various venues of the Township.
B. 
Applicability.
(1) 
Outdoor lighting shall be required for safety and personal security in areas of public assembly and traverse, including but not limited to multifamily dwelling units, commercial, industrial, public recreational, and institutional uses. Lighting for outdoor recreational facilities, such as playing fields or ball fields, is expressly prohibited.
(2) 
The Board of Supervisors may require lighting to be incorporated for other uses or locations as it deems necessary or may restrict lighting in any of the above uses or applications when health, safety and welfare are issues.
(3) 
The glare control requirements herein contained apply to lighting in all above-mentioned uses as well as sign, architectural, landscaping, and residential lighting.
C. 
Criteria.
(1) 
Illumination levels.
(a) 
Lighting, where required by this chapter, shall have intensities and uniformity ratios in accordance with the current recommended practices of the Illuminating Engineering Society of North America (IESNA) as contained in the IESNA Lighting Handbook.
(b) 
Future amendments to said recommended practices shall be incorporated into lighting plans submitted to the Township without further action of the Township.
(c) 
Light power densities (LPDs). Lighting shall conform to the exterior LPDs as set forth by the current edition of ASHRAE/IESNA 90.1 Standard. Examples of intensities for typical outdoor applications, as extracted from the 8th Edition of the Lighting Handbook, are presented below.
Use/Task
Maintained Footcandles
Uniformity Avg.:Min.
Streets, local residential
0.4 Avg.
6:1
Streets, local commercial
0.9 Avg.
6:1
Parking, residential, multifamily
Low vehicular/pedestrian activity
0.2 Min.
4:1
Medium vehicular/pedestrian activity
0.6 Min.
4:1
Parking, industrial/commercial/ institutional/municipal
High activity, e.g., regional shopping centers/fast-food facilities, major athletic/civic/cultural events
0.9 Min.
4:1
Medium activity, e.g., community shopping centers, office parks, hospitals, commuter lots, cultural/civic/recreational events
0.6 Min.
4:1
Low activity, e.g., neighborhood shopping, industrial employee parking, schools, church parking
0.2 Min.
4:1
Walkways and bikeways
0.5 Avg.
5:1
Building entrances
5.0 Avg.
--
Notes:
1.
Illumination levels are maintained horizontal footcandles on the task, e.g., pavement or area surface.
2.
Uniformity ratios dictate that average illuminance values shall not exceed minimum values by more than the product of the minimum value and the specified ratio, e.g., for commercial parking high activity, the average footcandles shall not be in excess of 3.6 (0.9 x 4).
(2) 
Lighting fixture design.
(a) 
Fixtures shall be of a type and design appropriate to the lighting application and aesthetically appropriate to the surrounding area, as acceptable to the Board of Supervisors. The same type of light must be used for the same or similar type of lighting application on any one site.
(b) 
For the lighting of predominantly horizontal surfaces such as, but not limited to, parking areas, roadways, vehicular and pedestrian passage areas, merchandising and storage areas, automotive-fuel dispensing facilities, automotive sales areas, loading docks, culs-de-sac, active and passive recreational areas, building entrances, sidewalks, bicycle and pedestrian paths, and site entrances, lighting fixtures shall be aimed straight down and shall meet IESNA full-cutoff criteria (not have more than 2.5% of their light output emitted above 90° at any lateral angle around the fixture, or as amended). Lighting fixtures with an aggregate rated lamp output not exceeding 500 lumens, e.g., the rated output of a standard nondirectional forty-watt incandescent or ten-watt compact fluorescent lamp, are exempt from the requirements of this subsection. In the case of decorative street lighting, the Township may approve the use of lighting fixtures that are fully shielded or comply with IESNA cutoff criteria.
(c) 
For the lighting of predominantly nonhorizontal surfaces such as, but not limited to, facades, landscaping, signs, off-premises signs, fountains, displays and statuary, when their use is specifically permitted by the Board of Supervisors, lighting fixtures shall be shielded and shall be installed and aimed so as to not project their output into the windows of neighboring residences, adjacent uses, beyond the immediate object(s) being illuminated, skyward or onto a public roadway. Acceptable glare control shall be required. All such lighting shall be extinguished between the hours of 11:00 p.m. prevailing time and dawn. Lighting fixtures with an aggregate rated lamp output not exceeding 500 lumens, e.g., the rated output of a standard nondirectional forty-watt incandescent or ten-watt compact fluorescent lamp, are exempt from the requirements of this subsection. All lighting or illuminating of signs shall conform to the provisions of § 139-111.
(d) 
Unless otherwise permitted by the Board of Supervisors, all fixtures shall be fully shielded luminaire, defined as a luminaire constructed and installed in such a manner that all light emitted by the luminaire, either directly from the lamp or a diffusing element, or indirectly by reflection or refraction from any part of the luminaire, is projected below the horizontal plane through the luminaire's lowest light-emitting part (for examples of fully shielded luminaires, see Exhibit 1 below). Fixtures shall be equipped with or be capable of being back-fitted with light-directing devices such as shields, visors or hoods when necessary to redirect offending light distribution.
123 Exhibit 1.tif
(3) 
Control of nuisance and disabling glare.
