Town of Johnston, RI
Providence County
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Table of Contents
Table of Contents
For the purposes of this article, the following words and phrases shall have the meanings respectively ascribed to them by this section:
OIL BURNERS
Any device designed to burn fuel oil having a flash point of 100º F. or higher, as determined by the Tag Closed Tester in accordance with the method of test adopted by the American Society for Testing Materials A.S.T.M. Designation D56-36, and having a fuel tank or container with a capacity of more than 10 gallons connected thereto.
OIL-BURNING EQUIPMENT
All oil burners and all tanks, piping, pumps, control devices, and accessories connected to the burners.
This chapter shall not apply to a portable burner not requiring connection to a fuel, such as oil stoves, oil heaters and oil lamps equipped with a wick or a mechanical device, the movement of which is essential to flame adjustment, or to such portable apparatus as blow torches, soldering pots, or similar devices.
It shall be unlawful for any person to install in any building any oil-burning equipment unless and until a permit for the installation of same shall have been issued by the Plumbing Inspector or the Deputy Plumbing Inspector.
Applications for permits shall be made in writing at the office of the Plumbing Inspector in such form and detail as shall be prescribed by the Plumbing Inspector.
No permit shall be issued for any kind of oil burner which has not been tested and examined by the Plumbing Inspector or the Deputy Plumbing Inspector and found to be properly constructed, and safely workable.
All required permit fees shall be paid in full to the office of the Plumbing Inspector prior to the issuance of the permit required by § 230-9.
Every person installing oil-burning equipment in the Town shall report in writing to the Plumbing Inspector not later than the 10th day of each month the location of each installation made by him in the previous month, together with the name of the burner and the number and size of storage tanks upon appropriate form available at the office of the Plumbing Inspector.
The grade of fuel oil used with any burner shall be one which tests and experience have shown to be suitable for use with that burner. The oil shall have a flash point not less than 100º F., determined as specified in § 230-7 and shall be free from acid, grit and fibrous or other foreign matter likely to clog or injure the burners or valves.
Oil burners which are not equipped with automatic means of preventing abnormal discharge of oil at the burner shall not be installed or operated in any location where a competent attendant will not be continuously on duty in the room where the burner is located while the burner is in operation.
Gravity feed shall be used only with burners arranged to prevent abnormal discharge of oil at the burner by automatic means specifically approved for the burner with which it is used.
Gravity supply tanks shall not exceed 275 gallons' individual capacity. Where more than one gravity supply tank is used, such tanks shall be connected to feed pipe leading to the burner through a manually operated, approved three-way valve in such a way that only one tank can discharge its contents at a time.
A. 
Where oil is supplied to the burner by gravity and a constant level valve is not incorporated in the burner assembly or in an auxiliary tank used in connection with an automatic pump, an approved constant level valve shall be installed in the oil-feed line at the gravity tank or as close thereto as practicable.
B. 
The vent opening of such constant level valve shall be connected by piping or tubing to outside the building unless the constant level valve is provided with an anti-flooding device. Vent pipes or tubing of constant level valves shall not be connected to tanks or tank vents.
A. 
Pressure tank feed shall be used only with burners arranged to prevent abnormal discharge of oil at the burner by automatic means specifically approved for the burner with which it is used.
B. 
Pressure tanks shall not exceed a capacity of 60 gallons, and shall not be operated at pressures exceeding 50 pounds per square inch.
C. 
All tanks shall be equipped with a reliable pressure gauge, and with an automatic relief valve piped to discharge on the outside of buildings.
A. 
All underground tanks shall be buried and have a cover of earth not less than two feet thick, or shall be covered with not less than one foot of earth on top of which shall be placed a slab of reinforced concrete not less than four inches thick. The slab shall be set on a firm, well-tamped earth foundation and shall extend at least one foot beyond the tank in all directions. Where tanks are buried under buildings such concrete slab shall be provided in every instance.
B. 
Underground tanks shall be set on a firm foundation and surrounded with soft earth or sand well-tamped in place. Where necessary to prevent floating, they shall be securely anchored or weighted.