(a) 
All outdoor lighting, whether or not required by this chapter, on private, residential, commercial, industrial, municipal, recreational or institutional property, shall be aimed, located, designed, fitted and maintained so as not to present a hazard to drivers or pedestrians by impairing their ability to safely traverse (disabling glare), and so as not to create a nuisance by projecting or reflecting objectionable light onto a neighboring use or property (nuisance glare). The following are not permitted: chasers, flashing lights and other blinking lights designed to attract attention. In addition, neon lighting shall not be permitted in residential districts.
(b) 
The use of floodlights and wall-mounted lighting fixtures (wall packs) shall not be permitted to illuminate parking areas unless it can be proven to the satisfaction of the Board of Supervisors that the employment of no other means is possible. Directional lighting fixtures such as floodlights and spotlights, when theft use is specifically approved by the Board of Supervisors, shall be so shielded, installed and aimed that they do not project their output into the windows of neighboring residences, adjacent uses, past the object being illuminated, skyward or onto a public roadway or pedestrianway. Floodlights installed above grade on residential properties, except when motion-sensor actuated, shall not be aimed out more than 45° from straight down. When a floodlight creates glare as viewed from an adjacent residential property, the floodlight shall be required to be re-aimed and/or fitted with a shielding device to block the view of the glare source from that property.
(c) 
Unless otherwise permitted by the Board of Supervisors, lighting shall be controlled by automatic switching devices such as timers, motion detectors and photocells, to extinguish offending sources between 11:00 p.m. and dawn to mitigate glare and skylighting consequences. Automatic control shall be accomplished through the use of a programmable controller with astronomical and daylight saving time control and battery power-outage reset, which accommodates daily and weekly variations in operating hours, annual time changes and seasonal variations in hours of darkness.
(d) 
Parking facility and vehicular and pedestrianway lighting (except for safety and security applications and all-night business operations), for commercial, industrial and institutional uses shall be automatically extinguished no later than 1/2 hour after the close of business or facility operation. When safety or security lighting is proposed for after-hours illumination, it shall not be in excess of 25% of the number of lighting fixtures or illumination level required or permitted for illumination during regular business hours. When it can be demonstrated to the satisfaction of the Township that an elevated security risk exists, e.g., a history of relevant crime, an appropriate increase above the twenty-five-percent limit may be permitted.
(e) 
Vegetation screens shall not be employed to serve as the primary means for controlling glare. Rather, glare control shall be achieved primarily through the use of such means as cutoff fixtures, shields and baffles, appropriate application of mounting height, wattage, aiming angle, fixture placement, and fixture design, etc., and the addition of shields and baffles as necessary. Fixtures must be mounted in such a manner that their cone of light does not cross any property line of the site.
(f) 
Lighting shall be hooded or directed, to the extent practical, to shield the light source from direct view from adjacent properties, streets, or street rights-of-way. To this end, the light source shall be completely concealed within an opaque housing.
(g) 
The illumination projected from any use onto a residential use shall at no time exceed 0.1 footcandle, measured line-of-sight at any time and from any point on the receiving residential property. The illumination projected from any property onto a nonresidential use shall at no time exceed 1.0 footcandle, measured line-of-sight from any point on the receiving property.
(h) 
When requested by the Board of Supervisors, the applicant shall submit a visual impact photometric plan that demonstrates both light coverage and light spillage resulting from the proposed lighting plan and the provision for adequate measures to mitigate nuisance from light pollution and disabling glare, both on the uses or development site and on adjacent properties.
(4) 
Installation.
(a) 
Fixtures meeting IESNA cutoff criteria shall not be mounted in excess of 20 feet above finished grade or mounted in excess of the maximum building height permitted in the district, whichever is less. Fixtures not meeting IESNA cutoff criteria shall not be mounted in excess of 15 feet above grade except as specifically approved by the Board of Supervisors.
(b) 
Fixtures used for general area lighting shall be aimed so as to project their output straight down, unless otherwise approved.
(c) 
Electrical feeds to lighting standards shall be run underground, not overhead, and shall be in accordance with the IESNA Lighting Handbook.
(d) 
Lighting standards in parking areas shall be placed a minimum of five feet outside paved area, or on concrete pedestals at least 30 inches high above the pavement, or by other approved protective means.
(e) 
Pole-mounted lighting fixtures for lighting horizontal tasks shall be aimed straight down, and poles shall be plumb. Poles and brackets for supporting lighting fixtures shall be those specifically manufactured for that purpose and shall be designed and rated for the lighting fixture and mounting accessory weights and wind loads involved. Pole foundations shall be designed consistent with manufacturer's wind load requirements and local soil conditions involved and shall be built in accordance with the Township Building Code.
(5) 
Maintenance. Lighting fixtures shall be maintained so as to always meet the requirements of this article.
D. 
Plan submission. Lighting plans shall be submitted to the Township for review and approval and shall include:
(1) 
Layout of the proposed fixture locations. The lighting plan shall contain a layout of all proposed and existing lighting fixtures, including but not limited to area, architectural, building entrance, canopy, soffit, landscape, flag, sign, etc., by location, orientation, aiming direction, mounting height, lamp, photometry and type.
(2) 
Isofootcandle plots for individual fixture installations and 10 x 10 illuminance grid plots for multifixture installations, that demonstrate compliance with the intensities and uniformities set forth in this section.
(3) 
Description of the equipment, including fixture catalog cuts (including model and manufacturer information), photometrics, glare reduction devices, lamps, bulb technology (including color of light), control devices, mounting heights and mounting methods proposed.
(4) 
Light-loss factors, IES candela test-filename, initial lamp-lumen ratings and specific lamp manufacturer's lamp ordering nomenclature, used in calculating the plotted illuminance levels.
(5) 
When landscaping plans are involved, they shall contain the lighting fixture locations and shall demonstrate that the site lighting and landscaping have been coordinated to minimize conflict between vegetation and intended light distribution, both initially and at vegetation maturity.
(6) 
When required by the Township, the applicant shall also submit a visual-impact plan that demonstrates appropriate steps have been taken to mitigate potential consequences of on-site and off-site glare and to retain the intended character of the Township. This plan may require the inclusion of initial vertical footcandle values at specific off-site venues, e.g., bedroom windows of adjacent residential uses.
(7) 
Post-approval alterations to lighting plans or intended substitutions for approved lighting equipment shall be submitted to the Township for review and approval. Requests for substitutions shall be accompanied by catalog cuts of the proposed equipment that demonstrate the proposed substitution is equal to or exceeds the optical quality and maintainability of the specified lighting fixtures, and accompanied by a lighting plan, including a point-by-point plot, which demonates that proposed substitutions will result in a lighting design that equals or exceeds the quality of the approved plan.
E. 
Post-installation inspection. The Township reserves the right to conduct a post-installation nighttime inspection to verify compliance with the requirements of this chapter and, if appropriate, to require remedial action.
F. 
Compliance monitoring.
(1) 
Safety hazards.
(a) 
If the Township judges that a lighting installation creates a safety or personal-security hazard, the person(s) responsible for the lighting shall be so notified and required to take remedial action within a specified time period.
(b) 
If appropriate corrective action has not been effected within the specified time period, the Township may take appropriate legal action.
(2) 
Nuisance glare and inadequate illumination levels.
(a) 
When the Township judges that an installation produces unacceptable levels of nuisance glare or skyward light or that illumination levels are insufficient or not being maintained in accordance with this chapter, the Township shall cause notification of the person(s) responsible for the lighting and require remedial action.
(b) 
If the infraction so warrants, the Township may act to have the problem corrected as in Subsection F(1)(b), above.
G. 
Nonconforming lighting. Any lighting fixture existing on the effective date of this section which does not conform with the requirements of this article, shall be considered a lawful, nonconforming lighting fixture, subject to the following:
(1) 
A nonconforming lighting fixture shall be made to comply with the requirements of this article when such fixture is replaced, relocated or repaired or when such fixture(s) are deemed by the Township to create a safety hazard.
(2) 
All nonconforming lighting fixtures within the Township shall be made to conform to all pertinent regulations or be removed within three years after the effective date of this section.
H. 
Streetlighting dedication.
(1) 
The Township may accept dedication of streetlighting facilities in the instance of said lighting being in the right-of-way of a street dedicated to the Township. Streetlighting may be accepted along with the acceptance of the street. Following dedication of public streets, the Township shall assess the homeowners' association, individual property owners, or corporations, as may be necessary to collect all revenues required that are directly or indirectly associated with all costs of each specific streetlighting fixture. These costs shall include administration, collection, proration of nonpayables, actual utility electrical charges, maintenance and maintenance contracts for maintenance of fixtures and associated equipment.
(2) 
Until such time as the streetlighting is dedicated, the developer of the tract (who has escrowed the streetlighting) will be responsible for any and all costs associated with each streetlight. Such costs shall include, but not be limited to, administration, placement, and electrical charges from the utility and maintenance.
(3) 
Streetlights not dedicated to the Township will remain the responsibility of the developer or appropriate private entity or homeowners' association. Said private entity or homeowners' association shall then assume all costs and responsibilities for the lighting in perpetuity.
A. 
General requirements.
(1) 
Each property shall be connected to a public sewer system if accessible.
(2) 
Sanitary sewers shall be designed and constructed in strict accordance with Pennsylvania Department of Environmental Resources standards and Willistown Township Municipal Authority specifications. A copy of the approval of such system shall be submitted with the final plan.
(3) 
Sanitary sewers shall not be used to carry stormwater.
(4) 
Alternatives.
[Added 6-28-1999 by Ord. No. 2-1999[1]]
(a) 
Where public sewers are unavailable to serve Open Space Conservation District developments, applicants may utilize one of the following alternatives:
[1] 
Individual on-lot systems, employing subsurface disposal or spray irrigation on open land; or
[2] 
Community systems serving two or more units, employing subsurface disposal or spray irrigation on open land.
(b) 
The Township encourages the use of land treatment technologies capable of recharging groundwater aquifers. Subsurface disposal areas, spray irrigation disposal areas and holding and settling ponds with associated monitoring wells and equipment are permitted to be located in the required common open space; no other mechanical facilities (grinder pumps, sand filters, etc.) or structures are permitted.
(c) 
Where an applicant proposes to develop lots of less than one acre utilizing community subsurface or spray irrigation systems, the Board of Supervisors, upon recommendation of the Planning Commission, may, at its discretion, permit an increase in density of 1% to 5% of the developable land to help offset the cost and effort of installing community sewers.
[1]
Editor's Note: This ordinance also renumbers former Subsection A(4) through (8) to A(5) through (9).