A. 
Oil supply tanks larger than 60 gallons' capacity shall not be located in buildings above the lowest story, cellar or basement.
B. 
Unenclosed inside storage tanks and auxiliary tanks shall not be located within seven feet, horizontally, of any fire or flame.
C. 
Inside storage and auxiliary tanks shall be securely supported by substantial incombustible supports to prevent settling, sliding or lifting.
D. 
Oil supply tanks located inside buildings shall not exceed 275 gallons' individual capacity or 550 gallons aggregate capacity in one building, unless installed in an enclosure or casing constructed as follows:
(1) 
The walls of the enclosure shall be constructed of reinforced concrete at least six inches thick or of brick at least eight inches thick, and shall be bonded to the floor.
(2) 
The space between the tank and the enclosure shall be completely filled with sand or well-tamped earth.
(3) 
Where the floor or other construction immediately above the tank is of fire-resistive construction capable of safely sustaining a load of 150 pounds per square foot, the walls of the enclosure shall be carried to a height not less than one foot above the tank and the space filled with sand or well-tamped earth to the top; otherwise the enclosure shall have a top of reinforced concrete at least five inches thick or of equivalent construction.
(4) 
In place of an enclosure as above described, the tank may be encased in reinforced concrete construction as provided in § 230-22E without additional concrete enclosure.
E. 
In ordinary buildings the nominal gross capacity of tanks shall not exceed 5,000 gallons.
F. 
In fire-resistive buildings the nominal gross capacity of tanks shall not exceed 15,000 gallons.
G. 
In any building, if in a fire-resistive or detached room cut off vertically and horizontally in an approved manner from other floors of the main building, the nominal gross capacity of tanks shall not exceed 50,000 gallons, with an individual tank capacity not exceeding 25,000 gallons.
A. 
Underground tanks and tanks inside buildings shall be constructed of steel or wrought iron of a minimum gauge, U.S. Standard, in accordance with the following table; provided, however, that for tanks of 181 to 275 gallons' capacity, installed in buildings, and without masonry enclosures, the minimum gauge shall be number 14. All steel or wrought iron thinner than number seven gauge used in the construction of underground and enclosed tanks shall be galvanized. If adequate internal bracing is provided, tanks of 12,001 to 30,000 gallons' capacity may be built of one-quarter-inch plate. For tanks larger than 1,100 gallons' capacity a tolerance of 10% in capacity shall be permitted.
Capacity
(gallons)
Minimum Thickness
Weight
(pounds per square feet)
7 to 285
16 gauge
2.50
286 to 560
14 gauge
3.125
561 to 1,100
12 gauge
4.375
1,101 to 4,000
7 gauge
7.50
4,001 to 12,000
 1/4 inch (nominal)
10.00
12,001 to 20,000
 5/16 inch (nominal)
12.50
20,001 to 30,000
 3/8 inch (nominal)
15.00
B. 
All joints shall be riveted and calked, brazed, welded or made tight by some equally satisfactory process. Tanks shall be tight and sufficiently strong to bear without injury the most severe strains to which they may be subjected in practice. Shells of tanks shall be properly reinforced where connections are made. All connections to underground tanks and tanks inside buildings shall be made through the top of tank above the liquid level, except that tanks of not over 275 gallons' capacity may have one bottom connection for gravity feed and one opening for an approved key stem gate valve to facilitate cleaning or for a one scavenging line to be run to the outside and capped oil-tight when not in use.
C. 
Pressure tanks shall be designed for at least six times the maximum working pressure.
D. 
Prior to installation, underground and enclosed tanks shall be protected against corrosion on the outside in a manner satisfactory to the Plumbing Inspector, but in every case, at least the equivalent to two preliminary coatings of red lead followed by a heavy coating of hot asphalt shall be applied.
E. 
For fuel oil heavier than 35º, A.P.I. tanks may be of concrete, in accordance with the standards of the National Fire Protection Association for the design and construction of concrete fuel oil storage tanks.
F. 
Tanks labeled by underwriters' laboratories have been tested and examined for compliance with these regulations and detail standards covering their design and construction.