(5) 
All lots which cannot be connected to a public or community sanitary sewage disposal system in operation at the time of construction of a principal building shall be provided with an on-site sanitary sewage disposal system meeting the design standards of Title 25, Chapter 73, Rules and Regulations of the Pennsylvania Department of Environmental Resources, and Township standards.
(6) 
If on-site sanitary sewage disposal facilities are to be utilized, the Township Planning Commission may require that the subdivider submit a feasibility report. Such report shall compare the cost of providing on-site facilities and the cost of public sanitary sewer system with a sewage treatment plant. Based on the analysis of this report, the Township may require the installation of a public sanitary sewer system.
(7) 
Where on-site sanitary sewage facilities are to be utilized, each lot so served shall be of a size and shape to accommodate the necessary length of tile fields at a safe distance from and at a lower elevation than the proposed building(s) to facilitate gravity flow in accordance with Township and state regulations, and shall be so plotted.
(8) 
The proposed method of sanitary sewage disposal shall be in accordance with Willistown Township's officially adopted Act 537, Sewage Facilities Plan.
(9) 
When in accord with Title 25, Chapter 71, Section 71.16, Rules and Regulations of the Pennsylvania Department of Environmental Resources Facilities Plan Revision, the procedure set forth in §§ 71.15 through 71.17 of those Rules and Regulations shall be followed.
(10) 
Notwithstanding any other applicable requirement, any septic tank, subsurface infiltration bed and any related facilities for the on-site disposal of sanitary effluent serving a building(s) shall be located on the same lot as the buildings(s) so served.
[Amended 9-12-1995 by Ord. No. 5-1995]
B. 
Sanitary sewage disposal system(s).
(1) 
Sanitary sewage disposal systems shall be provided consistent with all applicable design standards and requirements.
(2) 
Whenever a subdivider proposes that individual on-site sanitary sewage disposal systems shall be utilized within the subdivision, the subdivider shall either install such a facility approved by the Pennsylvania Department of Environmental Resources or shall guarantee (by deed restriction or otherwise), as a condition of the sale of each lot or parcel within the subdivision, that such facilities can be installed by the purchaser of such lot or parcel.
(3) 
In all other cases, the subdivider shall provide a complete community or public sanitary sewage disposal system. The design and installation of such public system shall be in accordance with all applicable rules and regulations, including those of the Township, the Willistown Township Municipal Authority, the Chester County Health Department and the Pennsylvania Department of Environmental Resources, as applicable, and the design and installation of a community distribution shall also be subject to all applicable rules and regulations, including those of the Township and of the Willistown Township Municipal Authority and of the Chester County Health Department and of the Pennsylvania Department of Environmental Resources, as applicable, and all such systems shall be further subject to satisfactory provisions for the maintenance thereof.
(4) 
Where studies by the Township indicate that construction or extension of sanitary trunk sewers to serve the property being subdivided appears probable within a reasonably short time (up to 10 years), the Township shall require the installation and capping of sanitary sewer mains and house connections, in addition to the installation of temporary individual, on-site sanitary sewage disposal systems. Individual house connections on capped sewer systems shall extend to the right-of-way line and shall be centered within the lot frontage. It shall be the responsibility of the applicant to consult with the Township with regard to the sewer line locations prior to establishing final sewer design.
C. 
Soil percolation test requirements.
(1) 
Soil percolation tests shall be performed for all subdivisions wherein the building(s) at the time of construction will not be connected to a public or community sanitary sewage disposal system in operation. Deep hole test pits are recommended as a further means of guaranteeing suitability of a site.
(2) 
Soil percolation tests shall be made in accordance with the procedure required by the Chester County Health Department or the Pennsylvania Department of Environmental Resources, by either a registered professional engineer or registered sanitarian and/or the Pennsylvania Sewage Facilities Act[2] sewage enforcement officer at a rate of one per lot.
[2]
Editor's Note: See 35 P.S. § 750.1 et seq.
(3) 
The engineer, sanitarian and/or sewage enforcement officer shall enter the result of the test and all other information on five copies of the subdivision sewage disposal report form, and shall submit these with the preliminary plans; provided, however, that where the approval of sanitary sewage disposal facilities is otherwise required by the Pennsylvania Department of Environmental Resources, two copies of the report of investigation and approval may be submitted in lieu of the subdivision sewage disposal report.
(4) 
The backfilling of all percolation test holes and related test pits on the tract shall be accomplished within the time period specified in Sec. 750.7(b)(8) of the Pennsylvania Sewage Facilities Act (Act 537, as amended).[3]
[3]
Editor's Note: See 35 P.S. § 750.7(b)(8).
A. 
The purpose of the provisions of this section are to:
(1) 
Ensure that each dwelling unit and each commercial or industrial building in all subdivisions and land developments hereafter granted approval shall have an adequate supply of potable water for domestic use.
(2) 
Ensure that each unit or building shall have an adequate supply of water for purposes of fire protection.
(3) 
Ensure that, in each case where water is to be supplied to a subdivision or land development by means of a central water supply system, such system meets minimum standards controlling water storage and production capabilities for domestic and fire use for the protection of the health, safety and welfare of all Township residents affected.
B. 
Where the subdivider proposes that individual on-site water supply systems shall be utilized within the subdivision, the subdivider shall either install such facilities or shall guarantee (by deed restriction or otherwise), as a condition of the sale of each lot or parcel within the subdivision, that the facilities can be installed by the purchaser of such lot or parcel. Individual water supply systems shall be designed and installed in accordance with all applicable standards of the Pennsylvania Department of Environmental Resources and the Chester County Health Department.
C. 
Wherever feasible, the subdivision shall be provided with a complete public or community water distribution system. The design and installation of such public system shall be subject to the approval of the Township; the design and installation of such community distribution system shall be subject to the approval of the Pennsylvania Department of Environmental Resources, and such system shall be further subject to satisfactory provision for the maintenance thereof. Where any proposed well or wells in such a system are projected to withdraw more than an average of 10,000 gallons per day over a thirty-day period, the applicant shall obtain a permit from the Delaware River Basin Commission as required by its Groundwater Protected Area Regulations for Southeastern Pennsylvania, effective January 1, 1981. Should such regulations be amended or superseded, the applicant shall comply with such amended or superseded regulations of the Delaware River Basin Commission as may be in effect from time to time. Standards and materials for the construction of any central water supply system shall meet or exceed those requirements described in the Public Water Supply Manual of the Pennsylvania Department of Environmental Resources and shall be subject to the approval of the Township Engineer. Where a permit is required by said Department, it shall be presented as evidence of such review and approval before construction commences.
D. 
Within Open Space Conservation District developments, dwellings on lots of less than 40,000 square feet must be served by a public or community water system of adequate capacity to serve all dwelling units on an ongoing basis.
[Added 6-28-1999 by Ord. No. 2-1999[1]]
[1]
Editor's Note: This ordinance also renumbered former Subsections D through G as Subsections E through H.
E. 
Where water is to be provided by means other than by private wells owned and maintained by the individual owners of lots within the subdivision or development, the applicant shall present evidence to the Board that the subdivision or development is to be supplied by a certificated public utility, a bona fide cooperative association of lot owners or by a municipal corporation, authority or utility. A copy of a certificate of public convenience form the Pennsylvania Public Utilities Commission or an application for such certificate, a cooperative agreement or a commitment or agreement to serve the area in question, whichever is appropriate, shall be acceptable evidence.
[Amended 10-27-1992 by Ord. No. 2-1992]
F. 
In all subdivision and land developments served by a central water system, the following water pressure and gallonage requirements shall apply:
(1) 
Residential use. A minimum domestic pressure of 30 pounds per square inch shall be provided at each house to be connected to the water supply main. The system to which the residential unit is connected shall have sufficient capacity to supply a minimum of 300 gallons of water per residential unit per day within the subdivision or land development.
(2) 
Commercial or industrial use. A minimum domestic pressure of 30 pounds per square inch shall be provided at each commercial or industrial building connected to the water supply main. When a building wishes to connect to a central water system, a study will be made to determine if there is adequate water supply in the system to supply the building and use.
G. 
Wherever a public or community water system is provided, fire hydrants suitable for the coupling of equipment serving the Township shall be installed as specified by the Insurance Services Offices of Pennsylvania. Location of hydrants shall be approved by the Township.
(1) 
Generally, all fire hydrants will be located on an eight-inch line or a looped six-inch line. Where a dead-end line is required to contain a fire hydrant, the portion of the line between the main loop and the hydrant shall be an eight-inch minimum diameter.
(2) 
Fire hydrants shall be spaced in a development so that all proposed building(s) will be no more than 600 feet from the hydrant measured along traveled ways.
(3) 
All community water systems must provide a minimum of 500 gallons per minute at a residual pressure of 20 pounds per square inch for a two-hour period.
H. 
If the applicant for subdivision or land development proposes that the subdivision or land development be served by a central water supply system, the applicant shall submit a Proposed Public Water Supply Study as evidence of sufficient water supply quality and quantity. The contents of this study shall include those specific items as described in the Public Water Supply Manual of the Pennsylvania Department of Environmental Resources. Where the water supply system occurs under the jurisdiction of the Pennsylvania Public Utilities Commission, the water supply study shall also include those items of information required by the Public Utilities Commission.
A. 
All other lines, including but not limited to electric, gas streetlight supply and telephone shall be placed underground. Installation of all utilities shall be in strict accordance with the engineering standards and specifications of the Township, municipal authority or other public utility concerned. All such underground utilities shall be put in place, connected and approved before the streets are constructed where such utilities lie under the proposed cartway and before any person is permitted to occupy any building to be served by such utilities.
B. 
In accordance with the provisions of Act 287, all developers, contractors, etc., will contact all applicable utilities and accurately determine the locations and depth of all underground utilities within the boundaries of the tract proposed for development, prior to excavation. A list of the applicable utilities and their phone numbers shall appear on the plans submitted for review, and proof shall be presented to the Township prior to final plan approval.
[Added 6-25-2001 by Ord. No. 4-2001]
A. 
The design of communal mailbox enclosures and the materials used in their construction shall be consistent with the architectural character of the housing units found in the development and be acceptable to the United States Postal Service.
B. 
Communal mailboxes shall be located in proximity to groupings of housing units and shall be readily accessible to the residents of said units. Communal mailboxes shall be readily accessible by pedestrians.
A. 
In reviewing a sketch plan for subdivision or land development, the Township Planning Commission shall consider the open space and recreational needs of the additional dwelling proposed by the development and shall discuss its findings and the further requirements of this section with the developer as it deems necessary in the public interest. Where the subdivision or land development plan is for a cluster development approved under the terms of § 139-102 of the Willistown Township Zoning Ordinance,[1] the open space standards of that section shall govern and take precedence over the provisions of this section.