A. 
Storage tanks shall, except for hydraulic or inert gas systems, be equipped with an open vent or an approved automatically operated vent, arranged to discharge to the open air. Vent openings and vent pipes shall be of ample size to prevent abnormal pressure in the tank during filling but not smaller than 1 1/4 inch pipe size.
B. 
Vent pipes shall be arranged to drain to the tank. The lower end of the vent pipe shall not extend through the top into the tank for a distance of more than one inch.
C. 
Vent pipes shall terminate outside of buildings at a point not less than two feet measured vertically or horizontally from any window or other building opening. Outer ends of vent pipes shall be provided with a weatherproof hood. All vent pipes of tanks containing heaters shall be extended to such a height that oil vapors discharging from the vent will be readily diffused without danger of ignition.
D. 
Vent pipes shall not be cross-connected with fill pipes or return lines from burners.
A. 
Underground tanks and storage tanks inside buildings shall be filled only through fill pipes terminating outside of buildings at a point at least five feet from any building opening at the same or lower level. Fill terminals shall be closed tight, when not in use, by a metal cover designed to prevent tampering.
B. 
Auxiliary tanks shall be filled by pumping from storage tanks.
C. 
Auxiliary tanks other than vacuum tanks shall be equipped with an overflow pipe draining to the storage tank, at least one size larger than the supply pipe.
D. 
Overflow pipes of auxiliary gravity tanks shall have no valves or obstructions. Overflow pipes of auxiliary pressure tanks shall be provided with interconnected valves or other means for automatically venting the tank during filling.
A. 
All tanks in which a constant oil level is not maintained by an automatic pump shall be equipped with an approved method of determining the oil level.
B. 
Test wells shall not be installed inside buildings and where permitted for outside services shall be closed tight when not in use by a metal cover designed to prevent tampering.
C. 
Gauging devices such as liquid level indicators or signals shall be installed so that oil or vapor will not be discharged into the building from the fuel supply system.
A. 
Oil pumps shall be of approved type, secure against leaks, and shall be rigidly fastened in place.
B. 
Automatic pumps not an integral part of the burner shall be arranged to stop automatically in case of total breakage of the supply line to the burner.
C. 
In isolated locations, where fire protection equipment is dependent upon a heating plant fired by an oil burner, oil pumps supplying the burner shall be installed in duplicate.
A. 
All piping shall be standard full weight wrought iron, steel or brass pipe with standard fitting. Approved brass or hose may be used for reducing the effects of jarring and vibration or where rigid connections are impracticable.
B. 
Pipe used in the installation of domestic type burners shall not be smaller than 1/4 inch iron pipe size; pipe used in the installation of industrial type burners shall not be smaller than 1/2 inch iron pipe size. Copper or brass tubing shall not be smaller in size than the equivalent of the iron pipe sizes mentioned above, with wall thickness not less than 49/100 inch. Flexible metal hose shall be installed strictly in accordance with the limitations of its approval.
C. 
Piping shall be rigidly secured in place and protected from injury in a workmanlike manner, and where necessary, shall be protected against corrosion. Where practicable, oil piping shall be buried underground; in a concrete floor or place in a metal covered pipe trench.
D. 
Pipe joints and connections shall be made tight in a workmanlike manner. Unions and tubing fittings shall be of approved type. Unions requiring gaskets or packing and right and left couplings shall not be used in oil lines.
E. 
Proper allowance shall be made for expansion, contraction, jarring and vibration. Pipe lines, other than tubing, connected to underground tanks, except fill lines and test wells, shall be provided with double swing joints arranged to permit the tank to settle without impairing the efficiency of the pipe connections.
F. 
Openings for pipes through outside walls below the ground level shall be made oil-tight by securely packing them with flexible material.
G. 
Oil supply lines to burners shall be provided with approved strainers.
A. 
Readily accessible shutoff valves of approved type shall be installed in oil supply lines near each burner and close to gravity and pressure supply tanks. Shutoff valves of approved type shall be installed on each side of oil strainers which are not a part of the oil burner unit and on the discharge and suction side of oil pumps which pump directly to the burner; which are not, however, a part of the burner unit.