[1]
Editor's Note: See Ch. 139, Zoning.
B. 
An adequate area of land shall be provided to serve the recreational and open space needs of the residents.
C. 
Ownership and maintenance of such open space and recreation areas shall be as provided for in § 139-108A of the Zoning Ordinance.
D. 
Open space characteristics and design standards. In designating areas for open space and recreation within the subdivision plan, the following criteria and standards shall be adhered to by the developer. Areas shall be:
(1) 
Consistent with the Township's Comprehensive Plan.
(2) 
Suitable for active recreational uses to the extent deemed necessary by the Board, without interfering with adjacent dwelling units, parking, driveways and roads.
(3) 
Comprised of no more than 30% environmentally sensitive lands (including floodplains, woodlands, slopes exceeding 15% and surface waters).
(4) 
Comprised of areas not less than 75 feet in width and not less than 15,000 square feet on contiguous area, except when part of a trial system or pathway network.
(5) 
Interconnected with common open space areas on abutting parcels, wherever possible, including provisions for pedestrian pathways for general public use to create linked pathway systems within the Township.
(6) 
Provided with sufficient perimeter parking, when necessary, and with safe and convenient access by adjoining public road frontage or other rights-of-way, or easements capable of accommodating pedestrian, bicycle and maintenance and vehicle traffic, and containing appropriate access improvements.
(7) 
Undivided by any crossing or public or private roads, except where necessary for proper traffic circulation, and then only upon recommendation of the Township Engineer and Planning Commission.
(8) 
Free of all structures, except those related to outdoor recreational use.
(9) 
Suitably landscaped, either by retaining existing natural cover and wooded areas and/or by a landscaping plan for enhancing open space areas through plantings which are consistent with the purposes of this section and which minimize maintenance costs.
(10) 
Made subject to such agreement with the Township and such deed restrictions duly recorded in the office of the Recorder of Deeds in Chester County as may be required by the Board of Supervisors for the purpose of preserving the common open space for such use.
[Amended 11-14-1995 by Ord. No. 9-1995]
The management of stormwater shall comply with the requirements of Chapter 73, Environmental Protection, Article VIII, Stormwater Management, of this Code, §§ 73-35 to 73-45, which are incorporated by reference as if set forth fully herein, as may be amended from time to time in accordance with the procedures set forth in § 123-58 and the Municipalities Planning Code.[1]
[1]
Editor's Note: See 53 P.S. § 10101 et seq.
[Amended 11-14-1995 by Ord. No. 9-1995]
The management of stormwater runoff to control soil erosion and sedimentation shall comply with the requirements of Chapter 73, Environmental Protection, Article IX, Soil Erosion and Sediment Pollution Control, of this Code, §§ 73-46 to 73-51, which are incorporated by reference as if set forth fully herein, as may be amended from time to time in accordance with the procedures set forth in § 123-58 and the Municipalities Planning Code.[1]
[1]
Editor's Note: See 53 P.S. § 10101 et seq.
A. 
Where water and/or sewer facilities are intended for dedication, the requirements for easement shall be determined by the Board. Easements shall be similarly established as necessary for other utilities.
B. 
Storm drainage easements shall be provided as required.
C. 
The Board shall require shared access easements as prerequisites to its approval of shared driveways or other access arrangements. Such easements shall contain, at a minimum, arrangements for rights of use, insurance, indemnity, liability, maintenance, repair, and the sharing of costs.
[Amended 8-14-2017 by Ord. No. 6-2017]
[Amended 11-14-1995 by Ord. No. 9-1995]
All subdivisions and land developments shall comply with the requirements of Chapter 73, Environmental Protection, Article X, Landscaping, Buffering and Screening; Development and Construction Standards, of this Code, §§ 73-52 to 73-57, which are incorporated by reference as if set forth fully herein, as may be amended from time to time in accordance with the procedures set forth in § 123-58 of this Chapter 123 and the Municipalities Planning Code.[1]
[1]
Editor's Note: See 53 P.S. § 10101 et seq.
[Added 10-22-2007 by Ord. No. 10-2007]
The following streetscape amenities are required for all subdivisions and land developments on Lancaster Avenue or connecting cross streets. In instances where existing conditions dictate alternative specifications, the essence of the overall streetscape design shall be maintained. Alternative specifications shall be approved by the Planning Commission.
A. 
Sidewalk specifications: Sidewalks shall be constructed to include three bands (See Exhibit 1: Sidewalk Standard).
(1) 
Verge: Six-foot brick paver at curb (minimum of three feet where six feet is not practical). Paver to provide space for lighting poles, fire hydrants, signage and other obstructions.
(2) 
Sidewalk: Six-foot unobstructed concrete walking area (minimum width of four feet where six feet is not possible).
(3) 
Green area: Six-foot-wide grass planting strip to include street trees planted generally 25 to 30 feet apart in the center depending on the species and reach of canopy. The intent is to provide a continuous canopy. Deciduous shrub plantings shall also be provided between shade trees to provide a visual screen from vehicular lights within parking areas located to the front of structures. (See Exhibit 2: Street Tree and Shrub Standard). The green area shall be installed continuously along the entire width of the lot next to the sidewalk except in instances where a principal structure directly abuts the sidewalk. In instances where a six-foot green area is not feasible due to limited site width or other unique existing conditions, planters and other forms of decorative plantings may be substituted.