B. 
Where a shutoff valve is installed in the discharge line of an oil pump, an approved pressure relief valve shall be connected into the discharge line between the pump and the shutoff valve and arranged to return surplus oil to the storage tank or to bypass it around the pump.
C. 
Control valves shall be provided with a stuffing box of liberal size, containing a removable cupped gland designed to compress the packing against the valve stem and arranged to facilitate removal. Valves shall be designed to close against the supply, and to prevent withdrawal of stem by continued operation of the handwheel. Packing affected by the oil or by heat shall not be used. All valves shall be provided with fusible links at point of entrance and at burner.
Preheating of oil, where necessary, shall be done by steam, hot water or approved electric heaters.
A. 
Heaters shall be substantially constructed with all joints made oil-tight.
B. 
Thermometers shall be installed at suitable locations indicating the temperature of the heated oil.
C. 
Heaters shall be bypassed or provided with suitable means to prevent abnormal pressure.
After installation and before being covered, tanks and piping shall be tested hydrostatically, or with equivalent air pressure, at a pressure not less than 1 1/2 times the maximum working pressure but less than five pounds per square inch at the highest point of the system.
A. 
Instead of a pressure test, suction lines may be tested under vacuum of not less than 20 inches of mercury.
B. 
Tests shall continue for at least 30 minutes without a noticeable drop in pressure or vacuum; provided, however, that tanks labeled by Underwriters' Laboratories have been tested and examined for compliance with these regulations and detail standards covering their design and construction.
A. 
Oil-burning equipment shall be provided with some means for manually stopping the flow of oil to the burner, from a conveniently located point at a safe distance from the burner. With electrically driven equipment this may be provided for by a switch in the motor supply circuit; placed near the entrance to the room where the burner is located. A quick-closing valve in the oil supply line may also be used.
B. 
Automatically operated oil burners used in connection with hot water, steam, or warm air heating systems shall be equipped with approved automatic devices to shut down the burner in the event of undue pressure in a steam boiler or overheating within a hot water boiler or warm air furnace.
C. 
In systems where steam or air is used for atomizing the oil, the equipment shall be so arranged that in case of interruption of the atomizing supply, the oil supply will be immediately shut off.
D. 
Electric motor driven industrial oil burners with integral oil pumps and electric motor driven pump sets for use with industrial burners not equipped with integral pumps, shall be supplied with an approved motor controller incorporating voltage protection to be wired into the power supply to the motor.
Electric wiring and equipment in connection with oil burning equipment shall be installed in accordance with the latest published edition of the National Electrical Code.
A. 
Oil burners shall be securely installed in a workmanlike manner, in accordance with the instructions of the manufacturer, by qualified mechanics experienced in making such installations.
B. 
Where oil burners are installed in furnaces originally designed for solid fuel, the ash door of the furnace shall be removed or bottom ventilation otherwise provided to prevent the accumulation of vapors in the ash pit, unless the burner is of a type which mechanically purges the ash pit.
C. 
Boilers and furnaces in which oil burners are installed shall be connected to flues having sufficient draft at all times to assure safe operation of the burner; a suitable draft regulation device shall be installed where necessary to prevent excessive draft. Manually operated dampers shall be of such construction as to prohibit closing off more than 80% of the internal cross section area of the smoke pipe. Automatically operated dampers shall be of approved type, designed to maintain a safe damper opening at all times, and arranged to prevent starting of the burner unless the damper is opened at least 20% of the internal cross section area of the smoke pipe.
D. 
Rooms in which oil burners are located shall be provided with adequate ventilation to assure continuous complete combustion of the oil.
E. 
Complete instructions for the care and operation of the oil-burning equipment shall be conspicuously posted near the oil burner and maintained in readable condition.
F. 
Contractors installing industrial oil-burning systems shall furnish diagrams showing the main oil lines and controlling valves, one of which shall be posted near the oil-burning equipment and another at some point which will be accessible in case of fire at the burners.