(4) 
Brick specifications:
(a) 
Color: red.
(b) 
Style: EP Henry or approved equivalent.
B. 
Lighting specifications. The intent is to reestablish the traditional pedestrian-scale lighting. This includes the use of lower, more closely spaced lamps, with softer light, while recognizing taller more intensive lights may be necessary to mark intersections. Lighting shall be provided according to the following specifications or an approved equivalent.
(1) 
Streetlights.
(a) 
Light fixture (see Exhibit 3).
[1] 
Style: Lumec - Optima Series - Luminaire - Model No. OT10-PH (DF10) or approved equivalent. Includes photoelectric cell with decorative finial.
[2] 
Color: black.
[3] 
Lamp: 250-watt metal halide lamp.
(b) 
Poles (see Exhibit 4).
[1] 
Style: Shakespeare - Historical Series - Washington Style - Model No. AP17 12FS11 - fluted or approved equivalent.
[2] 
Color: semi-gloss black.
[3] 
Base: anchor base, seventeen-inch diameter with three-inch tenon.
[4] 
Height: 12 feet.
[5] 
Spacing: generally 80 feet to 100 feet, unless specifications dictate otherwise.
[6] 
Setback from curb: located within the center of the curbside paver at three feet, where practical.
(2) 
Internal off-street parking area (parking lot) lights.
(a) 
Light fixture (see Exhibit 5).
[1] 
Color: black.
[2] 
Lamp: 400-watt metal halide.
[3] 
Style: Emco 25” Ecoround - Model: ERA-25-2-3H-400MH-277MT-BLP-PTF or approved equivalent.
(b) 
Poles.
[1] 
Style: Shakespeare - AQ series - four-inch by four-inch anchor base - Model: AQ1602S1BB01 with OPSH-AQ1 shroud and 23/8" tenon or approved equivalent.
[2] 
Color: black fiberglass.
[3] 
Height: maximum 16 feet.
C. 
Street furniture specifications. Street furniture shall be provided according to the following specifications or an approved equivalent.
(1) 
Benches (see Exhibit 6).
(a) 
Style: Steelsites RB Series - RB-28 six-foot or approved equivalent.
(b) 
Color: black.
(2) 
Trash receptacle and ash urn (see Exhibit 7).
(a) 
Color: black.
(b) 
Size: 36-gallon.
(c) 
Style: Ironsites Series - S 42 Black (Ash Urn - Ironsites Series - S 20) or approved equivalent.
D. 
Ownership, maintenance, and replacement of streetscape amenities.
(1) 
Ownership of all streetscape amenities shall be vested with the ownership of real property.
(2) 
The applicant shall make arrangements acceptable to the Township that all streetscape amenities are installed in accordance with this section and shall be guaranteed and maintained for the health, safety and welfare of the community. After installation and prior to Township acceptance of the streetscape amenities, representatives of the Township shall perform an inspection of the finished site for compliance with this section.
(3) 
The applicant shall make arrangements acceptable to the Township for the long-term maintenance of streetscape amenities. The applicant shall provide the names, addresses and telephone numbers of those persons or organizations who will be assuming such responsibilities. Streetscape amenities required by this chapter or any other ordinance shall be subject to suitable restrictive covenants that run with the development tract and, if practicable, rules and regulations governing the use and maintenance of amenities, which covenants, rules and regulations shall be in form and substance acceptable to the Township Solicitor and, in the case of covenants, rules and regulations, shall, without limiting the foregoing, require the maintenance and replacement and prohibit the destruction or removal of all streetscape amenities and improvements depicted on the development tract's site plan; empower the Township to enforce said obligations; and prohibit the amendment or termination of any of the mandatory terms thereof without the express approval of the Township.
(4) 
Streetscape amenities shall be replaced by the owner of record where such amenities no longer function according to design or are worn and in need of repair or replacement. Where accidental damage or vandalism of streetscape amenities occurs, the applicant shall replace the damaged amenities in accordance with the original or modified site plan.
[Added 12-15-2014 by Ord. No. 7-2014]
A. 
Purpose. The purpose of this section is to help prevent and minimize unnecessary risk to the public health, safety and welfare due to transmission pipelines and ensure consistency with the intent of the Township's Comprehensive Plan. Recognizing it is impossible to eliminate risk entirely, this section is intended to:
(1) 
Minimize the likelihood of accidental damage to transmission pipelines due to external forces, such as construction activity and equipment.
(2) 
Avoid exposing land uses with high on-site populations that are difficult to evacuate.
(3) 
Help reduce adverse impacts in the event of a pipeline failure.
(4) 
Ensure compliance with and supplement existing federal and state regulations related to transmission pipeline corridor management, among them Federal Energy Regulatory Commission (FERC) standards, the Pennsylvania Oil and Gas Act (as amended),[1] and Pennsylvania case law.
[1]
Editor's Note: See 58 Pa.C.S.A. § 3201.
B. 
Applicability.
(1) 
Setbacks.
(a) 
New residential buildings and all new commercial, industrial and institutional uses, other than those surface uses affiliated with transmission pipelines, shall be set back a minimum of 300 feet from any existing or proposed transmission pipeline right-of-way; such uses shall be set back from natural gas compressor stations or other surface land uses affiliated with transmission pipelines a minimum of 750 feet, or 500 feet from the nearest lot line of natural gas compressor stations or other surface land uses affiliated with transmission pipelines, whichever is greater. Other unoccupied residential or nonresidential accessory uses such as but not limited to detached garages, parking areas, storage facilities or garden sheds shall not be located within 200 feet of any pipeline right-of-way. While these setbacks originated in amendments to the Pennsylvania Oil and Gas Act (Act 13 of 2012), the Township intends to monitor emerging science on setback safety and revise these standards periodically. Where yard area or other setbacks of the underlying zoning district contradict these standards, the larger of the setbacks shall apply.
(b) 
Setbacks may be modified by the Township pursuant to the type of material being transported in the pipeline, the type of use being proposed for the site, and the current status of science regarding safety protocols in proximity to pipelines or surface land uses affiliated with transmission pipelines. The Township shall, on a case-by-case basis, determine whether increased setbacks are warranted consistent with the potential impact radius (PIR), defined by the relationship between the diameter of the adjacent pipeline and its maximum operating pressure (See 139 Attachment 2.[2]), whether high on-site populations are proposed (often referred to as "high consequence areas"), and whether more than one transmission pipeline (such as coupled lines) exist (or are proposed). The PIR approach is applicable only to gas or petroleum gas transmission pipelines as defined by 49 CFR, 192.3. Transmission pipelines carrying hazardous liquids, as defined by 49 CFR, 195.2, shall adhere to the setback standards contained in this subsection.
[2]
Editor's Note: The attachment, 139 Attachment 2, is on file in the Township offices.
(c) 
No activity or grading within the pipeline setback shall create depressions or areas in which flammable or explosive materials may collect or accumulate; examples include but are not limited to grading for structures, stormwater management facilities or landscape beds. Furthermore, pipeline rights-of-way shall be identified and protected during construction by erecting suitable temporary barricades (nondisturbance fencing or silt fencing) and posting notices onsite.
(2) 
Consultation zone.
(a) 
Any application, other than those surface uses affiliated with transmission pipelines, for new residential structures and all commercial, industrial and institutional uses (whether Class 1, 2, 3 or 4 locations pursuant to Exhibit 1[3]), proposed within 660 feet of any existing or proposed transmission pipeline right-of-way shall include written verification from the applicant that:
[1] 
The applicant has contacted the pipeline operator(s) and has provided the pipeline operator(s) with documentation detailing the proposed development activity and where the activity is to take place;
[2] 
The applicant has made sufficient access to the pipeline available to the pipeline operator(s) for routine maintenance and emergency operations; and
[3] 
The pipeline operator(s) has reviewed the documents for compatibility with continued or proposed safe operation of the transmission pipeline(s).
[3]
Editor's Note: Exhibit 1 is on file in the Township offices.
(b) 
It shall be clear in the written notification submitted with the application that the pipeline operator(s) has received and acknowledged documentation showing the proposed activity and its location.
(3) 
Land uses with high on-site populations.
(a) 
Applicants for land uses with high on-site populations within 660 feet of a transmission pipeline shall develop appropriate mitigation measures to help reduce adverse impacts in the event of a pipeline failure. Such measures and/or corresponding plans shall be submitted to the Township for review. Land uses with high on-site populations include schools (through grade 12), hospitals, clinics, multifamily housing, retirement and/or life care facilities, stadiums or arenas, day-care centers, or large scale commercial, industrial or institutional uses of 50 or more persons.
(b) 
Mitigation measures intended to reduce risk and minimize impact in the event of a pipeline failure include but are not limited to: emergency procedures such as emergency plans and guides, employee training and drills, and education programs for occupants and employees concerning pipeline safety, such as what to be aware of and how to respond in the event of a problem. Applicants shall consult with the local fire marshal regarding the level of emergency planning and procedures appropriate for the proposed development; the fire marshall may also require submission of plans for review and approval where deemed appropriate.
C. 
Land development design, buffering and screening.
(1) 
Applicants shall consider existing or proposed pipelines in their design and placement of lots, structures and roads. Specifically, consideration shall be given to incorporating the linear appearance of the pipeline right-of-way into the overall development design or landscaping in a manner that works with or minimizes the linear appearance of the pipeline right-of-way. Attempts shall be made to avoid creating a bisecting and unnatural linear space that does not relate to the land development.
(2) 
The applicant shall provide a plan prepared by a landscape architect licensed in Pennsylvania showing landscaping proposed to be installed to minimize the linear-appearance of the pipeline right-of-way and screen and buffer new development from transmission pipelines in the event of an accident or failure. Landscaping can be used both to minimize the linear appearance of the pipeline right-of-way and buffer structures from those remedial activities associated with pipeline failure and cleanup.
(3) 
The landscape plan shall incorporate a mix of native vegetation, including evergreens, shrubbery and trees, which shall be of sufficient density to meet the objectives outlined herein while permitting suitable points of access for pipeline personnel providing routine maintenance. Existing vegetation in proximity to transmission pipelines shall be preserved to the greatest extent possible. All proposed landscaping shall comply with the requirements of this section and Chapter 73, Environmental Protection.
D. 
Signage. Applicants shall consult with transmission pipeline operators to determine the need for, number of, and placement of utility identification signs, appropriate warning signs and owner identification signs. The number and placement of signs and their content shall be shown on plan submissions.